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Ningbo, China

Ningbo University is located in Ningbo, Zhejiang, China. It is a provincially governed key university in Zhejiang Province. Wikipedia.


Yao J.,Ningbo University
International Journal of Low-Carbon Technologies | Year: 2012

This paper provides an insight into the impact of ventilation on building energy consumption and indoor thermal comfort. Four variable ventilation modes and one fixed ventilation mode were considered. Results show that variable ventilation modes bring a more comfortable indoor thermal environment than the fixed one, with a significant energy reduction ranging from 39.4 to 61.7%. Compared with other modes, the air change rate per hour of 0.5-15 is cost-effective and applicable in naturally ventilated buildings. An improvement of ventilation settings in the tradeoff simulations adopted by building energy codes is necessary to better predict building energy demands. © The Author 2012. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.


Fan H.-Y.,Ningbo University | Wang Z.,Changzhou Institute of Technology
Chinese Physics B | Year: 2014

For directly normalizing the photon non-Gaussian states (e.g., photon added and subtracted squeezed states), we use the method of integration within an ordered product (IWOP) of operators to derive some new bosonic operator-ordering identities. We also derive some new integration transformation formulas about one- and two-variable Hermite polynomials in complex function space. These operator identities and associative integration formulas provide much convenience for constructing non-Gaussian states in quantum engineering. © 2014 Chinese Physical Society and IOP Publishing Ltd.


Cao H.,CAS Ningbo Institute of Material Technology and Engineering | Cao H.,Ningbo University | Zhou X.,CAS Ningbo Institute of Material Technology and Engineering | Qin Z.,CAS Ningbo Institute of Material Technology and Engineering | Liu Z.,CAS Ningbo Institute of Material Technology and Engineering
Carbon | Year: 2013

A simple method to prepare nitrogen-doped graphene (NG) by a pressure-promoted process at relatively low temperatures is demonstrated. The NG with an atomic N content higher than 10% can be obtained by heating graphene oxide and NH4HCO3 in a sealed autoclave at a temperature as low as 150 °C. The product exhibits a specific capacitance of 170 F g-1 at 0.5 A g-1 in 5 M KOH, and a high retention rate of 96.4% of its initial capacitance after 10,000 charge/discharge cycles at a current density of 10 A g-1. Such an easy, cost-effective and low-temperature doping process will be promising for preparing devices based on NG. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Xu D.,Ningbo University of Technology | Xu D.,Tongji University | Wang R.,Ningbo University | Wang J.,Ningbo University of Technology
Signal Processing: Image Communication | Year: 2011

As the H.264/AVC-based video products become more and more popular, issues of copyright protection and authentication that are appropriate for this standard will be very important. In this paper, a content-based authentication watermarking scheme for H.264/AVC video is proposed. Considering the new feature of H.264/AVC, the content-based authentication code for spatial tampering is firstly generated using the reliable features extracted from video frame blocks. The authentication code, which can detect malicious manipulations but allow recompression, is embedded into the DCT coefficients in diagonal positions using a novel modulation method. Spatial tampering can be located by comparing the extracted and the original feature-based watermarks. In addition, combining ECC and interleaving coding, the frame index of each video frame is used as watermark information and embedded in the residual coefficients. Temporal tampering can be detected by the mismatch between the extracted and the observed frame index. Experimental results show that the proposed scheme can discriminate the malicious tampering from the mild signal processing. The tampered location can also be approximately determined according to the glide window and the predefined threshold. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Jiang X.,CAS Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics | Jiang X.,University of Chinese Academy of Sciences | Xu W.,Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering | Tan R.,Ningbo University | And 2 more authors.
Materials Letters | Year: 2013

Quaternary chalcogenide Cu2FeSnS4 (CFTS) particles, a potential candidate for application as absorber layer in thin film solar cells, were successfully synthesized by using a convenient solvothermal method. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) results revealed that the CFTS particles possessed pure tetragonal structure with high crystallinity. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) results showed that the average size of the CFTS particles was about 200 nm and the composition of products was close to the stoichiometry of CFTS. UV-vis absorption spectrum showed that the CFTS particles had a broad absorption band in the whole visible range with a band gap of 1.28 eV, which are promising for photovoltaic applications. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Wang J.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Wang J.,Ningbo University | Yin W.-Y.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Yin W.-Y.,Zhejiang University
IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation | Year: 2013

We present a modified fourth-order finite-difference time-domain [FDTD (2, 4)] conformal scheme for accurately computing electromagnetic characteristics of some complex three-dimensional (3D) perfectly conducting (PEC) objects. It has higher accuracy and efficiency than those of conventional FDTD and FDTD (2, 4) methods, as coarse meshes are employed with staircase errors reduced effectively during its implementation. Two integration loops of the Faraday's law are used for updating magnetic field components, while the updating equations of electric field ones are the same as those in the normal FDTD method. A rigorous analysis of its global stability, based on the conventional high-order FDTD stability criterion and the Fourier method, is also performed. In order to obtain stable and accurate numerical results, a user-defined geometric precision technique, which gives a criterion for determining the time step, is employed for our computations. It is numerically demonstrated that using our proposed FDTD (2, 4)-compatible conformal scheme, high accuracy and low dispersion errors can be achieved for fast predicting radar cross sections as well as induced current distribution of some complex 3-D structures. © 1963-2012 IEEE.


Zhang M.,University of Manchester | Xu K.,Ningbo University | He Y.,Wuhan University of Technology | Jivkov A.P.,University of Manchester
Construction and Building Materials | Year: 2014

The understanding and prediction of moisture distribution and critical moisture content above which fluid and ion transport can occur in porous media is of significant technological importance. A novel computational methodology for simulating moisture distribution and calculating critical content in 3D images of microstructures is presented. The method accounts for the liquid-gas interaction and liquid/gas-solid interaction at the pore scale. Microstructures of cement pastes at different curing ages, obtained by high-resolution X-ray micro-computed tomography, are analyzed. The equilibrium moisture distribution in the 3D microstructures is acquired. The degree of connectivity of the liquid and gas phases is calculated as a function of water saturation level. The critical water saturation for each phase is obtained. It is shown that the moisture distribution and connectivity of each phase depend strongly not only on the degree of water saturation but also on the structures of the pore space and the solid phase. The critical water saturation increases with the decrease of porosity. The results from the simulations are in very good agreement with the experimental data reported in the literature. The proposed methodology is applicable to image-based modelling of all porous media. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Liu W.Y.,Ningbo University
Applied Mechanics and Materials | Year: 2014

Reconciliation protocol is used in quantum key distribution to remove residual errors in qubits distilled through quantum channel. This paper introduces the implementation of reconciliation protocol in Digital Signal Processor. Memory required by the implementation is only 96K bytes. TI TMS2812 with 128K bytes off-chip memory is used for the implementation and the performance evaluation is carried out. © (2014) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.


Dong J.,Ningbo University
Optics Communications | Year: 2010

Guided and surface modes in the chiral nihility fiber consisting of a chiral nihility metamaterial core with an achiral cladding have been investigated. The dispersion equations of guided and surface modes in the chiral nihility fiber and their cutoff frequencies are derived. Dispersion curves of guided and surface modes are presented and the effect of chirality parameter on dispersion curves is discussed in detail. Some novel propagation characteristics are found. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Tan X.,Ningbo University | Hu J.,Zhejiang University
Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy | Year: 2016

Introduction: Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors are novel, potent oral antihyperglycemic agents that reduce degradation of endogenous glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) to increase insulin secretion and satiety and decrease glucagon. DPP-4 inhibitors enhance insulin secretion in a glucose-dependent manner, which potentially reduces hypoglycemia risks during monotherapy or combination therapy with other antidiabetic agents. Evogliptin (SuganonTM) is a new oral DPP-4 inhibitor developed for the treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes inadequately controlled by diet and exercise. Areas covered: This review summarizes the collected data concerning mechanism of action, clinical efficacy, and safety of evogliptin in improving glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes. Additional non-glycemic benefits and safety profiles of evogliptin are also discussed. Expert opinion: Evogliptin is effective in improving glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and fasting plasma glucose without inducing hypoglycemia events, which potentially can improve adherence and prevent complications. It is also found that evogliptin has benefits on insulin secretory and β-cell functions. Based on the current clinical data, evogliptin has a neutral effect on body weight. These attributes contribute to the clinical practice in monotherapy or in combination with other antidiabetic agents. © 2016 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.


Shi Y.H.,Ningbo University
Dong wu xue yan jiu = Zoological research / "Dong wu xue yan jiu" bian ji wei yuan hui bian ji | Year: 2012

The warm temperature acclimation related 65 kDa protein-2 (Wap65-2), a teleost plasma glycoprotein, plays an important role in immune regulation against bacterial infection. Here, for the first time we determined the full length cDNA sequence of the Japanese sea bass Wap65-2 gene (1 601 bp in length excluding the 3'-polyA tail). The sequence contains an open reading frame that encodes a protein of 436 amino acids with a molecular weight of 4.87×10(4). The predicted protein had a signal peptide in the N-terminal domain containing 19 residues. Sequence comparison and phylogenetic tree analysis showed that the Japanese sea bass Wap65-2 has a relatively high similarity to the Dicentrarchus labrax Wap65-2. In the healthy Japanese sea bass, Wap65-2 mRNA was expressed mainly in the liver and weakly in the heart and muscle. qRT-PCR results revealed that liver Wap65-2 transcripts were significantly increased after a Vibrio harveyi infection, and peaked 24 hour post injection (6.89 fold increase). The Japanese sea bass Wap65-2 protein was expressed in Escherichia coli and subsequently used for antiserum preparation. Western blot analysis showed that Wap65-2 was significantly increased in V. harveyi infected Japanese sea bass and reached a maximum of 5.33-fold increase at 36 h. In conclusion, the alteration of Japanese sea bass Wap65-2 expression was tightly associated with the progression of the V. harveyi bacterial infection.


Ge P.,Tianjin Medical University | Xiao G.,Ningbo University
OncoTargets and Therapy | Year: 2016

Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has a multifactorial pathogenesis, and the genetic background may be one of the critical etiologic factors. Interleukin (IL)-27, a novel member of the IL-12 family, plays a vital role in antitumor immunity. The aim of the current study was to determine the association of a single nucleotide polymorphism of the IL-27 gene with the risk of NSCLC. The genotype of the IL-27 rs153109 polymorphism was analyzed in 388 patients with NSCLC and 390 healthy controls by using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism and DNA sequencing methods. In the patients with NSCLC, the frequencies of the GG, GA, and AA genotypes and the G and A alleles were 14.0%, 56.4%, 29.6%, 42.1%, and 57.9%, respectively. There were no significant differences in the genotype and allele distributions of the IL-27 rs153109 polymorphism between the patients with NSCLC and healthy controls (P.0.05). Furthermore, no association was determined between this polymorphism and different clinical characteristics in patients with NSCLC. Taken together, these findings suggest that the IL-27 gene may not be involved in the development of NSCLC in the Chinese population. © 2016 Ge and Xiao.


Kang J.,University of Sichuan | Weng G.,Ningbo University | Chen Z.,University of Sichuan | Chen J.,University of Sichuan | And 3 more authors.
RSC Advances | Year: 2014

The β-nucleation behavior of isotactic polypropylene (iPP) is a fascinating and important issue in polymer physics; however, little about this phenomenon or its physical nature has been clearly understood. In the present study, by tuning the heating temperature (fusion temperature, Tf), the amount of ordered structures in iPP melt was controlled. In this way, the influence of five types of representative β-nucleating agents (β-NA) on the crystallization behavior of iPP with different melt structures (i.e. The amount of ordered structures) was comparatively studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), polarized optical microscopy (PLOM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) and rheological measurement. A surprising synergetic effect was observed between β-NAs with α-/β-dual polymorphic selectivity (dual-selective β-NA) and the ordered structure of iPP, resulting in significant increases of the β-nucleation efficiency and the β-phase proportion of the sample. PLOM observation of the crystallization process confirmed that with the presence of ordered structures in iPP melt, a mass of dark, small crystal embryos derived from self-nuclei uniformly distributed in the melt and exhibited β-nucleation efficiency. This work provides the first evidence that for iPP nucleated with dual-selective β-NA, the ordered structures play a determining role in the β-nucleation of iPP. Under the influence of the dual-selective β-NA, the ordered structures exhibited β-nucleation efficiency and therefore encouraged β-nucleation. A possible mechanism was proposed. © 2014 The Royal Society of Chemistry.


Yang H.-C.,Zhejiang University | Pi J.-K.,Zhejiang University | Liao K.-J.,Zhejiang University | Huang H.,Zhejiang University | And 3 more authors.
ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces | Year: 2014

Silica-decorated polypropylene microfiltration membranes were fabricated via a facile biomimetic silicification process on the polydopamine/ polyethylenimine-modified surfaces. The membranes exhibit superhydrophilicity and underwater superoleophobicity derived from the inherent hydrophilicity and the well-defined micronanocomposite structures of the silica-decorated surfaces. They can be applied in varieties of oil-in-water emulsions separation with high permeate flux (above 1200 L/m2h under 0.04 MPa) and oil rejection (above 99%). The membranes also have relatively high oil breakthrough pressure reaching 0.16 MPa due to the microporous structure, showing great potential for practical applications. Furthermore, such mussel-inspired intermediate layer provides us a convenient and powerful tool to fabricate organic-inorganic hybrid membranes for advanced applications. © 2014 American Chemical Society.


Yang R.,Ningbo University
ICSPS 2010 - Proceedings of the 2010 2nd International Conference on Signal Processing Systems | Year: 2010

The ray space interpolation is of crucial importance for Free Viewpoint Television (FTV) and it is a key technique to realize the system of FTV. Nowadays, there are two main methods in the ray space interpolation technique. They are ray space slice interpolation and image domain interpolation. This work mainly concentrates on the later. Firstly, this paper introduces the typical image domain interpolation methods, such as PMI, BMI and DDFI. Then an novel ray space interpolation method is proposed based on the Improved Dynamic Programming(IDP). Finally, the performance of our method is tested on Xmas sequence and experimental results indicate that the IDPI method performs better than traditional methods in image quality and interpolation speed. © 2010 IEEE.


Sun C.-Y.,Northwest University, China | Yue R.-H.,Ningbo University
Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics | Year: 2013

It is found that the evolutions of density perturbations on the super-Hubble scales are unstable in the models with dark-sector interaction Q proportional to the energy density of cold dark matter (CDM) and constant equation of state parameter of dark energy (DE). In this paper, to avoid the instabilities, we suggest a new covariant model for the energy-momentum transfer between DE and CDM. Then we show that the the large-scale instabilities of curvature perturbations can be avoided in a universe filled only by DE and CDM. Furthermore, by including the additional components of radiation and baryons, we calculate the dominant non-adiabatic modes in the radiation era and find that the modes grow in the power law with exponent at the order of unit. © 2013 IOP Publishing Ltd and Sissa Medialab srl.


Zhao G.-M.,Ningbo University | Zhao G.-M.,California State University, Los Angeles
Physica Scripta | Year: 2011

Developing a theory of high-temperature superconductivity in copper oxides is one of the outstanding problems in physics. It is a challenge that has defeated theoretical physicists for more than 20 years. Attempts to understand this problem are hindered by the subtle interplay among a few mechanisms and the presence of several nearly degenerate and competing phases in these systems. Here, we present some crucial experiments that place essential constraints on the pairing mechanism of high-temperature superconductivity. The observed unconventional oxygen-isotope effects in cuprates have clearly shown strong electron-phonon interactions and the existence of polarons and/or bipolarons. Angle-resolved photoemission and tunneling spectra have provided direct evidence for strong coupling to multiple-phonon modes. In contrast, these spectra do not show strong coupling features expected for magnetic resonance modes. Angle-resolved photoemission spectra and the oxygen-isotope effect on the antiferromagnetic exchange energy J in undoped parent compounds consistently show that the polaron binding energy is about 2 eV, which is over one order of magnitude larger than J = 0.14 eV. The normal-state spin-susceptibility data of hole-doped cuprates indicate that intersite bipolarons are the dominant charge carriers in the underdoped region, while the component of Fermi-liquid-like polarons is dominant in the overdoped region. All the experiments for testing the gap or order-parameter symmetry consistently demonstrate that the intrinsic gap (pairing) symmetry for the Fermi-liquid-like component is anisotropic s-wave and the order-parameter symmetry of the Bose-Einstein condensation of bipolarons is d-wave. © 2011 The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences.


Cheng J.-P.,China University of Mining and Technology | He J.-S.,Ningbo University
Communications in Theoretical Physics | Year: 2013

In this paper, the squared eigenfunction symmetries for the BTL and CTL hierarchies are explicitly constructed with the suitable modification of the ones for the TL hierarchy, by considering the BTL and CTL constraints. Also the connections with the corresponding additional symmetries are investigated: the squared eigenfunction symmetry generated by the wave function can be viewed as the generating function for the additional symmetries. © 2013 Chinese Physical Society and IOP Publishing Ltd.


Xu Y.,Ningbo University
Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics) | Year: 2014

Edon80 is a hardware binary additive synchronous stream cipher submitted to the third and last phase of the eSTREAM project. It’s properties are: (1) The internal structure is highly pipelined; (2) It is highly parallelizable, making it scalable from the speed of processing point of view; (3) Its design principles offer possibilities to achieve significant speed asymmetry — it belongs to a family of stream ciphers that in hardware can have a constant speed of one bit per clock cycle, but in software implementation on popular modern CPUs can be made as slow as needed. Since its first description in 2005, it has been analyzed by several cryptographers, have been implemented in a more compact way and a MAC functionality have been added. The key stream generator of Edon80 employed four quasigroups of order 4. The quasigroups are chosen by experiments and the period probabilities of the key stream are also discussed by experiments. In this paper, we research the period probabilities of Edon80 with mathematical theory, and also we discuss quasigroups with larger periods factors. © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2014.


Wang S.M.,Ningbo University
Zhonghua wei chang wai ke za zhi = Chinese journal of gastrointestinal surgery | Year: 2010

To study the effects of NS398, a selective cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor, on the transcription and translation of BCL-3 and its regulatory gene cyclin D1 in colon cancer cell line SW480. Human colon cancer cells SW480 were divided into two groups: SW480 cells in experimental group were treated with NS398 in different concentrations(25 micromol/L, 50 micromol/L, 100 micromol/L and 200 micromol/L) for 48 h or 72 h. SW480 cells in control group were treated with media which did not contain NS398. Then the expressions of BCL-3 and cyclin D1 were detected by RT-PCR, Western blot, and immunocytochemistry. At 48 hours RT-PCR showed that BCL-3 mRNA and cyclin D1 mRNA decreased in a dose-dependent manner in the experimental group. However, there were no significant differences in the levels of BCL-3 protein and cyclin D1 protein between two groups (P>0.05). At 72 hours, BCL-3 protein and cyclin D1 protein also decreased in a dose-dependent manner in the experimental group. When the concentration of NS398 reached 100 micromol/L, the differences between the two groups in the expression of BCL-3 mRNA and protein became statistically significant (P<0.01). When the concentration of NS398 reached 50 micromol/L, the differences in the expression of cyclin D1 mRNA and protein were statistically significant (P<0.05). BCL-3 is expressed in colon cancer cell line SW480. COX-2 inhibitor can inhibit the expression of BCL-3 and cyclin D1 in a dose-dependent manner. NS398 may down-regulate the expression of cyclin D1 through BCL-3.


Zhou T.-B.,Ningbo University | Yang G.-S.,Shanghai University
Transplant Immunology | Year: 2011

The presently known cytokines that participate in acute rejection of organ transplantation include four categories by order of function: inflammatory cytokines, immunospecific cytokines, inflammatory cell activating cytokines and growth cytokines. Of them, growth cytokines that directly induce division, proliferation and migration of endothelial cells mainly include the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) family and the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family [1]. Recent studies [2] showed that interactions and time overlap of inflammatory cell infiltration and angiogenesis are the main mechanisms that induce acute rejection (AR) following organ transplantation, which has been demonstrated by the clinical fact that AR symptoms after liver transplantation could only be relieved by combination use of drugs for improving micro vessels and those for improving micro bile ducts. This article is a review of VEGF that mediates inflammatory cell infiltration and angiogenesis in the portal area [3]. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.


Yin Y.,Ningbo University | Mizokami S.,Kumamoto University | Maruyama T.,Kumamoto University
Energy Policy | Year: 2013

Using 1997 personal trip survey (PTS) data in the Kumamoto metropolitan area, this paper examined the influence of urban form on energy consumption through an energy estimation model from a microeconomic perspective. As all goods and service are assumed to satisfy the need of people, we estimated the individual energy consumption based on the demand of goods, which is explained by a utility maximization problem constrained by income. 52.84. GJ of energy is estimated for one person one year in Kumamoto metropolitan area. 19.57% of energy is used for mobility goods. A spatial regression was performed to analyze the relationship between energy efficiency and urban form characteristics in terms of density, diversity, and accessibility. The results of regression analysis show that employment density, ratio of employee in retail department, transit fare, and distance to city center are the most influential factors of energy efficiency. Findings suggest compact development and integrated policies for increasing employment density, especially, employment proportion of local residents are suggested. Moreover, measures to improve the attractiveness of mass transit should be encouraged to increase energy efficiency in Kumamoto. © 2013.


Liu Y.-X.,Fudan University | Zhang H.-D.,Fudan University | Tong C.-H.,Ningbo University | Yang Y.-L.,Fudan University
Macromolecules | Year: 2011

The self-consistent field theory (SCFT) is applied to the microphase separation of concentrated solutions of weakly charged polyelectrolytes. The generalized Poisson-Boltzmann equation describing the electrostatic interactions at the mean-field level is numerically solved by a full multigrid algorithm, which enables one to solve the SCFT equations of polyelectrolyte systems in real space as efficient as neutral polymer systems. To demonstrate the power of the real-space numerical scheme, we consider a diblock copolyelectrolyte consisting of a charged block and a neutral block in two-dimensional space. The phase diagram in the Flory-Huggins interaction parameter-the composition space is constructed by numerical calculations. The density distribution of polymer segments, the counterions, and the net charge of the ordered structures, namely the lamellar phase and the hexagonal phase, are intensively examined. The effects of the interaction parameter and the degree of ionization are examined carefully. The numerical scheme can be easily extended to 3D calculations, various chain architectures, various charge distribution models, and other statistics chain models such as the worm-like chain model without losing any computational efficiency. © 2011 American Chemical Society.


Zhu H.-P.,Ningbo University
Nonlinear Dynamics | Year: 2013

With the help of the similarity transformation connected the variable-coefficient nonlinear Schrödinger equation with the standard nonlinear Schrödinger equation, we firstly obtain first-order and second-order rogue wave solutions in two dimensional graded-index waveguides. Then, we investigate the nonlinear tunneling of controllable rogue waves when they pass through nonlinear barrier and nonlinear well. Our results indicate that the propagation behaviors of rogue waves, such as postpone, sustainment and restraint, can be manipulated by choosing the relation between the maximum value of the effective propagation distance Z m and the effective propagation distance corresponding to maximum amplitude of rogue waves Z 0. Postponed, sustained and restrained rogue waves can tunnel through the nonlinear barrier or well with increasing, unchanged and decreasing amplitudes by modulating the ratio of the amplitudes of rogue waves to barrier or well height. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.


Xiong L.,Ningbo University | Xiong L.,Tongji University | Yang L.,Tongji University
Yanshilixue Yu Gongcheng Xuebao/Chinese Journal of Rock Mechanics and Engineering | Year: 2011

The uniaxial creep tests on greenschist from auxiliary tunnel at Jinping II hydropower station are carried out. Taking the interlayered rock mass composed of greenschist and marble as subject, the numerical analysis for uniaxial compression creep test on interlayered rock mass is conducted by using FLAC 3D. The experimental and analytical results show that the failure strength of interlayered rock mass decreases with increasing dip angle of marble interlayer when the dip angle is smaller than 60°, while the result will be quite on the contrary when the dip angle is larger than 60°. Reuss model or Voigt model is applicable for forecasting the failure strength of interlayered rock mass when the failure strength ratio between marble and greenschist is small.


Sun Y.,Nanjing Normal University | Pan D.,Nanjing Normal University | Pan D.,Ningbo University | Guo Y.,Nanjing Normal University | Li J.,Nanjing Normal University
Food and Chemical Toxicology | Year: 2012

Chicken breast protein was hydrolyzed by papain under optimal conditions. The antioxidant activity of the chicken breast protein hydrolysate was then evaluated in vitro and in vivo using different measurements, including reducing power and DPPH radical scavenging assays. The reducing power of the hydrolysate was 0.5 at 2.37mg/mL. The DPPH radical scavenging assay showed that the EC50 value of the hydrolysate was 1.28mg/mL. In antioxidant assays in vivo, d-galactose-induced aging mice administrated the fraction peptides of chicken breast protein hydrolysate showed significantly increased antioxidant enzyme activities, while malondialdehyde levels decreased both in serums and livers. Under a transmission electron microscope (TEM), the ultramicrostructure of hepatic tissue was observed and we found that the hydrolysate may play a part in inhibiting oxidative stress in hepatocytes in vivo. Therefore, we concluded that chicken breast protein hydrolysate exhibits significant antioxidant activity. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


Song J.,Pennsylvania State University | Zhou M.,Pennsylvania State University | Zhou M.,Ningbo University | Yi R.,Pennsylvania State University | And 6 more authors.
Advanced Functional Materials | Year: 2014

Silicon has attracted ever-increasing attention as a high-capacity anode material in Li-ion batteries owing to its extremely high theoretical capacity. However, practical application of silicon anodes is seriously hindered by its fast capacity fading as a result of huge volume changes during the charge/discharge process. Here, an interpenetrated gel polymer binder for high-performance silicon anodes is created through in-situ crosslinking of watersoluble poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) precursors. This gel polymer binder with deformable polymer network and strong adhesion on silicon particles can effectively accommodate the large volume change of silicon anodes upon lithiation/delithiation, leading to an excellent cycling stability and high Coulombic efficiency even at high current densities. Moreover, high areal capacity of ∼4.3 mAh/cm2is achieved based on the silicon anode using the gel PAA - PVA polymer binder with a high mass loading. In view of simplicity in using the water soluble gel polymer binder, it is believed that this novel binder has a great potential to be used for high capacity silicon anodes in next generation Li-ion batteries, as well as for other electrode materials with large volume change during cycling. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.


Wang Y.,Nanjing University of Science and Technology | Qian J.,Ningbo University
Wireless Networks | Year: 2012

The management of the uncertainties over data is an urgent problem of novel applications such as cyberphysical system, sensor network and RFID data management. In order to adapt the characteristics of evolving over time of sensor data in real-time location tracing service based on RFID, a measuring algorithm for the Uncertainty of RFID Data-PPMU (a particle filter and particle swarm optimization-based measuring uncertainty algorithm for RFID Data) is proposed in this paper. PPMU can change the number of samples adaptively on the basis of K-L distance to adapt the evolution of RFID data, and PPMU introduces an improved PSO (particle swarm optimization) method to enhance the efficiency of re-sampling phase of SIRPF (sequential importance re-sampling particle filter). Meanwhile, PPMU defines a fitness function base on Conventional Weighted Aggregation for PSO that balances the importance between the priori density and likelihood density to detect the most optimal samples among candidate sample sets. It provides a measurement with confidence factor for initial tuples in the probability RFID database. Experiments on real dataset show the proposed method can effectively measure the underlying uncertainty over RFID data. Compared with existing algorithms, PPMU can be further improved particle degradation and particle impoverishment problem.


Tan X.-Y.,Ningbo University | Hu J.-B.,Zhejiang University
International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Medicine | Year: 2016

Purpose: Several studies have demonstrated that angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) reduce the incidence of type 2 diabetes in patients with cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, a systematic review and meta-analysis was performed to assess the clinical efficacy of ACEIs and ARBs in preventing type 2 diabetes. Methods: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were retrieved from PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Library and Clinical Trials go through August 2015. Two reviewers independently assessed search results, extracted data, and appraised risk of bias. Results: A total of 21 studies met the inclusion criteria with a total of 111,768 subjects. Thereinto, 55962 patients randomly received ACEIs or ARBs, and 55824 received anti-hypertensive agents or a placebo. ACEIs and ARBs were associated with reductions in the incidence of newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes (ACEIs RR 0.76, 95% CI 0.67-0.87, P < 0.001; ARBs RR 0.79, 95% CI 0.74-0.85, P < 0.001; pooled analysis RR 0.78, 95% CI 0.73-0.84, P < 0.001). Conclusions: ACEIs or ARBs can reduce the incidence of type 2 diabetes, especially in patients with hypertension, metabolic syndrome, pre-diabetes phase, congestive heart failure, or coronary heart disease. ACEIs or ARBs is accordingly recommended as the first line antihypertensive agents in patients with cardiovascular diseases. © 2016, E-Century Publishing Corporation. All rights reserved.


Miao Q.,Ningbo University | Geerts B.,University of Wyoming
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences | Year: 2013

Data from in situ probes and a vertically-pointing mm-wave Doppler radar aboard a research aircraft are used to study the cloud microphysical effect of glaciogenic seeding of cold-season orographic clouds. A previous study (Geerts et al., 2010) has shown that radar reflectivity tends to be higher during seeding periods in a shallow layer above the ground downwind of ground-based silver iodide (AgI) nuclei generators. This finding is based on seven flights, conducted over a mountain in Wyoming (the Unites States), each with a no-seeding period followed by a seeding period. In order to assess this impact, geographically fixed flight tracks were flown over a target mountain, both upwind and downwind of the AgI generators. This paper examines data from the same flights for further evidence of the cloud seeding impact. Composite radar data show that the low-level reflectivity increase is best defined upwind of the mountain crest and downwind of the point where the cloud base intersects the terrain. The main argument that this increase can be attributed to AgI seeding is that it is confined to a shallow layer near the ground where the flow is turbulent. Yet during two flights when clouds were cumuliform and coherent updrafts to flight level were recorded by the radar, the seeding impact was evident in the flight-level updrafts (about 610 m above the mountain peak) as a significant increase in the ice crystal concentration in all size bins. The seeding effect appears short-lived as it is not apparent just downwind of the crest. © 2013 Chinese National Committee for International Association of Meteorology and Atmospheric Sciences, Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Science Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Luo B.F.,Zhejiang University | Du S.T.,Zhejiang GongShang University | Lu K.X.,Ningbo University | Liu W.J.,Zhejiang University | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Experimental Botany | Year: 2012

Nitrogen (N) management is a promising agronomic strategy to minimize cadmium (Cd) contamination in crops. However, it is unclear how N affects Cd uptake by plants. Wild-type and iron uptake-inefficient tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) mutant (T3238fer) plants were grown in pH-buffered hydroponic culture to investigate the direct effect of N-form on Cd uptake. Wild-type plants fed NO3- accumulated more Cd than plants fed NH4+. Iron uptake and LeIRT1 expression in roots were also greater in plants fed NO3-. However, in mutant T3238fer which loses FER function, LeIRT1 expression in roots was almost completely terminated, and the difference between NO3- and NH4+ treatments vanished. As a result, the N-form had no effect on Cd uptake in this mutant. Furthermore, suppression of LeIRT1 expression by NO synthesis inhibition with either tungstate or L-NAME, also substantially inhibited Cd uptake in roots, and the difference between N-form treatments was diminished. Considering all of these findings, it was concluded that the up-regulation of the Fe uptake system was responsible for NO3--facilitated Cd accumulation in plants. © 2012 The Author.


Li C.H.,Ningbo University
Genetics and molecular research : GMR | Year: 2012

The full-length complementary DNA (cDNA) of heat shock protein 90 was cloned from Phascolosoma esculenta (PeHSP90) using expressed sequence tag and rapid amplification of cDNA end approaches. The cDNA of PeHSP90 was 2521 bp including a 5'-untranslated region of 110 bp, a 3'-untranslated region of 230 bp, and an open reading frame of 2181 bp. All of the characteristic motifs of the HSP90 family were completely conserved in the deduced amino acid of PeHSP90. The expression of PeHSP90 was induced by 3 heavy metals or elevated temperature, under which Zn2+ displayed effects were more toxic than those of Cd2+ and Cu2+. The polyclonal antibodies generated from the recombinant product of PeHSP90 were specifically identified not only in the recombinant product but also in the native protein from hemocytes. These results strongly suggested that PeHSP90 was involved in heavy metal challenge and thermal stress regulation in P. esculenta.


Zhao J.,Ningbo University | Castranova V.,U.S. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health
Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health - Part B: Critical Reviews | Year: 2011

With the development of nanotechnology, nanomaterials are being widely used in many industries as well as in medicine and pharmacology. Despite the many proposed advantages of nanomaterials, increasing concerns have been expressed on their potential adverse human health effects. In recent years, application of nanotechnology in medicine has been defined as nanomedicine. Techniques in nanomedicine make it possible to deliver therapeutic agents into targeted specific cells, cellular compartments, tissues, and organs by using nanoparticulate carriers. Because nanoparticles possess different physicochemical properties than their fine-sized analogues due to their extremely small size and large surface area, they need to be evaluated separately for toxicity and adverse health effects. In addition, in the field of nanomedicine, intravenous and subcutaneous injections of nanoparticulate carriers deliver exogenous nanoparticles directly into the human body without passing through the normal absorption process. These nanoparticulate carriers themselves may be responsible for toxicity and interaction with biological macromolecules within the human body. Second, insoluble nanoparticulate carriers may accumulate in human tissues or organs. Therefore, it is necessary to address the potential health and safety implications of nanomaterials used in nanomedicine. Toxicological studies for biosafety evaluation of these nanomaterials will be important for the continuous development of nanomedical science. This review summarizes the current knowledge on toxicology of nanomaterials, particularly on those used in nanomedicine. Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.


Li W.,Ningbo University
2010 8th IEEE International Conference on Control and Automation, ICCA 2010 | Year: 2010

This paper presents a design approach to nonlinear adaptive control of turbine speed governor systems with parametric uncertainties and exogenous disturbances. It is shown that the stabilizing control law with desired L 2 gain from the disturbance to regulated output can be designed by the dynamic surface control method in a recursive way without linearization. Based on this method, both the design procedure and the derived tracking controller itself are simplified, and he derived controller guarantees that the output of resultant closed-loop system converges to the stable-state operation point with the L2 performance. Besides, the dynamics of the system can be adjusted via an appropriate choice of design parameters of the controller. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed controllers guarantee dynamic stability of the system regardless of the system uncertainties and disturbances. © 2010 IEEE.


Han C.,Ningbo University
Journal of the Korean Physical Society | Year: 2013

Long-distance quantum communication with high fidelity is the main obstacle to creating a quantum network. A scheme to recover the loss of one photon with a three-to-eight qubit encoding is presented. The qubit loss is first detected using a quantum nondemolition measurement and is then transformed into a standard qubit error by inserting a new photon. The state of qubits is reconstructed via a sequence of one projective measurement, two single-qubit gates, and seven controlled-NOT operations. No ancillary qubits are required. Finally, the cost of resources is analyzed. © 2013 The Korean Physical Society.


Zhu H.-P.,Lishui University | Zhu H.-P.,Ningbo University
Communications in Theoretical Physics | Year: 2012

We construct analytical self-similar solutions for the generalized (3+1)-dimensional nonlinear Schrödinger equation with polynomial nonlinearity of arbitrary order. As an example, we list self-similar solutions of quintic nonlinear Schrödinger equation with distributed dispersion and distributed linear gain, including bright similariton solution, fractional and combined Jacobian elliptic function solutions. Moreover, we discuss self-similar evolutional dynamic behaviors of these solutions in the dispersion decreasing fiber and the periodic distributed amplification system. © 2012 Chinese Physical Society and IOP Publishing Ltd.


Sun C.-Y.,Northwest University, China | Yue R.-H.,Ningbo University
Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology | Year: 2012

It is found by Cai and Su that the interaction between dark energy and cold dark matter is likely to change the sign during the cosmological evolution. Motivated by this, we suggest a new form of interaction between dark energy and dark matter, which changes from negative to positive as the expansion of or universe changes from decelerated to accelerated. We find that the interacting model is consistent with the second law of thermodynamics and the observational constraints. And, we also discuss the unified adiabatic-squared sound speed of the model. © 2012 American Physical Society.


Wang Y.-H.,East China Normal University | Chen Y.,East China Normal University | Chen Y.,Ningbo University
Communications in Theoretical Physics | Year: 2012

In this paper, the bilinear form of a generalized Kadomtsev - Petviashvili equation is obtained by applying the binary Bell polynomials. The N-soliton solution and one periodic wave solution are presented by use of the Hirota direct method and the Riemann theta function, respectively. And then the asymptotic analysis demonstrates one periodic wave solution can be reduced to one soliton solution. In the end, the bilinear Bäcklund transformations are derived. © 2012 Chinese Physical Society and IOP Publishing Ltd.


Liu D.,Ningbo University | Reboucas M.J.,Brazilian Center for Research in Physics (CBPF)
Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology | Year: 2012

In the standard approach to cosmological modeling in the framework of general relativity, the energy conditions play an important role in the understanding of several properties of the Universe, including singularity theorems, the current accelerating expansion phase, and the possible existence of the so-called phantom fields. Recently, the f(T) gravity has been invoked as an alternative approach for explaining the observed acceleration expansion of the Universe. If gravity is described by a f(T) theory instead of general relativity, there are a number of issues that ought to be reexamined in the framework of f(T) theories. In this work, to proceed further with the current investigation of the limits and potentialities of the f(T) gravity theories, we derive and discuss the bounds imposed by the energy conditions on a general f(T) functional form. The null and strong energy conditions in the framework of f(T) gravity are derived from first principles, namely the purely geometric Raychaudhuri equation along with the requirement that gravity is attractive. The weak and dominant energy conditions are then obtained in a direct approach via an effective energy-momentum tensor for f(T) gravity. Although similar, the energy condition inequalities are different from those of general relativity, but in the limit f(T)=T, the standard forms for the energy conditions in general relativity are recovered. As a concrete application of the derived energy conditions to locally homogeneous and isotropic f(T) cosmology, we use the recent estimated value of the Hubble parameter to set bounds from the weak energy condition on the parameters of two specific families of f(T) gravity theories. © 2012 American Physical Society.


Chen M.-Y.,Jiangsu University | Zhou J.,Ningbo University
Optics Express | Year: 2014

A multi-core fiber coupler is proposed to extract one of the modes in a few-mode optical fiber from a light beam, leaving the other modes undisturbed, and allowing a new signal to be retransmitted on that mode. Selective coupling of higher-order modes from a few-mode optical fiber can be realized by increasing the coupling length difference of the modes in the fiber using the multi-core configuration. Low cross-talk and wide bandwidth operation are realized owing to the fact that only one mode can be effectively coupled. © 2014 Optical Society of America.


Zheng W.J.,Ningbo University
Dong wu xue yan jiu = Zoological research / "Dong wu xue yan jiu" bian ji wei yuan hui bian ji | Year: 2012

Pseudosciaena polyactis is an economically important species of marine fish in China that is currently declining due to overexploitation, environmental pollution and related factors. Research in to the genetic structure of Pseudosciaena polyactis populations plays a key role in protecting and promoting sustainable utilization. We collected 53 individuals of Pseudosciaena polyactis from Zhoushan, Zhejiang and sequenced and amplified the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) D-loop region using Polymerase Chain Reactions (PCR). The sequence length of the 53 individuals ranged from 795 to 801 bp. The sequences were analyzed by Clustal X1.83, MEGA3.1 and DnaSP4.0. The results showed that the average base content of T, C, A, G was 30.3%, 23.1%, 32.3% and 14.3%, respectively and there were 93 transition or transversion sites, including 53 single nucleotide mutation sites and 40 parsimony informative sites, which accounted for 11.6% of the length of the analyzed sequences. In total, we identified 52 haplotypes and found haplotype diversity (hd) of 0.9993, average number of nucleotide differences were 9.73875 (k), and nucleotide diversity (Π) of 0.01233. The average genetic distance of haplotypes was 0.012, and the average transition/transversion was 4.305. Based on mitochondrial DNA D-loop region sequences, these results indicate that the genetic diversity of the Pseudosciaena polyactis population in Zhoushan is currently at a medium level.


Sun C.-Y.,Northwest University, China | Song Y.,Northwest University, China | Yue R.-H.,Ningbo University
European Physical Journal C | Year: 2013

It was found that the model with interaction between cold dark matter (CDM) and dark energy (DE) proportional to the energy density of CDM ρm and constant equation of state of DE wd suffered from instabilities of the density perturbations on the super-Hubble scales. Here we suggest a new covariant model for the energy-momentum transfer between CDM and DE. Then using the covariant model, we analyze the evolution of density perturbations on the super-Hubble scale. We find that the instabilities can be avoided in the model with constant wd and interaction proportional to ρm. Furthermore, we analyze the dominant non-adiabatic mode in the radiation era and find that the mode grows regularly. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg and Società Italiana di Fisica.


Li J.-H.,Ningbo University
Chinese Physics B | Year: 2014

In the paper, we investigate two motor proteins moving along the sidesteps: a motor protein moving along a two-dimensional sidestep and another protein moving along a three-dimensional sidestep. The drift coefficients (or stationary average velocities) of these two motor proteins are calculated. We believe that our investigation of the motor proteins moving along the sidesteps in the present paper can benefit the investigation of the transport of the motor proteins to some extent. © 2014 Chinese Physical Society and IOP Publishing Ltd.


Huang D.J.,Ningbo University | Huang D.J.,Zhejiang University | Ding H.J.,Zhejiang University | Chen W.Q.,Zhejiang University
European Journal of Mechanics, A/Solids | Year: 2010

This paper considers the analytical and semi-analytical solutions for anisotropic functionally graded magneto-electro-elastic beams subjected to an arbitrary load, which can be expanded in terms of sinusoidal series. For the generalized plane stress problem, the stress function, electric displacement function and magnetic induction function are assumed to consist of two parts, respectively. One is a product of a trigonometric function of the longitudinal coordinate (x) and an undetermined function of the thickness coordinate (z), and the other a linear polynomial of x with unknown coefficients depending on z. The governing equations satisfied by these z-dependent functions are derived. The analytical expressions of stresses, electric displacements, magnetic induction, axial force, bending moment, shear force, average electric displacement, average magnetic induction, displacements, electric potential and magnetic potential are then deduced, with integral constants determinable from the boundary conditions. The analytical solution is derived for beam with material coefficients varying exponentially along the thickness, while the semi-analytical solution is sought by making use of the sub-layer approximation for beam with an arbitrary variation of material parameters along the thickness. The present analysis is applicable to beams with various boundary conditions at the two ends. Two numerical examples are presented for validation of the theory and illustration of the effects of certain parameters. Crown Copyright © 2010.


Geng Y.,Shenzhen University | Li X.,Shenzhen University | Tan X.,Ningbo University | Deng Y.,Shenzhen University | Yu Y.,Shenzhen University
Optics Express | Year: 2011

In this paper, core-cladding modal beating in a short piece of all-solid photonic bandgap fiber (AS-PBF) is observed in longitudinal propagation direction. It is demonstrated that at the stopband range of AS-PBF, the power could transfer back and forth between the fiber core and the first layer of high-index rods. Both experimental results and the theoretical analysis from transverse coupled mode theory confirm that the 3-dB width of the sharp stopband could be significantly narrowed by multicycles of such core-cladding modal couplings, which is of great benefit to the high-resolution sensing applications. Based on such a guiding regime, a high-temperature sensor head is also made and its response to temperature is tested to be of 59.9 pm/°C. © 2011 Optical Society of America.


Hu J.,Hunan Normal University | Yu H.,Hunan Normal University | Yu H.,Ningbo University
Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology | Year: 2013

We study, in the framework of open quantum systems, the entanglement generation between two mutually independent static two-level atoms in de Sitter spacetime. We treat the two-atom system as an open system in interaction with a bath of fluctuating conformally coupled massless scalar fields in the de Sitter invariant vacuum and derive the master equation that governs its evolution. With the help of the partial transposition criterion, we analyze entanglement generation between the two initially separable atoms and find that static atoms in de Sitter spacetime exhibit distinct characteristics from those in a thermal bath in flat spacetime in terms of entanglement generation. So, in principle, one can tell whether he is in a thermal bath or in de Sitter space by checking the entanglement creation between two initially separable static atoms in certain circumstances. © 2013 American Physical Society.


Sun G.-Y.,Xiamen University | Zhu Y.-J.,Ningbo University
Journal of Electronic Materials | Year: 2013

By applying the nonequilibrium Green function method, we have theoretically investigated the quantum transport properties of armchair and zigzag graphene nanoribbons (GNRs), with defects (vacancies) appearing at the edges or in the inner part. Effects of the defects on the electronic conductance and local density of states are comprehensively studied. It is found that both edge and inner defects reduce the electronic conductance in general, while in detail they have different effects on the transport properties for different combinations of defect location and GNR edge type. Under the same theoretical framework, we have also studied the effects of dephasing scattering processes in the GNRs, employing two specific choices of self-energy that provide momentum-conserving or momentum-relaxing dephasing processes. The momentum-relaxing dephasing processes not only relax momentum but also add an additional resistance to the channel, while the momentum- conserving dephasing processes only break the phase and have much less effect on the resistance. It is found that the transport properties of metallic zigzag GNRs are much more strongly modified by the dephasing scattering processes than are those of semiconducting armchair GNRs. © 2012 TMS.


Xiong Y.-J.,Ningbo University
Physica B: Condensed Matter | Year: 2013

We present a double quantum dot structure based on an armchair graphene nanoribbon with three serial narrow constrictions. With appropriate geometry and size, each region in between two constrictions behaves as a tunneling quantum dot. Within the low energy range around the Dirac point, conductance of the structure shows strong resonances. The paired resonance peaks are related to the quasibound molecular states in the tunnel-coupled dots. The quasibound states and the interdot coupling can be effectively tuned by only the geometrical parameters of the structure. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Zhu R.,Concordia University at Montreal | Zhang X.,Concordia University at Montreal | Zhang X.,Yunnan University | Hraimel B.,Concordia University at Montreal | And 2 more authors.
IEEE Photonics Technology Letters | Year: 2013

A low-cost broadband analog predistortion circuit (PDC) is designed and experimentally verified in a radio over fiber (RoF) system. A miniature hybrid microwave integrated circuit technique is used to reduce the size and parasitics of PDC. Only two zero bias GaAs beam lead detector diodes and capacitors are used in the PDC. The diodes can be biased at {<}{\rm 3}~{\rm mA} due to zero bias characteristic so that power consumption is reduced. No broadband matching network is required because of high series resistance of the zero bias diodes. The linearization performance is evaluated using an RoF system without and with the PDC. It is shown that the PDC improves the input 1-dB compression power by 0.4-2.2 dB from 7 to 18 GHz; and spurious free dynamic ranges are improved by {\sim}{\rm 10}~{\rm dB} from 7 to 14 GHz and {\sim}{\rm 6}~{\rm dB} from 15 to 18 GHz, limited by fifth order nonlinear distortion. © 2013 IEEE.


Tong H.,Zhejiang University | Hu C.,Zhejiang University | Yin X.,Zhejiang University | Yu M.,Ningbo University | And 2 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Background:In recent years, epidemiologic studies have reported controversial results relating cigarette smoking to myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) risk. A meta-analysis was performed to assess such potential relationship between cigarette smoking and incidence of MDS.Methods:A search of literature published before October 2012 for observational studies evaluating the association between cigarette smoking and MDS, returned 123 articles and of these, 14 were selected for this study. The outcomes from these studies were calculated and reported as odds ratios (OR). Quality assessments were performed with the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Heterogeneity was evaluated by the I2 index and source of heterogeneity was detected by sensitivity analyses. Finally, publication bias was assessed through visual inspection of funnel plots and Egger's test.Results:The pooled OR of developing MDS in ever-smokers was 1.45 (95% CI, 1.25 to 1.68) versus non-smokers. Current and former smokers had increased risks of MDS, with ORs of 1.81 (95% CI, 1.24 to 2.66) and 1.67 (95% CI, 1.42 to 1.96), respectively. In subset analyses, ever-smokers had increased risks of developing MDS if they were living in the United States, or in Europe, female in gender, had refractory anemia (RA)/RA with ringed sideroblasts (RARS) or RA with excess blasts (RAEB)/RAEB in transformation (RAEBt), respectively. Our results demonstrated that the association was stronger in individuals who smoked ≥20 cigarettes/day (OR, 1.62; 95% CI, 1.03 to 2.55) versus those who smoked <20 cigarettes/day (OR, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.13 to 1.64). Moreover, individuals who smoked more than 20 pack-years had increased MDS risk (OR, 1.94; 95% CI, 1.29 to 2.92).Conclusion:Our outcomes show that smoking increases the risk of developing MDS in ever-smokers who are current or former smokers. We also demonstrate here that positive association between cigarette smoking and risk of MDS exists, and occurs in a dose-dependent manner. © 2013 Tong et al.


Li Z.,Zhejiang University | Zhu J.-Q.,Ningbo University | Yang W.-X.,Zhejiang University
Micron | Year: 2010

The octopod sperm is unique especially in two aspects: the screw-shaped acrosome and its inner layered substructure (striation). The present study aims to investigate morphological changes of Octopus tankahkeei spermatozoa during the acrosome reaction (AR) and to pursue functions of the internal substructures revealed by inducing AR with the calcium ionophore A23187. Gradual changes of the spermatozoa were traced using fluorescence and electron microscopy. The AR process included the bulging, vesiculation, and dehiscence of the plasma membrane around the acrosome and the nucleus, as well as the vesiculation of the mitochondrial sheath. Membrane vesiculation outside the nucleus has never been reported in the order Octopoda. The rigid screw and the inner striation of the acrosome remained intact surmounting the nucleus, suggesting that these two structures have potential functions during fertilization. In addition, the detachment of the sperm head and the tail was commonly observed in this study, both in intact and acrosome-reacted sperm. Fluorescence microscopy revealed that the detached mitochondrial sheath usually gave weaker and more dispersive signals than the joint ones. This phenomenon implied that the intense energy release might promote the detachment of the mitochondrial sheath. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Li J.-h.,Ningbo University
Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications | Year: 2010

In this paper, we investigate the periodic response for a linear system driven by a multiplicative multi-state noise (which is composed of the multiplication of two dichotomous noises) to an input temporal oscillatory signal, and the escape of Brownian particles over the fluctuating potential barrier for a system with a piece-wise linear potential and driven by an additive multi-state noise (which is also composed of the multiplication of two dichotomous noises). For the first system, we get the stochastic resonance phenomenon for the amplitude of the periodic response vs. the two dichotomous noise strengths, and the phenomenon of reverse-resonance for the amplitude of the periodic response vs. k, which represents the asymmetry degree of the dichotomous noises. For the second system, we obtain the resonant activation phenomenon, for which the mean first passage time of the Brownian particles over the fluctuating potential barrier shows a minimum as the function of the transition rates of the multi-state noise. © 2009.


Chen J.-K.,Ningbo University | Li L.-Y.,University of Plymouth
International Journal of Mechanical Sciences | Year: 2013

This paper presents an analytical solution for the linear elastic buckling analysis of simply supported battened columns subjected to axial compressed loading. The critical buckling load is derived by using the classical energy method. Unlike most of existing work, the present approach considers not only the shear effect but also the discrete effect of battens on the global buckling behaviour of the columns. The present analytical solution is validated using the data obtained from the finite element analysis. The results show that the number of battens has significant influence on the critical buckling load of battened columns, particularly when the relative rigidity of the batten to the main member is small. It is shown that the critical buckling load increases with the number of battens, the combined bending and shear rigidity of battens, but decreases with the increased membrane stiffness of the two main members, and the increased distance between the centroids of the two main members. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Hua C.,Nanyang Technological University | Shen Z.,Ningbo University
IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation | Year: 2015

Dynamic-type sea-water monopole antenna of high efficiency is presented by using a new shunt-excited feeding structure. The shunt-excited feeding structure is mainly formed by a conducting tube and a Gamma-shape (Γ-shape) feeding arm connected to the conducting tube near the top. An equivalent circuit model and ANSYS HFSS software are used in the analysis and design of the sea-water monopole antenna. In order to verify the validity of our design concept, two prototypes of shunt-excited sea-water monopole antennas are designed and fabricated: static-type and dynamic-type. Measured results of the two fabricated antenna prototypes are in reasonably good agreement with simulated ones, which demonstrates that the proposed shunt-excited feeding structure offers a great potential for designing high-efficiency dynamic-type sea-water monopole antennas. © 2015 IEEE.


Fan X.,Ocean University of China | Chen X.,Ningbo University | Song W.,Ocean University of China | Al-Rasheid K.A.S.,King Saud University | Warren A.,Natural History Museum in London
International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology | Year: 2011

The morphology and infraciliature of two novel marine ciliates, Frontonia mengispec. nov. and Frontonia magna spec. nov., isolated from coastal waters in northern and southern China, respectively, were investigated using living observation and silver impregnation methods. Frontonia mengi spec. nov. is characterized by its slender body shape, with a length-to-width ratio of about 5: 1, about 52 somatic kineties and the structure of its buccal apparatus. Frontonia magna spec. nov. can be recognized by the combination of huge body size, about 200 somatic kineties, five or six vestibular kineties and four-rowed peniculi 1-3. Phylogenetic trees based on small-subunit rRNA gene sequences were constructed by means of Bayesian inference and maximum-parsimony. Results showed that F. mengi and F. magna are sister to each other within the 'core' clade of Frontonia that also includes Frontonia lynni and Frontonia tchibisovae and that the genus Frontonia may be polyphyletic, because one species, Frontonia didieri,always groups with Paramecium and Apofrontonia. © 2011 IUMS.


Wang Y.,University of British Columbia | Wang Y.,Ningbo University | De Silva C.W.,University of British Columbia
IEEE/ASME Transactions on Mechatronics | Year: 2010

This paper presents a modified, distributed Q-learning algorithm, termed as sequential Q-learning with Kalman filtering (SQKF), for decision making associated with multirobot cooperation. The SQKF algorithm developed here has the following characteristics. 1) The learning process is arranged in a sequential manner (i.e., the robots will not make decisions simultaneously, but in a predefined sequence) so as to promote cooperation among robots and reduce their Q-learning spaces. 2) A robot will not update its Q-values with observed global rewards. Instead, it will employ a specific Kalman filter to extract its real local reward from the global reward, thereby updating its Q-table with this local reward. The new SQKF algorithm is intended to solve two problems in multirobot -learning: credit assignment and behavior conflicts. The detailed procedure of the SQKF algorithm is presented, and its application is illustrated using a prototype multirobot experimental system. The experimental results show that the algorithm has better performance than the conventional single-agent Q-learning algorithm or the team Q-learning algorithm in the multirobot domain. © 2009 IEEE.


Gong D.,Ningbo University | Wang B.,CAS Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry | Jia X.,Chinese Institute of Urban Environment | Zhang X.,CAS Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry
Dalton Transactions | Year: 2014

A family of cobalt complexes supported by a tridentate Schiff base ligand with a labile donor (O, S, N) as a pendant arm (Co1-Co12, formulated as CoL 2) were synthesized by the treatment of the corresponding ligands with cobalt acetate tetrahydrate. The resultant complexes were well characterized by elemental analysis, FT-IR, magnetic moment as well as EI-MS. The solid-state structures of Co7 and Co12 were determined by X-ray diffraction and both established a distorted octahedron geometry around the cobalt center. The butadiene polymerization capabilities of the 12 complexes were evaluated and compared in representative cases. Diethylaluminum chloride (AlEt2Cl) was found to be the compatible activator resulting in highly active catalysts for producing polybutadiene of 93.8-98.2% cis-1,4 enchainment with negligible 1,2-structure and trans-1,4 units. It appears that a certain degree of lability of the donor is beneficial for high catalytic activity, generally following the order of O > S > N, and the high cis-1,4 selectivity. Moreover, the remarkable thermal stability of these systems has been achieved: the catalytic systems have the ability of conducting a high level of active and selective polymerization, reaching an upper limit of polymerization temperature of about 70 °C. The enhanced catalytic performances were further rationalized by the established diene polymerization mechanism, which could shed light on developing highly selective and reactive industrially applicable catalysts with an enhanced thermal stability. © 2014 The Royal Society of Chemistry.


Xu D.-W.,Ningbo University of Technology | Wang R.-D.,Ningbo University
Dianzi Yu Xinxi Xuebao/Journal of Electronics and Information Technology | Year: 2013

According to H.264/AVC specific codec architecture, a novel watermarking algorithm with symbol encoding is proposed. Based on the analysis of requantization transcoding, the macroblock used for watermarking is selected with the combination of texture complexity and rate-distortion cost. The problem of watermark synchronization between the sender and receiver can be solved. The watermark information is embedded by slight modulating the coefficients with specific symbol encoding, instead of directly adding the watermark to the quantized coefficients. Experimental results reveal that the proposed scheme is robust against attacks such as requantization transcoding, additive white Gaussian noise, brightness and contrast adjustment, while preserving the perceptual quality.


Zhang J.-L.,Hunan Normal University | Zhang J.-L.,CAS Institute of Theoretical Physics | Cai R.-G.,Hunan Normal University | Cai R.-G.,CAS Institute of Theoretical Physics | And 2 more authors.
Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology | Year: 2015

We study the thermodynamics and thermodynamic geometry of a five-dimensional Reissner-Nordström-AdS black hole in the extended phase space by treating the cosmological constant as being related to the number of colors in the boundary gauge theory and its conjugate quantity as the associated chemical potential. We find that the contribution of the charge of the black hole to the chemical potential is always positive, and the existence of charge makes the chemical potential become positive more easily. We calculate the scalar curvatures of the thermodynamical Weinhold metric, Ruppeiner metric, and Quevedo metric, respectively, in the fixed N2 case and the fixed q case. We find that in the fixed N2 case, the divergence of the scalar curvature is related to the divergence of the specific heat with fixed electric potential in the Weinhold metric and Ruppeiner metric, and the divergence of the scalar curvature in the Quevedo metric corresponds to the divergence of the specific heat with fixed electric charge density. In the fixed q case, however, the divergence of the scalar curvature is related to the divergence of the specific heat with fixed chemical potential in the Weinhold metric and Ruppeiner metric, while in the Quevedo metric, the divergence of the scalar curvature corresponds to the divergence of the specific heat with a fixed number of colors and the vanishing of the specific heat with a fixed chemical potential. © 2015 American Physical Society.


Yu H.,Tsinghua University | Chen X.,Ningbo University | Zhu W.,University of Illinois at Urbana - Champaign | Cao C.,Tsinghua University
International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance | Year: 2012

Purpose: To examine the effectiveness of threshold and polarized models in the training organization of Chinese top-level sprint speed skaters using a 2-y quasi-experimental design. Methods: Two years (2004-05 and 2005-06 seasons) of the Chinese national speed-skating team's daily training load (N = 9; 5 men, 23.6 ± 1.7 y, weight 76.6 ± 4.1 kg, competitive experience 5.0 ± 0.8 y, 500-m time 35.45 ± 0.72 s, 1000-m time 71.18 ± 2.28 s; 4 women, 25.3 ± 6.8 y, 73.0 ± 8.5 kg, 6.3 ± 3.5 y, 37.81 ± 0.46 s, 75.70 ± 0.81 s) were collected and analyzed. Each season's training load included overall duration (calculated in min and km), frequency (calculated by overall sessions), and training intensity (measured by ear blood lactate or estimated by heart rate), Their performances at national, World Cup, and Olympic competitions during the 2 seasons (2004-06), as well as lactate data measured 15 and 30 min after these competitions, were also collected and analyzed. Based on the lactate data (<2, 2-4, >4 mmol/L), training zones were classified as low, moderate, and high intensity. Results: The total durations and frequencies of the training load were similar across the seasons, but a threshold-training model distribution was used in 2004-05, and a polarized-training-load organization in 2005-06. Under the polarized-training model, or load organization, all speed skaters' performance improved and their lactate after competition decreased considerably. Conclusion: Training-intensity distribution based on a polarized-training model led to the success in top Chinese sprint speed skaters in the 2005-06 season. © 2012 Human Kinetics, Inc.


Qian Y.X.,Ningbo University
Dong wu xue yan jiu = Zoological research / "Dong wu xue yan jiu" bian ji wei yuan hui bian ji | Year: 2011

Betaine homocysteine methyltransferase (BHMT, EC 2.1.1.5) catalyzes the transfer of a methyl group from betaine to homocysteines (Hcy) to form dimethylglycine and Met, respectively. A full-length cDNA of the BHMT in Lateolabrax japonicus was amplified using RT-PCR and SMART RACE methods. The cDNA of the BHMT in L. japonicus is 1 461 bp in size, with 72 bp 5'-UTR, 183 bp 3'-UTR and 1206 bp ORF, encoding a protein of 401 amino acids with a molecular weight of 44.32 kD and pI 7.21. The sequence analysis indicated that the deduced amino acid sequence of BHMT shared high identity (77%-93%) with nine other species; the highest was 93% with Perca flavescens. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR was used to characterize the expression of BHMT in ten tissues including muscle, heart, eye, brain, gill, liver, intestine, kidney, adipose tissue and spleen. The results showed that BHMT is only expressed in the liver, intestines and kidney. BHMT mRNA in these three tissues declined after the fish were transferred from sea water to a higher salinity environment and induced when transferred to a lower salinity environment. BHMT gene in liver, intestine and kidney can also be induced after intraperitoneal injection of betaine. Our results show that betaine can induce the transcription of BHMT in fish, and BHMT play pivotal roles in adaptation to osmotic change.


Xiong L.,Ningbo University | Li T.,Chengdu University of Technology | Yang L.,Tongji University
KSCE Journal of Civil Engineering | Year: 2014

This study explores the effects of water content and anisotropy on the mechanical behavior of green-schist. The biaxial compression creep tests under dry and saturated conditions were first carried out. Then, the influences of geometric relationship between the loading orientation and the bedding plane, water content and volumetric content of marble interlayer were analyzed. The results indicate that both instantaneous and creep strains along two loading directions decrease with the increasing volumetric content of the marble interlayer. The influence of water content on the axial and the lateral instantaneous strains is different when the volumetric content of chlorite is different. For specimens of the same type at the same stress level, the axial strain with the both loading orientations parallel to the bedding plane is greater than that with the axial loading parallel to the bedding plane but the lateral loading perpendicular to the bedding plane. © 2014 Korean Society of Civil Engineers and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Xia T.,Ningbo University
Yi chuan = Hereditas / Zhongguo yi chuan xue hui bian ji | Year: 2013

Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) play biological roles through a variety of mechanisms, including genetic imprinting, chromatin remodeling, cell cycle control, splicing regulation, mRNA decay, and translational regulation. LncRNAs are involved in the regulation of gene expression through the above mechanisms in different levels. Establishment and application of research technologies are important in understanding of lncRNAs functions. Microarray, RNA sequencing, Northern blot, real time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, fluorescence in situ hybridization, RNA interference, and RNA-binding protein immunoprecipitation are major tools of exploring biological functions of lncRNAs. Here, we highlighted three advanced methods, i.e., fast predictions of RNA and protein interactions and domains (catRAPID), chromatin isolation by RNA purification (ChIRP), and combined knockdown and localization analysis of non-coding RNAs (c-KLAN).


Yi T.-F.,Anhui University of Technology | Li X.-Y.,Anhui University of Technology | Liu H.,Harbin Institute of Technology | Shu J.,Ningbo University | And 2 more authors.
Ionics | Year: 2012

Lithium ion batteries have become attractive for portable devices due to their higher energy density compared to other systems. With a growing interest to develop rechargeable batteries for electric vehicles, lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO 4) is considered to replace the currently used LiCoO 2 cathodes in lithium ion cells. LiFePO 4 is a technically important cathode material for new-generation power lithium ion battery applications because of its abundance in raw materials, environmental friendliness, perfect cycling performance, and safety characteristics. However, the commercial use of LiFePO 4 cathode material has been hindered to date by their low electronic conductivity. This review highlights the recent progress in improving and understanding the electrochemical performance like the rate ability and cycling performance of LiFePO 4 cathode. This review sums up some important researches related to LiFePO 4 cathode material, including doping and coating on surface. Doping elements with coating conductive film is an effective way to improve its rate ability. © 2012 Springer-Verlag.


In this paper the higher maritime education is taken as an example to explore influence and effect exerted from the international professional organizations on education and training of international professional personnel, and then to obtain useful experience so as to further promote the sustained and healthy development of China's higher education. © (2014) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.


Wang W.,Minzu University of China | Wang J.,Ningbo University | Wang Z.,Minzu University of China | Wei X.,Minzu University of China | And 5 more authors.
Dalton Transactions | Year: 2014

A new strategy via coupling a polyol route with an oxidation process has been developed to successfully synthesize p-n junction CuO/BiVO4 heterogeneous nanostructures. The experimental results reveal that the as-prepared p-n junction CuO/BiVO4 heterogeneous nanostructures exhibit much higher visible-light-driven photocatalytic activity for the degradation of model dye rhodamine B (RhB) than the pure BiVO4 nanocrystals. The photocatalytic degradation rate (C/C0) of the RhB for p-n junction CuO/BiVO4 heterogeneous nanostructures is about two times higher than that of pure BiVO4 nanocrystals. The enhanced photocatalytic efficiency is attributed to a large number of p-n junctions in CuO/BiVO4 heterogeneous nanostructures, which effectively reduces the recombination of electrons and holes by charge transfer from n-type BiVO 4 to the attached p-type CuO nanoparticles. This work not only provides an efficient route to enhance the visible-light-driven photocatalytic activity of BiVO4, but also offers a new strategy for fabricating p-n junction heterogeneous nanostructure photocatalysts, which are expected to show considerable potential application in solar-driven wastewater treatment and water splitting. This journal is © the Partner Organisations 2014.


Zheng W.,Ningbo University
Yi chuan = Hereditas / Zhongguo yi chuan xue hui bian ji | Year: 2013

Tuberculosis, caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB), is one of the oldest and most influential diseases in the history due to its devastating effect on health and high mortality rate worldwide. Tuberculosis causes more human deaths than any other single infectious disease and the incidence of the tuberculosis is increasing dramatically in recent years. Genome-wide association study (GWAS) has been used to delineate the genetic basis of tuberculosis, and several susceptibility genes and loci were found, which provids important clues to the early intervention and treatment of tuberculosis. However, due to difference in the population structure and host-pathogen interactions, GWAS on tuberculosis faces great challenges. In this review, we introduced the achievements of GWAS on tuberculosis, and illustrated challenges and strategies in the future study.


Li H.,Ningbo University | Jia Z.,Zhejiang University
Advanced Materials Research | Year: 2011

With the improvement of accuracy requirements for industrial products, the precise injection molding is replacing the traditional injection molding quickly and widely. Many factors influence the quality of injection-molded parts greatly, such as the property of the plastics, mold structure and the manufacturing accuracy, injecting machine and the injecting process parameters. In this paper, the work is emphasized for the influence of mold structure on the quality of injection-molded parts. Eight portions of injection mold are analyzed, including the cavities and cores, the guide components, the runner system, the ejection system, the side-core pulling mechanism, the temperature balance system, the venting system and the supporting parts. The structural characteristics of the above eight portions are presented. © (2011) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.


Qu C.,Ningbo University | Zhang Y.,Tianshui Normal University | Liu X.,Northwest University, China | Liu Y.,University of Texas at Arlington
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis | Year: 2014

In this paper, we study the orbital stability of the periodic peaked solitons of the generalized μ-Camassa-Holm equation with nonlocal cubic and quadratic nonlinearities. The equation is a μ-version of a linear combination of the Camassa-Holm equation and the modified Camassa-Holm equation. It is also integrable with the Lax-pair and bi-Hamiltonian structure and admits the single peakons and multi-peakons. By constructing an inequality related to the maximum and minimum of solutions with the conservation laws, we prove that, even in the case that the Camassa-Holm energy counteracts in part the modified Camassa-Holm energy, the shapes of periodic peakons are still orbitally stable under small perturbations in the energy space. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Ren Y.,Tsinghua University | Qiu X.,Tsinghua University | Yu T.,Hong Kong University of Science and Technology | Yu T.,Ningbo University
International Journal of Impact Engineering | Year: 2014

Comprised of cover ply, tensor ply and carrying ply, tensor skin is a kind of composite sandwich structure developed to improve the helicopter's crashworthiness in water impacts. In this study, a theoretical model is proposed to analyze the static and dynamic response of a kind of tensor skin. The whole response of tensor skin is divided into three stages: an elastic deformation stage of the whole beam; an unfolding stage of the tensor ply; and a stretching stage of the tensor ply. At the beginning of impact, the whole beam undergoes elastic deformation until the breakage of the cover and carrying plies; then the tensor ply left is unfolded and stretched to absorb more impact kinetic energy. In the unfolding stage, by adopting the rigid, perfectly plastic material idealization, a deformation mechanism with stationary plastic hinges is proposed. It is found that the static critical pressure first decreases then increases with the increasing central deflection. The static critical pressure varies with the geometric parameters, but the total energy dissipated in the unfolding stage is independent of the geometric parameters. The residual kinetic energy at the end of unfolding stage will be dissipated by the plastic stretching. The dynamic responses of the tensor skin are analyzed for step loaded pressure and rectangular pressure pulse. It is verified that the theoretical predictions display very good agreement with the corresponding finite element simulations. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Yu W.L.,Ningbo University
Zhongguo gu shang = China journal of orthopaedics and traumatology | Year: 2013

To explore the feasibility and clinical efficacy of unilateral pedicle screw fixation with transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) for the treatment of far lateral lumbar disc herniation. From January 2007 to January 2011, 18 patients with far lateral lumbar disc herniation underwent a unilateral TLIF procedure in conjunction with posterior unilateral pedicle screw fixation. There were 13 males and 5 females,ranging in age from 42 to 73 years (means 58.5 years). All cases had single segment involved 5 cases in L3, 4, 10 cases in L4,5,3 cases in LSS. The visual analog scale (VAS) of low back pain and leg pain and Oswestry Disability Index scores were observed in postoperative and followed-up period, and compared with preoperative. The operation of 18 patients was successful,there were no severe complication. The average operative time was 105 min (85 to 125 min), the average amount of blood loss was 145 ml (90 to 340 ml). During the followed-up, the visual analog scale and Oswestry disability index scores were significant improved compared with preoperative (P < 0.05). All patients were followed up from 12 to 48 months with an average of 23 months, there was no implant break and displacement in postoperative X-ray. The surgical procedure of unilateral pedicle screw fixation with transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion had the advantage including less invasion, quickly recovery, short operative time, and saving fixation cost, it may provide an alternative treatment for patients with far lateral lumbar disc herniation.


Chen J.K.,Ningbo University | Kim B.,University of Plymouth | Li L.Y.,University of Plymouth
International Journal of Structural Stability and Dynamics | Year: 2014

This paper presents an analytical study on the dynamic characteristics of castellated beams. The study focuses on the effect of web shear on the free vibration frequencies of castellated beams. By using the Hamilton's principle, a simple closed-form solution for determining the free vibration frequencies of simply supported castellated beams is developed. The results show that the shear effect on the free vibration frequencies increases with the cross-sectional area and distance between the centroids of the two tee sections of castellated beams, but decreases with respect to increasing web thickness or increasing beam length. The shear effect is also found to be greater in higher vibration modes. © 2014 World Scientific Publishing Company.


Wang Y.,Ningbo University | Wang Y.,Southern Polytechnic State University | Lang H.,University of British Columbia | De Silva C.W.,University of British Columbia
IEEE/ASME Transactions on Mechatronics | Year: 2010

This paper develops a robust vision-based mobile manipulation system for wheeled mobile robots (WMRs). In particular, this paper addresses the retention of visual features in the field of view of the camera, which is an important robustness issue in visual servoing. First, the classical approach of image-based visual servoing (IBVS) for fixed-base manipulators is extended to WMRs and a control law with Lyapunov stability is determined. Second, in order to guarantee visibility of visual features, an innovative controller with machine learning using Q-learning is proposed, which can learn its behavior policy and autonomously improve its performance. Third, a hybrid controller for robust mobile manipulation is developed to integrate the IBVS controller and the Q-learning controller through a rule-based arbitrator. This is thought to be the first paper that integrates reinforcement learning or Q-learning with visual servoing to achieve robust operation. Experiments are carried out to validate the approaches developed in this paper. The experimental results show that the new hybrid controller developed here possesses the capabilities of self-learning and fast response, and provides a balanced performance with respect to robustness and accuracy. © 2006 IEEE.


Zhou Q.-C.,Ningbo University | Wang Y.-L.,Guangdong Ocean University | Wang H.-L.,Guangdong Evergreen Group Corporation | Tan B.-P.,Guangdong Ocean University
Aquaculture | Year: 2013

An 8-week feeding trial was conducted to determine the dietary threonine requirement of juvenile Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei. Six isonitrogenous and isolipidic practical diets (43% crude protein and 7.5% crude lipid) were formulated to contain graded dietary threonine levels ranging from 1.07% to 2.30% (dry weight). In all of the diets, the nitrogen content of the amino acids was kept the same by replacing threonine with a non-essential amino acid mixture. Each diet was randomly assigned to triplicate groups of 40 juvenile shrimp (approximately 0.53. g) that were fed 4 times daily to apparent satiation. The results indicated that significant difference was observed in the weight gain among all treatments. Maximum weight gain was obtained at 1.67% dietary threonine; however, weight gain did not significantly increase with further dietary threonine increases. The survival of the shrimps showed no significant differences among all treatments. Feed efficiency, protein efficiency ratio and protein productive value were also significantly influenced by the dietary threonine levels, and the trends were similar to those of growth performance. There were no significant differences among dry matter, crude protein, crude lipid or ash content in the whole body and muscle composition. Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and phenoloxidase (PO) activities in hemolymph were significantly affected by dietary threonine levels. Shrimp fed the diet containing 2.30% threonine had higher AST and ALT values than those fed the other diets; however, the highest SOD and PO activities were observed at 2.05% dietary threonine. The optimal dietary threonine requirement, estimated by a broken-line model based on SGR, was 1.51% of the dry diet (corresponding to 3.53% of dietary protein on a dry-weight basis). Considering the threonine leaching loss in seawater within 30. min (duration of feeding each time), the threonine requirement for L. vannamei is 1.18% of dry diet (2.81% of the dietary protein). © 2013 Elsevier B.V.


Hu Z.,Ningbo University
WSEAS Transactions on Computers | Year: 2012

With the quick development of network, how to locate or lookup the resources in peer-to-peer network becomes a hot spot. Having analyzed disadvantages of current peer-to-peer networks, AVLNet, a new peer-to-peer network, is set forth. AVLNet topologizes peer-to-peer overlay network as a balanced binary tree. Each node in AVLNet only holds the information of its parent and children, which solves the problems caused by status parameters in unstructured network. What's more, AVLNet also weakens the relationship of nodes as in structured network, which solves the problems of frequent hashing. The paper designs peer checking in, checking out and searching strategy of AVLNet in algorithm, and implements it based on JXTA platform, which proofs the correctness and feasibility of AVLNet network both in theory and practice. What's more, it simulates AVLNet, Gnutella and Chord by MatLab, compares the performance of inexact searching in three networks and shows the advantages of AVLNet.


Li X.,Xiamen University | Ding C.,Xiamen University | Zhu Q.,Ningbo University
Journal of the Franklin Institute | Year: 2010

In this paper, we study the synchronization problem of a class of chaotic neural networks with time-varying delays and unbounded distributed delays under stochastic perturbations. By using LyapunovKrasovskii functional, drive-response concept, output coupling with delay feedback and linear matrix inequality (LMI) approach, we obtain some sufficient conditions in terms of LMIs ensuring the exponential synchronization of the addressed neural networks. The feedback controllers can be easily obtained by solving the derived LMIs. Moreover, the main results are generalizations of some recent results reported in the literature. A numerical example is also provided to demonstrate the effectiveness and applicability of the obtained results. © 2010 The Franklin Institute. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Xu J.,Weil Institute of Critical Care Medicine | Xu J.,Ningbo University | Sun S.,Weil Institute of Critical Care Medicine | Sun S.,University of Southern California | And 6 more authors.
Critical Care Medicine | Year: 2015

Objectives: Cardiac arrest and resuscitation are models of whole body ischemia reperfusion injury. Postresuscitation myocardial and cerebral dysfunction are major causes of high mortality and morbidity. Remote ischemic postconditioning has been proven to provide potent protection of the heart and brain against ischemia reperfusion injury. In this study, we investigated the effects of remote ischemic postconditioning on postresuscitation myocardial and cerebral function in a rat model of cardiac arrest and resuscitation. Design: Prospective, randomized, controlled experimental study. Setting: University-affiliated animal research institution. Subjects: Twenty-eight healthy male Sprague-Dawley rats. Interventions: The animals were randomized into four groups: 1) remote ischemic preconditioning initiated 40 minutes before induction of ventricular fibrillation, 2) remote ischemic postconditioning initiated coincident with the start of cardiopulmonary resuscitation, 3) remote ischemic postconditioning initiated 5 minutes after successful resuscitation, and 4) control. Remote ischemic pre- and postconditioning was induced by four cycles of 5 minutes of limb ischemia, followed by 5 minutes of reperfusion. Ventricular fibrillation was induced and untreated for 6 minutes while defibrillation was attempted after 8 minutes of cardiopulmonary resuscitation. The animals were then monitored for 4 hours and observed for an additional 68 hours after resuscitation. Measurements and Main Results: Hemodynamic measurements and myocardial function, including cardiac output, left ventricular ejection fraction, and myocardial performance index, were measured at baseline and hourly for 4 hours after resuscitation. Postresuscitation cerebral function was evaluated by neurologic deficit score at 24-hour intervals for a total of 72 hours. Consequently, significantly better myocardial and cerebral function with a longer duration of survival were observed in the three groups treated with remote ischemic pre- and postconditioning. Conclusions: In a rat model of cardiac arrest and resuscitation, remote ischemic pre-and postconditioning attenuated postresuscitation myocardial and cerebral dysfunction and improved the duration of survival.


Zhu Q.,Ningbo University | Yang X.,Honghe University | Wang H.,South China Normal University
Journal of the Franklin Institute | Year: 2010

In this paper we study stochastic stability of delayed recurrent neural networks with both Markovian jump parameters and nonlinear disturbances. Based on the Lyapunov stability theory, the properties of a Brownian motion, the generalized It's formula and linear matrix inequalities technique, some new delay-dependent conditions are derived to guarantee the stochastically asymptotic stability of the trivial solution or zero solution. In particular, the activation functions in this paper depend on Markovian jump parameters and they are more general than those usual Lipschitz conditions. Also, time delays proposed in this paper comprise both constant delays and time-varying delays. Moreover, the derivative of time delays is allowed to take any value. Therefore, the results obtained in this paper are less conservatism and generalize those given in the previous literature. Finally, two numerical examples and their simulations are used to show the effectiveness of the obtained results. © 2010 The Franklin Institute. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Zhu Q.,Ningbo University | Song B.,Nanjing Institute of Technology
Nonlinear Analysis: Real World Applications | Year: 2011

This paper is concerned with the problem of exponential stability for a class of impulsive nonlinear stochastic differential equations with mixed time delays. By applying the LyapunovKrasovskii functional, Dynkin formula and Razumikhin technique with a stochastic version as well as the linear matrix inequalities (LMIs) technique, some novel sufficient conditions are derived to ensure the exponential stability of the trivial solution in the mean square. The obtained results generalize and improve some recent results. In particular, our results are expressed in terms of LMIs, and thus they are more easily verified and applied in practice. Finally, a numerical example and its simulation are given to illustrate the theoretical results. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Sun C.,Zhejiang University | Fu J.,Zhejiang University | Chen J.,Ningbo University | Jiang L.,Zhejiang University | Pan Y.,Zhejiang University
Journal of Separation Science | Year: 2010

A practical approach for rapidly screening antioxidants against superoxide anion radicals from complex mixtures was developed based on the quantitative difference in active compounds before and after their reaction. To test the effectiveness of the approach, seven flavonoids with antioxidative properties were investigated both individually and in a mixture. Using the approach, antioxidants could be rapidly separated and screened with a ranked order of activities in the meantime. The radical scavenging activities were in the following order: quercetin > kaempferol > fisetin > puerarin > luteolin > rutin > baicalein. The order of activity was conducted by comparing the scavenging ratio of the antioxidant, which was completely consistent with the results obtained from the traditional electronic spin resonance. Then, the method was successfully applied to black tea extracts. This approach is fast and convenient for screening, isolating, and analyzing potential antioxidants from a mixture with good quantitative and reproducible ability. © 2010 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.


Chiu Y.-J.,Ningbo University | Chen D.-Z.,National Taiwan University
International Journal of Mechanical Sciences | Year: 2011

The influence on coupling vibrations among shaft-torsion and blade-bending coupling vibrations of a multi-disk rotor system was investigated analytically. The natural frequencies and the mode shapes of the system were solved for one- to three-disk cases as examples. First, numerical results showed how the natural frequencies varied with blades in a disk unit. The diagrams of the coupling mode shapes were drawn. From the results, it was found that the inter-blade (BB) modes were of repeated frequencies of (Nb-1) multiplicity for number blades. At multi-disk unit, the shaftblade (SB) modes added to Nd modes for number disks. The BB modes were of repeated frequencies of [N d×(Nb1)] multiplicity for number disks. Numerical calculations also revealed that the natural frequencies were affected by disk distance. In the rotation effect, the times of instability will due to the number of disk. And, the more disk rotor causes instability earlier than the less disk case. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Pan D.,Ningbo University | Pan D.,Nanjing Normal University | Mei X.,Nanjing Normal University
Carbohydrate Polymers | Year: 2010

A novel exopolysaccharide (EPS) was obtained by ultra-filtration, ion exchange and sizing chromatography from a culture of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis 12. The EPS was mainly composed of fructose and rhamnose with a mean molecular weight of 6.9 × 10 5 Da. The EPS and its antioxidant properties were evaluated in vitro and in vivo. The EPS displayed strong antioxidant effects, exhibited the ability to scavenge hydroxyl and superoxide anion radicals, and significantly decreased the level of malondialdehyde (MDA), even while increasing the activity of catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in mice in a dose-dependent manner. The results suggest that the EPS has direct and potent antioxidant properties. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Hu B.,Ningbo University | Hu B.,Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Part Rolling Technology
Applied Mechanics and Materials | Year: 2014

The paper is based on the newest hollow railway axle, which utilizes the Pro/E designed multi-wedge cross wedge rolling (MCWR) model, utilizes the finite element analysis software DEFORM-3D to complete the numerical simulation about the whole stage of the hollow railway axle forming process, and analyzes the strain rule at the broadening stage of the hollow railway axle, especially conducts a detailed research on forming character into the strain rule at the multi-wedge transition stage, and finally gets the strain forming mechanism of the hollow railway axle at the broadening stage. The result of the research on the strain rule poses great scientific significance on enhancing the product quality and the production efficiency of the hollow railway axle, and improving the theory of multi-wedge cross wedge rolling. © (2014) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.


Hu J.,AuthorNingbo University | Cao R.,Ningbo University
Journal of Convergence Information Technology | Year: 2012

MOS Current-Mode Logic (MCML) is usually used for high-speed applications. However, the conventional dual-rail scheme of MCML circuits increases extra area overhead and the complexity of the layout place and route. In this paper, the design method of the single-rail MOS Current Mode Logic (SRMCML) based on the performance optimization algorithm is addressed. The basic SRMCML circuits, such as inverter/buffer, OR2/NOR2, and OR3/NOR3, are optimized in term of power dissipation and delay of the circuits by using the proposed performance optimization algorithms. As an example, D Flip-Flop (DFF) and decimal counter based on SRMCML are also optimized to verify the efficiency of the proposed performance optimization algorithms. All circuits are simulated with HSPICE at the SMIC 130 nm CMOS process. The results show that the SRMCML circuits can obtain low power dissipation and small powerdelay product by using the performance optimization algorithm.


Bu Z.-Y.,Ningbo University | Ou Y.-C.,National Taiwan University of Science and Technology
Advances in Structural Engineering | Year: 2013

Precast construction is an increasing trend of concrete bridge technology to fulfill the demand of innovative technique that yields accelerated, durable and safe bridge construction. Although precast bridge superstructures are widely used in bridge construction projects from the U. S. to Asia, precast substructures are seldom used. The lack of in-depth understanding of seismic behavior of precast substructures causes concern about their performance in high seismicity area. A simplified analytical method for pushover analysis of precast segmental concrete bridge columns is proposed in this study. The method is validated through comparison with test and fiber model analysis results. A parametric study is conducted to investigate the seismic behavior of precast segmental concrete bridge columns using the proposed simplified analytical method. The influences of the aspect ratio, axial load ratio and energy dissipation (ED) bar ratio on the force-displacement response characteristics, i.e., displacement ductility, joint opening drift, failure drift, maximum ED bar strain and concrete strain at the extreme compression fiber are investigated. The simplified analytical method shows superior ease for use with acceptable precision in comparison with the fiber model or three-dimensional finite element model.


He M.,Huazhong University of Science and Technology | He M.,Wuhan University of Science and Technology | Yuan L.,Huazhong University of Science and Technology | Hu X.,Huazhong University of Science and Technology | And 3 more authors.
Nanoscale | Year: 2013

A nanocluster composite assembled by interconnected ultrafine SnO 2-C core-shell (SnO2@C) nanospheres is successfully synthesized via a simple one-pot hydrothermal method and subsequent carbonization. As an anode material for lithium-ion batteries, the thus-obtained nano-construction can provide a three-dimensional transport access for fast transfer of electrons and lithium ions. With the mixture of sodium carboxyl methyl cellulose and styrene butadiene rubber as a binder, the SnO2@C nanocluster anode exhibits superior cycling stability and rate capability due to a stable electrode structure. Discharge capacity reaches as high as 1215 mA h g-1 after 200 cycles at a current density of 100 mA g-1. Even at 1600 mA g-1, the capacity is still 520 mA h g-1 and can be recovered up to 1232 mA h g-1 if the current density is turned back to 100 mA g-1. The superior performance can be ascribed to the unique core-shell structure. The ultrafine SnO2 core gives a high reactive activity and accommodates volume change during cycling; while the thin carbon shell improves electronic conductivity, suppresses particle aggregation, supplies a continuous interface for electrochemical reaction and alleviates mechanical stress from repeated lithiation of SnO2. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2013.


Yang N.,Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering | Gao Y.,Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering | Gao Y.,Ningbo University | Zhang Y.,Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering | And 2 more authors.
Talanta | Year: 2014

As a pathogenic factor of the Alzheimer's disease, aluminum has been associated with the damage of the central nervous system in humans. In this study, we propose a new facile and rapid colorimetric detection method of Al3+ with excellent selectivity and high sensitivity based on silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) stabilized by reduced glutathione (GSH) in the presence of l-cysteine (Cys). The new mechanism of our Al3+ detection system based on GSH-AgNPs, i.e., aggregation of smaller etched GSH-AgNPs, are confirmed by TEM, EDS and DLS. The aggregation of smaller etched GSH-AgNPs results in obvious color change of the nanoparticle dispersion from yellow to reddish brown, and red shift and intensity decrease of the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) absorption. The GSH concentration, Cys concentration and pH value of the GSH-AgNPRs-based detection system are respectively optimized to be 10.0 mM, 50.0 mM and 6.0 according to the sensing effect of Al3+. At the optimized conditions, the selectivity of the GSH-AgNPs detection system for Al 3+ is excellent compared with other ions including K+, Mg2+, Fe3+, Co2+, Mn2+, Zn 2+, Cd2+, Pb2+, Ca2+, Ba 2+, Cu2+, Cr3+, Hg2+, Ni 2+, Cr2O72-, SO4 2-, C2O42-, PO4 3- and CO32-. Furthermore, this detection system is very sensitive for Al3+. The limit of detection (LOD) is 1.2 μM by the naked eyes and 0.16 μM by UV-vis spectra, which are both much lower than the national drinking water standards (7.4 μM). Furthermore, the UV-vis detection offers a good linear detection range from 0.4 to 4.0 μM (R2=0.9924), which indicates that our developed detection system can also be used for the quantitative analysis of Al3+. The detection results of real water samples indicate that this method can be used for real water detection. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.


Fan H.-Y.,Ningbo University | Wang S.,Changzhou University | Hu L.-Y.,Jiangxi Normal University
Frontiers of Physics | Year: 2014

Using the way of deriving infinitive sum representation of density operator as a solution to the master equation describing the amplitude dissipative channel by virtue of the entangled state representation, we show manifestly how the initial density operator of a single-mode squeezed vacuum state evolves into a definite mixed state which turns out to be a squeezed chaotic state with decreasing-squeezing and decoherence. We investigate average photon number, photon statistics distributions for this mixed state. © 2014 Higher Education Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Chen H.,University of Tokyo | Chen H.,Fujitsu Limited | Wang G.,Ningbo University | Wang Z.,Stanford University | And 2 more authors.
IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications | Year: 2012

An unknown-position sensor can be localized if there are three or more anchors making time-of-arrival (TOA) measurements of a signal from it. However, the location errors can be very large due to the fact that some of the measurements are from non-line-of-sight (NLOS) paths. In this paper, a semi-definite programming (SDP) based node localization algorithm in NLOS environments is proposed for ultra-wideband (UWB) wireless sensor networks. The positions of sensors can be estimated using the distance estimates from location-aware anchors as well as other sensors. However, in the absence of line-of-sight (LOS) paths, e.g., in indoor networks, the NLOS range estimates can be significantly biased. As a result, the NLOS error can remarkably decrease the location accuracy, and it is not easy to accurately distinguish LOS from NLOS measurements. According to the information known about the prior probabilities and distributions of the NLOS errors, three different cases are introduced and the respective localization problems are addressed. Simulation results demonstrate that this algorithm achieves high location accuracy even for the case in which NLOS and LOS measurements are not identifiable. © 2012 IEEE.


Miao F.,Ningbo University | Sun G.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Chen K.,Shanghai JiaoTong University
International Journal of Mechanical Sciences | Year: 2013

This study extends the method of reverberation-ray matrix (MRRM) to analyze the transient response of a laminated composite beam subjected to an impulse force load. To validate the MRRM for this application, we first analyze the velocity response of a laminated cantilever beam model, then solve the transient responses of a laminated composite beam under a half-cycle pulse force and a rectangular pulse force using the MRRM. We present the reverberation-ray matrix of multi-reflected and scattered waves in the laminated composite beam, and analyze the influence of the impact load type and the axial-flexural coupling effects due to asymmetric ply stacking sequences. The effects of different beam models on the calculation results for transient responses are also emphasized. Compared with the finite element method, the proposed MRRM approach yields results that are in good agreement with previous findings, and the MRRM solution process is simpler, faster, and requires fewer computational elements. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Fan H.-Y.,Ningbo University | Chen Q.-F.,Anhui University of Science and Technology
Canadian Journal of Physics | Year: 2014

In the present work, the Kraus-operator sum representation of the exact solution to the master equation describing a harmonic oscillator (driven by an external source) damping in the diffusion-limited channel is obtained by virtue of the thermo-entangled state representation and the technique of integration within an ordered product of operators. According to this solution, the initial coherent state will evolve into a displaced chaotic state that manifestly exhibits quantum decoherence. © 2014 Published by NRC Research Press.


Peng G.,Ningbo University of Technology | Ye F.,Ningbo University of Technology | Ye Y.,Ningbo University
Water Environment Research | Year: 2013

The effects of microwave irradiation on filterability and dewaterability of waste activated sludge measured by capillary suction time (CST) and dry solids in sludge cake were investigated. The results showed that the optimum irradiation time improved filterability, but that further increase of the time was detrimental. Dewaterability was enhanced significantly and increased with microwave time. Filterability and dewaterability were improved 25 to 28% and 1.3 times at the optimum times of 30 and 90 seconds for the sludge of 5 g total suspended solids (TSS)/L and 7 g TSS/L, respectively. The floc size decreased slightly. Loosely bound extracellular polymeric substances (LB-EPS) decreased under optimum time, but tightly bound extracellular polymeric substances did not change significantly after short irradiation time. The results implied that LB-EPS played a more important role in the observed changes of filterability and dewaterability and that the double-layered extracellular polymeric substances extraction method showed marked implications to dewaterability.


Xie H.,East China University of Science and Technology | Xie H.,Ningbo University | Lu G.,East China University of Science and Technology
Journal of Luminescence | Year: 2014

Three new lanthanide complexes [Ln(dpphen)(L)(NO3)] (Ln=Tb(1), Eu(2), Nd(3), H2L=glutaric acid, dpphen=4,7-diphenyl-1,10- phenanthroline) have been synthesized hydrothermally by the reaction of H 2L, dpphen and Ln(III) ions. The X-ray diffraction analysis reveals that three coordination polymers have similar structures. The Ln(III) ions are nine coordinated and glutarate ligands bridge Ln(III) to form 1D polymer chains. The solid-state luminescence of complexes 1 and 2 was investigated at room temperature. The complexes 1 and 2 exhibited strong green and red luminescence under ultraviolet light. The 5D4→7F j (j=6, 5, 4 and 3) transition emissions of Tb(III) and the 5D0→7Fj (j=0-4) transition emissions of Eu(III) were observed in their emission spectra. The strong luminescence of complexes 1 and 2 demonstrates that luminescence of lanthanide coordination polymers is sensitized by an effective energy-transfer from dpphen ligand to Ln(III) ions. Moreover, the magnetic properties of complexes 1-3 were also investigated. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.


Peng X.,Ningbo University
Materials Science Forum | Year: 2011

Photoluminescence characteristics of CdSe/ZnS quantum dot (QD) doped fibers in different matrices (toluene and poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) sol) are investigated in this paper. The photoluminescence (PL) spectra of the QD doped fiber with different fiber lengths and doped concentrations are measured. Effects of the doped concentration and fiber length on the spectra are also discussed. Compared with the measured PL spectra of CdSe/ZnS QD before doping in the fiber in different matrices, there are different red shifts after the QD is doped into the fiber due to re-absorption/excitation effects. The transportation loss of the fiber is related with such red shifts.


Tong C.,Ningbo University
Journal of Chemical Physics | Year: 2010

The effective interactions between two test counterions and two test solvent dipoles in a semidilute/concentrated weakly charged polyelectrolyte solution are studied using the field-theoretical approach on the mean-field level. From the effective Hamiltonians in terms of the two test counterions and the two test solvent dipoles, respectively, analytical expressions for the effective interactions in the real space are derived. It is unambiguously demonstrated that, at a solvent condition, both the effective interactions between two counterions and two parallel-oriented solvent dipoles consist of an attractive part at intermediate distances of separation. As the electrostatic screening effect from counterions and salt ions quantified by the Debye-Hückel screening parameter becomes stronger, the magnitude of the attraction decreases and the minimum of the attractive profile shift to a shorter distance of separation. On the other hand, when the excluded volume effect is dominant, the effective interactions are purely repulsive. This nontrivial and seemingly counterintuitive result originates from the finite size effect of the monomer units of the polymer chains on the electrostatics of the polyelectrolyte solution. As the size of the monomer units goes to zero, at the solvent condition, the effective interactions between two counterions and two parallel-oriented solvent dipoles are purely repulsive. © 2010 American Institute of Physics.


Duan X.M.,Ningbo University | Stampfl C.,University of Sydney | Bilek M.M.M.,University of Sydney | McKenzie D.R.,University of Sydney | Wei S.-H.,National Renewable Energy Laboratory
Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics | Year: 2011

We perform first-principles density-functional theory calculations to study the atomic and electronic properties of early transition metals (Zr, Ti, Y, and Sc) codoped with N in wurtzite ZnO. By incorporating early transition metals Ti, Zr, Y, and Sc with N into ZnO simultaneously, we find that forming complexes (Zr-2N), (Ti-2N), (Y-N), and (Sc-N) induces fully occupied impurity bands with the N 2p character above the valence band maximum of host ZnO. With further doping of N in ZnO, the systems (Zr-2N):N, (Ti-2N):N, (Y-N):N, or (Sc-N):N have acceptor ionization energies lower than that of the isolated N acceptor in ZnO. Under different growth conditions (i.e., using an N2O or NO source for the nitrogen atoms), we calculate the formation energies of the defect complexes and compare the dopability of the selected codoped systems. Our results show that the valence band maximum characteristic of ZnO can be altered by compensated donor-acceptor pairs, thus improving the p-type dopability. © 2011 American Physical Society.


Zhu H.B.,Ningbo University
Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications | Year: 2010

Based on the cellular automaton traffic flow model and the concept of public transport priority, a two-lane traffic model with an intermittent bus lane is proposed and the properties of urban traffic flow are studied. The cases of traffic with a dedicated bus lane (DBL), an intermittent bus lane (IBL) and an ordinary two-lane traffic are simulated, and comparisons in the form of the fundamental diagrams and the velocity-density profiles are made between them. It is shown that the DBL has the advantage of freeing buses from traffic interference and also has the disadvantage of disrupting traffic, the IBL is more efficient in improving the bus flow than ordinary two-lane traffic and maintaining the car flow at a higher level at the same time than the DBL, while the ordinary two-lane traffic suppresses public transportation and is not advantageous in easing urban traffic congestion. Also it is indicated that the DBL is only appropriate for low traffic flow in a two-lane traffic system, and this limitation can be partly overcome by opening the bus lane to general traffic intermittently when the bus lane is not in use by buses. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Li J.-H.,Ningbo University | Luczka J.,University of Silesia
Physical Review E - Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics | Year: 2010

Transport properties of a Brownian particle in thermal-inertial ratchets subject to an external time-oscillatory drive and a constant bias force are investigated. Since the phenomena of negative mobility, resonant activation and noise-enhance stability were reported before, in the present paper, we report some additional aspects of negative mobility, resonant activation and noise-enhance stability, such as the ingredients for the appearances of these phenomena, multiple resonant activation peaks, current reversals, noise-weakened stability, and so on. © 2010 The American Physical Society.


Liang X.-T.,Ningbo University
Physical Review E - Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics | Year: 2010

In this paper, we investigate the non-Markovian dynamics of a model to mimic the excitation energy transfer (EET) between chromophores in photosynthesis systems. The numerical path integral method is used. This method includes the non-Markovian effects of the environmental affects, and it does not need the perturbation approximation in solving the dynamics of systems of interest. It implies that the coherence helps the EET between chromophores through lasting the transfer time rather than enhancing the transfer rate of the EET. In particular, the non-Markovian environment greatly increases the efficiency of the EET in the photosynthesis systems. © 2010 The American Physical Society.


Shi D.,Shanghai University | Zhou H.,Ningbo University | Liu L.,Hong Kong Polytechnic University
Physical Review E - Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics | Year: 2010

Currently, simulation is usually used to estimate network degree distribution P (k) and to examine if a network model predicts a scale-free network when an analytical formula does not exist. An alternative Markovian chain-based numerical method was proposed by Shi [Phys. Rev. E 71, 036140 (2005)]10.1103/PhysRevE.71.036140 to compute time-dependent degree distribution P (k,t). Although the numerical results demonstrate a quick convergence of P (k,t) to P (k) for the Barabási-Albert model, the crucial issue on the rate of convergence has not been addressed formally. In this paper, we propose a simpler Markovian iterative method to compute P (k,t) for a class of growing network models. We also provide an upper bound estimation of the error of using P (k,t) to represent P (k) for sufficiently large t, and we show that with the iterative method, the rate of convergence of P (k,t) is root linear. © 2010 The American Physical Society.


Shouzhen Z.,Ningbo University
Cybernetics and Systems | Year: 2016

We present the uncertain OWA distance (UOWAD) operator. It is an extension of the OWA distance (OWAD) operator for uncertain situations in which the available information is given in the form of interval numbers. We study some of their main properties and different particular cases. We further generalize the UOWAD operator by using quasi-arithmetic means, obtaining the quasi-arithmetic UOWAD (Quasi-UOWAD) operator. We also present its application to multiple-attribute group decision-making (MAGDM) problems with interval numbers. Finally, an illustrative numerical example is used to verify the developed approaches. © 2016 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.


Wei W.-H.,Chongqing University | Wei W.-H.,Australian National University | Fang L.,Chongqing University | Shen X.,Ningbo University | Wang R.-P.,Australian National University
Physica Status Solidi (B) Basic Research | Year: 2013

The crystallization kinetics of Ge-Sb-Se chalcogenide glasses prepared by melt-quenching method was investigated using differential scanning calorimetry under non-isothermal conditions with several different heating rates. Kissinger's equation and Matusita model were employed to analyze kinetic crystallization behavior of the glasses. The crystallization parameters were calculated and the crystallization mechanism was studied. The results indicate that the crystallization activation energy increases rapidly at the glass with a mean coordination number (MCN) of 2.4, and reaches its maximum at MCN of 2.65. These two transition thresholds correspond to the structural phase transition in the glassy network. The evolution of the glass transition temperature (Tg), activation energy for crystallization (Ec), glass forming ability and thermal ability as functions of MCN and chemical composition might have substantial implication on screening the best glass for the application in photonics. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


Cheng X.-P.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Cheng X.-P.,Zhejiang Ocean University | Chen C.-L.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Lou S.Y.,East China Normal University | Lou S.Y.,Ningbo University
Wave Motion | Year: 2014

In nonlinear science, the interactions among solitons are well studied because the multiple soliton solutions can be obtained by various effective methods. However, it is very difficult to study interactions among different types of nonlinear waves such as the solitons (or solitary waves), the cnoidal periodic waves and Painlevé waves. In this paper, taking the Kadomtsev-Petviashvili (KP) equation as an illustration model, a new method is established to find interactions among different types of nonlinear waves. The nonlocal symmetries related to the Darboux transformation (DT) of the KP equation is localized after embedding the original system to an enlarged one. Then the DT is used to find the corresponding group invariant solutions. It is shown that the essential and unique role of the DT is to add an additional soliton on a Boussinesq-type wave or a KdV-type wave, which are two basic reductions of the KP equation. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.


Zhong C.,Tongji University | Zhong C.,Key Laboratory of Embedded System | Zhong C.,Ningbo University | Miao D.,Tongji University | And 3 more authors.
Pattern Recognition | Year: 2010

Many clustering approaches have been proposed in the literature, but most of them are vulnerable to the different cluster sizes, shapes and densities. In this paper, we present a graph-theoretical clustering method which is robust to the difference. Based on the graph composed of two rounds of minimum spanning trees (MST), the proposed method (2-MSTClus) classifies cluster problems into two groups, i.e. separated cluster problems and touching cluster problems, and identifies the two groups of cluster problems automatically. It contains two clustering algorithms which deal with separated clusters and touching clusters in two phases, respectively. In the first phase, two round minimum spanning trees are employed to construct a graph and detect separated clusters which cover distance separated and density separated clusters. In the second phase, touching clusters, which are subgroups produced in the first phase, can be partitioned by comparing cuts, respectively, on the two round minimum spanning trees. The proposed method is robust to the varied cluster sizes, shapes and densities, and can discover the number of clusters. Experimental results on synthetic and real datasets demonstrate the performance of the proposed method. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Xu D.,Tongji University | Xu D.,Ningbo University of Technology | Wang R.,Ningbo University | Wang J.,Tongji University
Journal of Real-Time Image Processing | Year: 2012

In this paper, a data-hiding algorithm with large data payload for H. 264/AVC is proposed. The secret information is embedded by modulating the prediction modes of 4 × 4 luminance blocks. If the best mode does not match the information bit, the prediction mode should be modulated by replacing the best mode with the substitute mode. The substitute mode is the one with the least Lagrangian cost among those having different parity with the best mode. Due to high secrecy and easy reproducibility of chaos, the secret information is first encrypted by a chaotic sequence and then a small number of luminance blocks used for data embedding are randomly selected in each macroblock based on another chaotic sequence. The usefulness of multilevel chaotic keys and privacy of the number of 4 × 4 luminance blocks enhance the security. The hidden information can be extracted directly from the encoded stream without resorting to the original video, and merely requires decoding the intra-prediction mode from bit stream rather than decoding the whole video. Experimental results show that the proposed hiding scheme can effectively embed information with little bit rate increase and almost no quality degradation. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.


Wang X.,Xian Jiaotong University | Xu Z.,Xian Jiaotong University | Li Z.,Xian Jiaotong University | Chen H.,Ningbo University
Solid State Communications | Year: 2010

The bulk single crystals Pb(In1/2Nb1/2)O 3-Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO 3(PIN-PMN-PT) were grown spontaneously using the Bridgman method. The properties of as-grown PIN-PMN-PT single crystals along the growth direction were measured: along the crystal length, its structure was transformed from the mixed phase to tetragonal phase; the piezoelectric constants d33 of (001) and (110) samples decreased from 1900 to 1100 pC/N, and from 1200 to 500 pC/N respectively; the Curie temperature Tc increased from 206.0 to 223.4 °C; and the melting as well as crystallizing points all decreased by about 25-30 °C. These phenomena indicated the inhomogeneous properties of the PIN-PMN-PT single crystals. The experiment of elemental analysis verified that gradually increasing the concentration of the cation Ti along the growth direction would result in unstable properties of the crystal. Apparently, such a disadvantage decreased the effective ratio of the PIN-PMN-PT single crystal, and would further limit its applications. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Guo Y.Q.,Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering | Tan R.Q.,Ningbo University | Li Y.,Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering | Song W.J.,Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering
Applied Surface Science | Year: 2012

SnO 2 crystals with various morphologies were prepared by a facile hydrothermal method in the simple solution systems of SnCl 2 and SnCl 4, respectively. This process was carried out under mild conditions and required no high-temperature heat treatment. The morphological evolution with the preparation conditions was investigated. Various self-assembled hierarchical structures including microspheres assembled with nanoparticles, oriented nanocones, and flower-like, cabbage-like structures consisting of single-crystalline nanosheets were obtained by varying the solvent and the introduction of polyethylene glycol. A possible mechanism for the formation of the spherical hierarchically structures assembled by cone-like nanocrystals was proposed. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Zheng Z.-W.,Ningbo University | Zheng Z.-W.,Dalian Maritime University
IEEE Transactions on Broadcasting | Year: 2012

As an effective technique for combating multipath fading and for high-bit-rate transmission over wireless channels, orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) is extensively used in modern digital television terrestrial broadcasting (DTTB) systems to support high performance bandwidth-efficient multimedia services. Chinese digital television terrestrial broadcasting standard recommends three kinds of Frame Head mode with PN420/PN595/PN945 as training sequences for the time domain synchronous OFDM (TDS-OFDM) based Digital Terrestrial Multimedia Broadcasting (DTMB) systems. At the receiver side, Frame Head mode detection and symbol detection should be done before subsequent synchronization and channel estimation. In this paper, a Frame Head mode detection and symbol detection scheme robust to carrier frequency offset is proposed for the TDS-OFDM based DTMB systems. Performance studies under different channel situations are used to verify the efficiency of the proposed scheme. © 2012 IEEE.


Zhu Z.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Zhu Z.,Changsha University of Science and Technology | Yu H.,Ningbo University | Wang B.,Shanghai JiaoTong University
Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics | Year: 2012

We demonstrate that the thermal Casimir-Polder forces on molecules near a conducting surface whose transition wavelengths are comparable to the molecule-surface separation are dependent on the ambient temperature and molecular polarization and they can even be changed from attractive to repulsive by varying the temperature across a threshold value for anisotropically polarizable molecules. Remarkably, this attractive-to-repulsive transition may be realized at room temperature. Let us note that the predicted repulsion is essentially a nonequilibrium effect since the force we calculated on a ground-state (or an excited-stated) molecule actually contains the contribution of the absorption (or emission) of thermal photons. © 2012 American Physical Society.


Li Y.,University of Leipzig | Niessen M.,University of Leipzig | Chen X.,Ningbo University | Hartmann U.,University of Leipzig
International Journal of Sports Medicine | Year: 2014

A fixed blood lactate value of 4mM was commonly used to calculate workload at maximal lactate steady state (MLSS) in kayaking. Our purpose was to measure the actual blood lactate value at MLSS and workload at MLSS in kayaking and assess the validity of using a fixed blood lactate value to calculate the workload at MLSS. 8 junior kayakers (15.1±1.2 years; 179.9±7.3cm; 72.3±4.9kg) participated in an incremental workload test and 4-6 sub-maximal constant workload tests (duration of 30min) on a kayaking ergometer. Blood lactate was measured to calculate the blood lactate value and workload at MLSS. The blood lactate value at MLSS in kayaking was 5.4±0.7mM. The measured workload at MLSS (112±22 watts) was significantly greater than the calculated workload using a lactate value of 4mM (104±18 watts, p=0.016). The measured MLSS workload was not significantly different from the calculated workload using a fixed lactate value of 5.4mM (115±19 watts, p=0.16) or 5.0mM (113±19 watts, p=0.78) in the incremental tests. A fixed blood lactate value of 5mM instead of 4mM might be a better estimate in kayaking given the incremental workload test used in this study. © 2014 Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart.


Qian F.Z.,East China Normal University | Jiang J.S.,East China Normal University | Jiang D.M.,East China Normal University | Zhang W.G.,East China Normal University | Liu J.H.,Ningbo University
Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics | Year: 2010

Bi0.8Dy0.2-xLaxFeO3 (BDLFO x) (x = 0, 0.10 and 0.20 respectively) nanoparticles were prepared by the ethylene glycol based sol-gel method. The influence of the average radius and the effective magnetic moment of Bi-site ion on the structure, magnetic and dielectric properties, and the effective magnetic susceptibility of BDLFO x nanoparticles was investigated. All the samples were indexed to the orthorhombic structure based on the results of x-ray diffraction. The grain size of the samples increased with the increase in Bi-site ionic average radius. The magnetization of the samples was found to decrease with the effective magnetic moment of Bi-site ion decreasing. The dielectric constant and loss were improved when the Bi-site ionic average radius decreased and the effective magnetic moment of the Bi-site ions increased. The enhanced magnetization M and the polarization P in nanoparticles made the effective magnetic susceptibility of the samples greatly enhanced, in particular for the sample of x = 0. Therefore we concluded that the small amount of substitution of Bi3+ ions by trivalent rare-earth ions with a smaller ionic radius than Bi 3+ ion and a high magnetic moment in the nano-system was a way to improve the multiferroic properties of BiFeO3. © 2010 IOP Publishing Ltd.


Wang H.,Huazhong University of Science and Technology | Hu Y.,Huazhong University of Science and Technology | Wang J.,Ningbo University
IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control | Year: 2013

We studied the weakly nonlinear behaviors of a simply-supported multilayer circular piezoelectric plate-like transformer (MCPPT) operating near resonance, where the MCPPT consists of a multilayer circular piezoelectric compound plate with four piezoelectric layers polarized in different directions. Nonlinear effects of large deformations near resonance are considered; it is shown that on one side of the resonant frequency, the output¿input relation becomes nonlinear, and the other side, the output voltage becomes multivalued. © 1986-2012 IEEE.


Pan X.-Y.,Ningbo University | Sahni V.,Brooklyn College
Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics | Year: 2012

The Hohenberg-Kohn theorem is generalized to the case of a finite system of N electrons in external electrostatic E(r)=-v(r) and magnetostatic B(r)=×A(r) fields in which the interaction of the latter with both the orbital and spin angular momentum is considered. For a nondegenerate ground state a bijective relationship is proved between the gauge invariant density ρ(r) and physical current density j(r) and the potentials {v(r),A(r)}. The possible many-to-one relationship between the potentials {v(r),A(r)} and the wave function is explicitly accounted for in the proof. With the knowledge that the basic variables are {ρ(r),j(r)}, and explicitly employing the bijectivity between {ρ(r),j(r)} and {v(r),A(r)}, the further extension to N-representable densities and degenerate states is achieved via a Percus-Levy-Lieb constrained-search proof. A {ρ(r),j(r)}-functional theory is developed. Finally, a Slater determinant of equidensity orbitals which reproduces a given {ρ(r),j(r)} is constructed. © 2012 American Physical Society.


Ge H.-X.,Ningbo University | Cheng R.-J.,Zhejiang University
Chinese Physics B | Year: 2014

Fractional diffusion equations have been the focus of modeling problems in hydrology, biology, viscoelasticity, physics, engineering, and other areas of applications. In this paper, a meshfree method based on the moving Kriging interpolation is developed for a two-dimensional time-fractional diffusion equation. The shape function and its derivatives are obtained by the moving Kriging interpolation technique. For possessing the Kronecker delta property, this technique is very efficient in imposing the essential boundary conditions. The governing time-fractional diffusion equations are transformed into a standard weak formulation by the Galerkin method. It is then discretized into a meshfree system of time-dependent equations, which are solved by the standard central difference method. Numerical examples illustrating the applicability and effectiveness of the proposed method are presented and discussed in detail. © 2014 Chinese Physical Society and IOP Publishing Ltd.


Sahni V.,Brooklyn College | Pan X.-Y.,Ningbo University
Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics | Year: 2012

The premise of density-functional theory is that knowledge of the ground-state density uniquely determines the Hamiltonian, and thereby, via solution of the corresponding time-independent Schrödinger equation, all the properties of the system. The density therefore constitutes a basic variable of quantum mechanics. There are at present two paths from the density to the Hamiltonian: the Hohenberg and Kohn proof of the bijectivity between the external potential and the basic variable, and the Percus, Levy, and Lieb constrained-search proof. We argue the Hohenberg- and Kohn-type proof to be the more fundamental, and that this is the case in general when both external electrostatic and magnetostatic fields are present, and the basic variables are the ground-state density and physical current density. © 2012 American Physical Society.


Kang J.,Northwest University, China | Qu C.-Z.,Ningbo University
Chinese Physics Letters | Year: 2012

We study the Gauss kernels for a class of (2+1)-dimensional linear Schrödinger equations with potential functions. The relationship between the Lie point symmetries and Gauss kernels for the Schrödinger equations is established. It is shown that a classical integral transformation of the Gauss kernel can be generated by a proper Lie point symmetry admitted by the equation. Then we can recover the Gauss kernels for the Schrödinger equations by performing the inverse integral transformation. © 2012 Chinese Physical Society and IOP Publishing Ltd.


Zhou W.,Hunan Normal University | Yu H.,Hunan Normal University | Yu H.,Ningbo University
Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics | Year: 2012

We study the spontaneous excitation of a uniformly accelerated two-level atom nonlinearly coupled to vacuum Dirac field fluctuations using the formalism proposed by Dalibard, Dupont-Roc, and Cohen-Tannoudji and generalized by us to the present case in the current paper. We find that a cross term involving both vacuum fluctuations and radiation reaction appears, which is absent in the linear coupling cases such as an atom interacting with vacuum scalar or electromagnetic fluctuations. Furthermore, the contribution of this term actually dominates over that of radiation reaction. Thus, the mean rate of change of the atomic energy can no longer be distinctively separated into only the contributions of vacuum fluctuations and radiation reaction as in the scalar and electromagnetic cases where the coupling is linear. Our result shows that a uniformly accelerated atom interacting with vacuum Dirac fluctuations would spontaneously excite and a unique feature in sharp contrast to the scalar and electromagnetic cases is the appearance of a term in the excitation rate, which is proportional to the quartic acceleration. © 2012 American Physical Society.


Liang X.-T.,Ningbo University
Chinese Physics Letters | Year: 2012

Two-dimensional three-order nonlinear response functions and the laser spectra of the two-level Frenkel-exciton model, interacting with three short laser pulses in direction -k 1 + k 2 + k 3, are calculated using the numerical path integral. The method is non-Markovian and the results show that the numerical simulation scheme provides a new pathway for theoretically investigating the multidimensional ultrafast laser spectra including the non-Markovian effects. © 2012 Chinese Physical Society and IOP Publishing Ltd.


Hu J.,Hunan Normal University | Yu H.,Hunan Normal University | Yu H.,Ningbo University
Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics | Year: 2012

We study, in the framework of open quantum systems, the geometric phase acquired by a uniformly accelerated two-level atom undergoing nonunitary evolution due to its coupling to a bath of fluctuating vacuum electromagnetic fields in the multipolar scheme. We find that the phase variation due to the acceleration can be in principle observed via atomic interferometry between the accelerated atom and the inertial one, thus providing an evidence of the Unruh effect. © 2012 American Physical Society.


Yao J.,Ningbo University
The Scientific World Journal | Year: 2013

This paper uses inverse adding-doubling (IAD) method and Monte Carlo method for the simulation of the spectral angular transmittance of a novel kind of thermotropic material at different temperatures. The results show that the collimated light takes the major part at the beginning of the switching process and the scattered light is negligible. However, the scattered light increased to high above 80% of the total transmitted light with the largest angle distribution of scattered light about 30 degrees as temperature elevated. © 2013 Jian Yao.


Liu Z.,Ningbo University
Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering | Year: 2013

The article is set out to introduce the origin, the development, the main theory and the operative techniques of the Drawing Therapy. Considering the advantages of the library in Research Laboratory, research documents and materials, the author analyzes the feasibility of applying the Drawing Therapy materials to psychological health care of college students by the university library and providing the proposals for the library to establish a professional team that could carry out the health psychological care for students through using the various kinds of materials of Drawing Therapy. © 2013 Springer-Verlag.


Zhu H.-L.,Ningbo University
Acta Crystallographica Section E: Structure Reports Online | Year: 2010

The asymmetric unit of the title compound, [Ni2(C 8H6O8)(C12H8N 2)2(H2O)6]·6H2O, contains a half of the centrosymmetric dinuclear complex molecule and three uncoordinated water molecules. In the dinuclear molecule, two NiII cations are bridged by the butane-1,2,3,4-tetracarboxyl-ate (BTC4-) anion. Each NiII atom is coordinated by two N atoms from the 1,10-phenanthroline ligand, one O atom from the BTC4- anion and three aqua ligands in a distorted octa-hedral geometry. Inter-molecuar O - H⋯O hydrogen bonds and π-π stacking inter-ations [centroid-centroid distances = 3.646 (2), 3.781 (2) and 3.642 (2) Å] consolidate the crystal packing.


Delaney C.,University of Chicago | Frank S.,University of Chicago | Stephanie Huang R.,University of Chicago | Stephanie Huang R.,Ningbo University
Chinese Journal of Cancer | Year: 2015

Commonly observed aberrations in epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling have led to the development of EGFR-targeted therapies for various cancers, including no n–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). EGFR mutations and overexpression have further been shown to modulate sensitivity to these EGFR-targeted therapies in NSCLC and several other types of cancers. However, it is clear that mutations and/or genetic variations in EGFR alone cannot explain all of the variability in the responses of patients with NSCLC to EGFR-targeted therapies. For instance, in addition to EGFR genotype, genetic variations in other members of the signaling pathway downstream of EGFR or variations in parallel receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) pathways are now recognized to have a significant impact on the efficacy of certain EGFR-targeted therapies. In this review, we highlight the mutations and genetic variations in such genes downstream of EGFR and in parallel RTK pathways. Specifically, the directional effects of these pharmacogenetic factors are discussed with a focus on two commonly prescribed EGFR inhibitors: cetuximab and erlotinib. The results of this comprehensive review can be used to optimize the treatment of NSCLC with EGFR inhibitors. Furthermore, they may provide the rationale for the design of subsequent combination therapies that involve the inhibition of EGFR. © 2015 Delaney et al.; licensee BioMed Central.


Organic/inorganic support for immobilizing hybrid catalyst (Cp2ZrCl2/ TiCl4) was devised. Silica was the inorganic part using in the immobilization of Cp2ZrCl2. Subsequently, styrene and acrylic copolymer (PSA) was coated on the silica. TiCl4 was finally supported on the PSA. PSA layer played obvious barrier ability to triethylaluminium (TEA) in the support which was observed by ethylene polymerization. This outstanding barrier property dramatically restrained the toxic effect of TEA to Cp2ZrCl2. Thus, the property of Cp2ZrCl2 could be maintained using cocatalyst TEA. Bimodal polyethylene was achieved cocatalysted by TEA. © (2013) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.


Hu S.,Ningbo University | Xia P.,Henan University of Technology | Cheng K.,Shaoxing University | Qi C.,Shaoxing University
Applied Organometallic Chemistry | Year: 2013

Palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions of various aryl sulfinic acid salts with a wide variety of vinyl substrates have been achieved in good to excellent yields under simple aerobic conditions at 70°C with the assistance of Cu(II) salts. The reaction can be accelerated by the combination of DMSO with THF. The reported Matsuda-Heck type coupling reactions are tolerant to the common functional groups, making these transformations as attractive alternatives to the traditional cross-coupling approaches. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


Farjudian A.,Ningbo University
Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics) | Year: 2011

Kolmogorov complexity was originally defined for finitely-representable objects. Later, the definition was extended to real numbers based on the behaviour of the sequence of Kolmogorov complexities of finitely-representable objects-such as rational numbers-used to approximate them. The idea will be taken further here by extending the definition to functions over real numbers. Any real function can be represented as the limit of a sequence of finitely-representable enclosures, such as polynomials with rational coefficients. The asymptotic behaviour of the sequence of Kolmogorov complexities of the enclosures in such a sequence can be considered as a measure of practical suitability of the sequence as the candidate for representation of that real function. Based on that definition, we will prove that for any growth rate imaginable, there are real functions whose Kolmogorov complexities have higher growth rates. In fact, using the concept of prevalence, we will prove that 'almost every' real function has such a high-growth Kolmogorov complexity. Moreover, we will present an asymptotic bound on the Kolmogorov complexities of total single-valued computable real functions. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.


Chen Y.,Ningbo University
Communications in Computer and Information Science | Year: 2011

In this paper, begin using projection pursuit approach in a new area -financial investment, trying to use projection pursuit analysis the financial investment process. Here the financial investment include the stock/option/etc investment. Assume the investment as a process from multi-dimensional variables to a one dimensional variable and establish the financial investment projection pursuit model. Finally point out the future research direction. © 2011 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Wang T.,Australian National University | Gai X.,Australian National University | Wei W.,Australian National University | Wang R.,Australian National University | And 4 more authors.
Optical Materials Express | Year: 2014

We report measurements of the third order optical nonlinearity of 51 chalcogenide glasses in the near infrared. Substituting more polarizable elements (Se for S, Sb for As) into the glasses increased their nonlinearity but also reduced the optical bandgap increasing two-photon absorption. Overall the measured values are an extremely good fit to the semi-empirical Miller's rule whilst the normalized real and imaginary parts are in satisfactory agreement with the scaling for indirect gap semiconductors reported by Dinu. At 1550nm we find that there is an upper limit to the nonlinearity of ≈ 10-13 cm2/W above which two-photon absorption becomes significant. © 2014 Optical Society of America.


Xu D.-W.,Ningbo University of Technology | Wang R.-D.,Ningbo University
Guangdian Gongcheng/Opto-Electronic Engineering | Year: 2011

An information hiding algorithm with prediction mode modulating for H.264/AVC is proposed. According to the luminance values of the reference pixels, the luminance blocks for information embedding are selected. The information is embedded by modulating the prediction modes of 4 × 4 luminance blocks. If the best mode does not match the information bit, the prediction modes can be modulated by replacing the best mode with the substitute mode. The substitute mode is the one with the least Lagrangian cost among those having different parity with the best mode. The extraction of information can be performed directly from the encoded stream without resorting to the original video, and merely requires decoding the intra prediction mode from bit stream rather than decoding the whole video. Experimental results show that the proposed hiding scheme can effectively embed information with little bit rate increase and almost no quality degradation.


Zhan J.,Ningbo University
International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology | Year: 2013

Ballonet polishing tools, soft gasbags filled with compressed gas, have already been one of the most reliable tools in curved surface polishing due to their adaptability to change their shape to fit the worked surfaces with the same contact stress everywhere. When the internal pressure of the gasbag is adjusted on-line, the contact stress could be controlled as you want. But, because of the tensile stress of the gasbag's material, the internal pressure could not identify the real contact condition anymore. In this paper, the contact force is used to identify the real contact condition for workpieces of aspheric surfaces which is indispensable to the polishing process control. Based on the measured internal pressure of the gasbag and the on-line-controlled contact force in the normal direction, this paper studies the arithmetic of the contact area for aspheric surfaces, finds a way to eliminate the great difference of machining speed, and advances an arithmetic of the machining time for material removal controlling in the process of aspheric surface ballonet polishing. A real ballonet polishing system is developed for aspheric surfaces, and experiments show that it is a better way by controlling the contact force rather than by controlling the internal pressure in the process of aspheric surface ballonet polishing. © 2013 Springer-Verlag London.


Nguyen L.D.,Florida Gulf Coast University | Phan D.H.,Sino Pacific Construction Consultant Co. | Tang L.C.M.,Ningbo University
Journal of Construction Engineering and Management | Year: 2013

Construction schedules are uncertain in nature; therefore, predicting construction duration is a difficult task. Extensive research has proposed mathematical models to predict construction duration based on regression analysis, Monte Carlo method (MCM), and so on. Yet regression analysis cannot capture duration uncertainties. Studies normally use Monte Carlo methods to simulate hundreds to thousands of activities in a project schedule. This can be complicated, time-consuming, and unrealistic because the statistical properties of all the activities cannot be readily determined in practice. Typical construction sequences in condominium building construction were first identified, and then the statistical distributions of controlling activities on the sequences were surveyed. Two-stage questionnaire surveys and goodness-of-fit statistical tests were conducted to achieve the mentioned objectives. Subsequently, a model for predicting the duration of building construction was proposed and applied to a high-rise building project. The results showed that the proposed model reasonably predicted the construction duration for this apartment building. The model fills the gap in knowledge of construction time forecast by introducing the concept of controlling activities to simplify the evaluation of the schedule uncertainty in multistory building construction. This research is beneficial for practitioners to estimate an overall construction schedule of building projects, especially in preconstruction phases. © 2013 American Society of Civil Engineers.


Zhan J.,Ningbo University
International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology | Year: 2013

Ballonet polishing tools, soft gasbags filled with compressed gas, are taking priority over other tools in curved surfaces polishing for their adaptability to change their shape to fit the machined surfaces. However, the real contact stress would be changed by the tensile stress of the bag's material with the change of the workpiece's shape even if the internal pressure of the gasbag is kept at a constant value. This paper studies how the tensile stress influences the contact conditions and the contact stress, and it advances an improved ballonet polishing method by contact force controlling. As a typical application, geometry arithmetic and parameter optimization are studied on the process of aspheric surfaces polishing. Theory study and real experiments show that, it is a better way by controlling the contact force rather than by controlling the internal pressure of the ballonet. © 2013 Springer-Verlag London.


Sun B.,Jiangsu University | Chen M.-Y.,Jiangsu University | Zhang Y.-K.,Nanjing Southeast University | Zhou J.,Ningbo University
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics | Year: 2013

We propose an ultracompact polarization beam splitter based on an asymmetric directional coupler, which comprises of a horizontally slotted waveguide and a hybrid plasmonic waveguide. The splitter is designed such that there is a large difference between the effective indices of the TE-polarized modes for the two waveguides, while the effective index difference between the TM-polarized modes are quite small in a wide wavelength range. Numerical results demonstrate that the proposed splitter with a short device length of 5 μm shows extinction ratios as low as -20 dB with bandwidths as great as 100 nm. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Li H.,Zhejiang Normal University | Li H.,Ohio State University | Lee Y.-C.,Dongguk University | Zhou Y.-C.,Ningbo University | Sun J.,Zhejiang Normal University
Knowledge-Based Systems | Year: 2011

This paper proposes the random subspace binary logit (RSBL) model (or random subspace binary logistic regression analysis) by taking the random subspace approach and using the classical logit model to generate a group of diverse logit decision agents from various perspectives for predictive problem. These diverse logit models are then combined for a more accurate analysis. The proposed RSBL model takes advantage of both logit (or logistic regression) and random subspace approaches. The random subspace approach generates diverse sets of variables to represent the current problem as different masks. Different logit decision agents from these masks, instead of a single logit model, are constructed. To verify its performance, we used the proposed RSBL model to forecast corporate failure in China. The results indicate that this model significantly improves the predictive ability of classical statistical models such as multivariate discriminant analysis, logit model, and probit model. Thus, the proposed model should make logit model more suitable for predictive problems in academic and industrial uses. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Li C.,Ningbo University
Journal of Nonlinear Mathematical Physics | Year: 2016

In this paper, we construct Darboux transformations of the supersymmetric BKP(SBKP) hierarchy. These Darboux transformations can generate new solutions from seed solutions by using bosonic eigenfunctions. © 2016 the authors.


Chen J.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Le A.,Zhejiang Wanli University | Wang Q.,Zhejiang Wanli University | Xi L.,Ningbo University
Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications | Year: 2016

The Sierpinski Pentagon is used to construct evolving networks, whose nodes are all solid regular pentagons in the construction of the Sierpinski Pentagon up to the stage t and any two nodes are neighbors if and only if the intersection of corresponding pentagons is non-empty and non-singleton. We show that such networks have the small-world and scale-free effects, but are not fractal scaling. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Tian T.F.,University of Wollongong | Li W.H.,University of Wollongong | Deng Y.M.,Ningbo University
Smart Materials and Structures | Year: 2011

This paper presents both experimental and theoretical investigations of the sensing capabilities of graphite based magnetorheological elastomers (MREs). In this study, eight MRE samples with varying graphite weight fractions were fabricated and their resistance under different magnetic fields and external loadings were measured with a multi-meter. With an increment of graphite weight fraction, the resistance of MRE sample decreases steadily. Higher magnetic fields result in a resistance increase. Based on an ideal assumption of a perfect chain structure, a mathematical model was developed to investigate the relationship between the MRE resistance with external loading. In this model, the current flowing through the chain structure consists of both a tunnel current and a conductivity current, both of which depend on external loadings. The modelling parameters have been identified and reconstructed from comparison with experimental results. The comparison indicates that both experimental results and modelling predictions agree favourably well.


Zhong C.,Ningbo University | Yue X.,Shanghai University | Zhang Z.,Taiyuan University of Technology | Lei J.,Shanghai University of Electric Power
Pattern Recognition | Year: 2015

Abstract The aim of clustering ensemble is to combine multiple base partitions into a robust, stable and accurate partition. One of the key problems of clustering ensemble is how to exploit the cluster structure information in each base partition. Evidence accumulation is an effective framework which can convert the base partitions into a co-association matrix. This matrix describes the frequency of a pair of points partitioned into the same cluster, but ignores some hidden information in the base partitions. In this paper, we reveal some of those information by refining the co-association matrix from data point and base cluster level. From the data point level, as pairs of points in the same base cluster may have varied similarities, their contributions to the co-association matrix can be different. From the cluster level, since the base clusters may have diversified qualities, the contribution of a base cluster as a whole can also be different from those of others. After being refined, the co-association matrix is transformed into a path-based similarity matrix so that more global information of the cluster structure is incorporated into the matrix. Finally, spectral clustering is applied to the matrix to generate the final clustering result. Experimental results on 8 synthetic and 8 real data sets demonstrate that the clustering ensemble based on the refined co-association matrix outperforms some state-of-the-art clustering ensemble schemes. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Zhu Q.,Ningbo University | Cao J.,Nanjing Southeast University
IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems | Year: 2012

This paper discusses the issue of stability analysis for a class of impulsive stochastic bidirectional associative memory neural networks with both Markovian jump parameters and mixed time delays. The jumping parameters are modeled as a continuous-time discrete-state Markov chain. Based on a novel Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional, the generalized Itô's formula, mathematical induction, and stochastic analysis theory, a linear matrix inequality approach is developed to derive some novel sufficient conditions that guarantee the exponential stability in the mean square of the equilibrium point. At the same time, we also investigate the robustly exponential stability in the mean square of the corresponding system with unknown parameters. It should be mentioned that our stability results are delay-dependent, which depend on not only the upper bounds of time delays but also their lower bounds. Moreover, the derivatives of time delays are not necessarily zero or smaller than one since several free matrices are introduced in our results. Consequently, the results obtained in this paper are not only less conservative but also generalize and improve many earlier results. Finally, two numerical examples and their simulations are provided to show the effectiveness of the theoretical results. © 2012 IEEE.


Li W.,Ningbo University | Liu P.X.,Carleton University
Journal of Control Theory and Applications | Year: 2011

Microelectromechanical systems (MEMSs) pose unique measurement and control problems compared with conventional ones because of their small size, low cost, and low power consumption. The vibrating gyroscope is one of those MEMS devices that have significant potential in many industry applications. When the MEMS gyroscope system is considered simultaneously with the coupling terms, the exogenous disturbances and the parameter variations, the controller design of this system becomes very challenging. This paper investigates the primary control problem of a perturbed vibrating MEMS gyroscope. A nonlinear robust adaptive control scheme is proposed for the drive axis of a vibrating MEMS gyroscope. By combining the dynamic surface control (DSC) method with the H-infinity disturbance attenuation technique, a simpler systematic design procedure is developed. The derived H-infinity controller has a simplified structure, and it can drive the drive axis to resonance, regulate the output amplitude of the drive axis to a desired value, and attenuate the generalized disturbances. The features of the derived controller are discussed and illustrated by the simulation of a closed-loop system. The analysis and simulation show that the obtained controller possesses good adaptability and robustness to system uncertainties. © 2011 South China University of Technology, Academy of Mathematics and Systems Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Yan W.,Ningbo University | Cai J.B.,Zhejiang University | Chen W.Q.,Zhejiang University
Journal of Sound and Vibration | Year: 2011

A model of a laminated composite beam including multiple non-propagating part-through surface cracks as well as installed PZT transducers is presented based on the method of reverberation-ray matrix (MRRM) in this paper. Toward determining the local flexibility characteristics induced by the individual cracks, the concept of the massless rotational spring is applied. A Timoshenko beam theory is then used to simulate the behavior of the composite beam with open cracks. As a result, transverse shear and rotatory inertia effects are included in the model. Only one-dimensional axial vibration of the PZT wafer is considered and the imperfect interfacial bonding between PZT patches and the host beam is further investigated based on a Kelvin-type viscoelastic model. Then, an accurate electro-mechanical impedance (EMI) model can be established for crack detection in laminated beams. In this model, the effects of various parameters such as the ply-angle, fibre volume fraction, crack depth and position on the EMI signatures are highlighted. Furthermore, comparison with existent numerical results is presented to validate the present analysis. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


We study the electrostatic pair interaction between two nonuniformly like-charged colloidal spheres trapped in an air-water interface. Under the linear Poisson-Boltzmann approximation, a general form of the electrostatic potential for the system is shown in terms of multipole expansions. After combining the translation-rotation transform of the coordinates with the numerical multipoint collection, we give a semi-analytical result of the electrostatic pair interaction between the colloids. The pair interaction changes quantitatively or even qualitatively with different distributions of the surface charges on the particles. Because of the anisotropic distribution of the surface charge and the asymmetric dielectric medium, the dipole moment of the ion cloud associating with the particle orients diagonally to the air-water interface with an angle α. When the angle is large, the colloids interact repulsively, while they attract each other when the angle is small. The attractive colloids may be "Janus-like" charged and be arranged with some specific configurations. Whatever the repulsions or the attractions, they all decay asymptotically ∝1/d3 (d is the center-center distance of the particles) which is consistent with our general acknowledge. The calculation results also provide an insight of the effect of the ion concentration, particle size, and the total charge of the particle on the pair interaction between the particles. © 2016 Author(s).


Yang Z.-Y.,Northwest University, China | Zhao L.-C.,Northwest University, China | Zhang T.,Northwest University, China | Li Y.-H.,Northwest University, China | Yue R.-H.,Ningbo University
Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics | Year: 2010

We present a series of analytical solutions which describe nonautonomous solitons in a planar waveguide with an additional periodical structure, that is, a long-period grating. The explicit functions which describe the evolution of the width, peak, and trajectory of the soliton's wave center are presented exactly. The gain parameter has no effects on the motion of the soliton's wave center or its width; it affects just the evolution of the soliton's peak. The grating term affects the motion of the soliton's wave center without changing its shape. The evolution of the soliton under the propagation-distance-dependent gain term is investigated too. It is reported that an arbitrary additional structure can be added on the graded-index waveguide to control the motion of the soliton without affecting its shape. © 2010 The American Physical Society.


In the present work, an antibiotic-producing marine bacterium was isolated from a seawater sample collected from Yuhuan, Zhejiang, China, identified and named as Bacillus amyloliquefaciens ESB-2 on the basis of phenotypic characteristics and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Response surface methodology was applied to optimize the fermentation conditions for rapid and efficient accumulation of macrolactin A, a pharmacologically important marine antibiotic. Eight fermentation conditions were examined for their significance on macrolactin A production using Plackett-Burman factorial design, where peptone, medium volume and temperature significantly improved production rate. Further optimization was carried out using Box-Behnken design of experiments to study the influence of process variables. The optimized fermentation condition for maximum production was peptone 14.8 mg/mL, yeast extract 1 mg/mL, FePO4 0.01 mg/mL, temperature 26.3 °C, initial pH value 6.0, medium volume 72.4%, rotation speed 150 r/min, inoculation 5% and fermented for 2 days. Under the optimized conditions, the concentration of macrolactin A reached 21.63 mg/L, representing a 2.4-fold increase compared to the original standard condition, which was also 17% higher than previous highest report of 18.5 mg/L and three times higher in terms of daily productivity.


Zhu Z.,Hunan Normal University | Zhu Z.,Changsha University of Science and Technology | Yu H.,Hunan Normal University | Yu H.,Ningbo University
Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics | Year: 2010

We consider a uniformly accelerated atom interacting with a vacuum electromagnetic field in the presence of an infinite conducting plane boundary and calculate separately the contributions of vacuum fluctuations and radiation reaction to the atomic energy-level shift. We analyze in detail the behavior of the total energy shift in three different regimes of the distance in both the low-acceleration and high-acceleration limits. Our results show that, in general, an accelerated atom does not behave as if immersed in a thermal bath at the Unruh temperature in terms of the atomic energy-level shifts, and the effect of the acceleration on the atomic energy-level shifts may in principle become appreciable in certain circumstances, although it may not be realistic for actual experimental measurements. We also examine the effects of the acceleration on the level shifts when the acceleration is of the order of the transition frequency of the atom and we find some features which differ from what was obtained in the existing literature. © 2010 The American Physical Society.


Gong S.,Ningbo University
Advances in Intelligent and Soft Computing | Year: 2012

The virtualization of sever is an important task in the distributed data management. The virtual integration of servers in network can quickly complete some large-scale computing tasks, reduce costs on hardware, space and energy consumption. The product of multiple-server virtualization has a characteristics of dynamic transfer which can transfer the running virtual sever from one machine to another machine so as to avoid the temporary or long service interruption due to hardware maintenance. Dynamic transfer requires shared storage whose performance increases with the rise of the number of virtual servers, which becomes the bottleneck of the whole system. A virtual server environment that is based on Lustre cluster file system and open source solutions of KVM is proposed as well as implemented in this paper. The results of this experiment confirm that not only the virtual environment has enhanced the input and output performance of virtual server, but also the time for creating KVM user has been significantly shortened. © 2012 Springer-Verlag GmbH Berlin Heidelberg.


Chen W.,Ningbo University
Wei sheng wu xue bao = Acta microbiologica Sinica | Year: 2012

We studied nonribosomal peptides synthetases (NRPSs) gene clusters and the core module of NRPSs in Pseudoalteromonas sp. NJ631 using genome mining approach. The genome of Pseudoalteromonas sp. NJ631 was constructed by the next genome sequencing (NGS) technology. We adopted an online available software called NRPS-PKS knowledgebase to identify potential NRPSs gene clusters within genes involved in the biosynthesis of secondary metabolite of Pseudoalteromonas sp. NJ631. The genes encoding adenylation (A) domains, the core module of NRPSs, were collected and analyzed using genome mining method. We identified three typical NRPS gene clusters comprising three ORFs which encode six continuous modular NRPSs. The result of genome mining indicates that genome of Pseudoalteromonas sp. NJ631 contains 38 A domain genes which show 60% similarity below to their closest relatives. The substrate of these A domains was predicted to specifically bind 18 types of amino acids using the specificity-conferring selection rule. This is the first reported on the systematic screening and analysis of NRPSs gene clusters and A domains in genus Pseudoalteromonas, suggesting that the genus Pseudoalteromonas possesses a vast array of secondary metabolite biosynthesis genes that were previously found mostly in actinomycetes and fungi. The information on secondary metabolite genes from Pseudoalteromonas sp. NJ631 will facilitate us to isolate novel nonribosomal peptides.


Gao X.N.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Lou S.Y.,East China Normal University | Lou S.Y.,Ningbo University | Tang X.Y.,Shanghai JiaoTong University
Journal of High Energy Physics | Year: 2013

Assuming that there exist at least two fermionic parameters, the classical N=1 supersymmetric Korteweg-de Vries (SKdV) system can be transformed to some coupled bosonic systems. The boson fields in the bosonized SKdV (BSKdV) systems are defined on even Grassmann algebra. Due to the intrusion of other Grassmann parameters, the BSKdV systems are different from the usual non-supersymmetric integrable systems, and many more abundant solution structures can be unearthed. With the help of the singularity analysis, the Painlevé property of the BSKdV system is proved and a Bäcklund transformation (BT) is found. The BT related nonlocal symmetry, we call it as residual symmetry, is used to find symmetry reduction solutions of the BSKdV system. Hinted from the symmetry reduction solutions, a more generalized but much simpler method is established to find exact solutions of the BSKdV and then the SKdV systems, which actually can be applied to any fermionic systems. © 2013 SISSA, Trieste, Italy.


Bai R.,Ningbo University | Burke E.K.,University of Nottingham | Kendall G.,University of Nottingham | Li J.,University of Nottingham | McCollum B.,Queens University of Belfast
IEEE Transactions on Evolutionary Computation | Year: 2010

Nurse rostering is an important search problem with many constraints. In the literature, a number of approaches have been investigated including penalty function methods to tackle these constraints within genetic algorithm frameworks. In this paper, we investigate an extension of a previously proposed stochastic ranking method, which has demonstrated superior performance to other constraint handling techniques when tested against a set of constrained optimization benchmark problems. An initial experiment on nurse rostering problems demonstrates that the stochastic ranking method is better at finding feasible solutions, but fails to obtain good results with regard to the objective function. To improve the performance of the algorithm, we hybridize it with a recently proposed simulated annealing hyper-heuristic (SAHH) within a local search and genetic algorithm framework. Computational results show that the hybrid algorithm performs better than both the genetic algorithm with stochastic ranking and the SAHH alone. The hybrid algorithm also outperforms the methods in the literature which have the previously best known results. © 2010 IEEE.


Liu A.,Ningbo University | Zhou C.,Jinan University
Journal of Biomaterials Science, Polymer Edition | Year: 2011

Topographical micro-structures of material surfaces are known to influence cell behavior. In this study, alignment and proliferation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) on chitosan (CS) films with different microtopography was investigated. A modified solvent-non-solvent method was used to produce micro-well polystyrene films which were used as templates for preparation of micro-hilled CS films. The alignment and proliferation of MSCs on CS films were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and the MTT assay, respectively. Polystyrene films with different micro-well diameters were produced under different conditions. We successfully produced CS films with micro-hills of 10 μm (CS10) and 5-30 μm (CS5-30) by a molding approach. MSCs cultured on CS10 covered the tightly packed micro-hills and flattened polygonally. In contrast, MSCs on CS5-30 mostly adhered between loosely packed micro-hills and demonstrated elongated extensions. The proliferation rate of MSCs on CS5-30 was highest on day 4 (66% on CS5-30 versus 46% on CS10 and 24% on smooth CS) and day 8 (106% on CS5-30 versus 38% on CS10 and 72% on smooth CS). It is reasonable to suggest that spatially and dimensionally dispersed micro-hills on CS films facilitate the alignment and proliferation of MSCs. This may be used to physically modify CS for tissue-engineering applications. © 2011 Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden.


Hu L.,Ningbo University
Mathematical and Computer Modelling | Year: 2010

In this paper, we are concerned with singular third-order three-point boundary value problems on time scales. Some theorems on the existence of positive solutions are obtained by utilizing the fixed point theorem of cone expansion and compression type. An example is also given to illustrate our results. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Yang X.,Honghe University | Zhu Q.,Ningbo University | Huang C.,Changsha University of Science and Technology
Neurocomputing | Year: 2011

This paper investigates the problem of lag synchronization for a kind of chaotic neural networks with discrete and distributed delays (mixed delays). The driver system has uncertain parameters and uncertain nonlinear external perturbations, while the response system has channel noises. A simple but all-powerful robust adaptive controller is designed to circumvent the effects of uncertain external perturbations such that the response system synchronize with the driver system. Based on the invariance principle of stochastic differential equations and some suitable Lyapunov functions, several sufficient conditions are developed to solve this problem. Moreover, under certain conditions, parameters of the uncertain master system can be estimated. Numerical simulations are exploited to show the effectiveness of the theoretical results. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.


Pan X.-Y.,Ningbo University | Sahni V.,City University of New York
International Journal of Quantum Chemistry | Year: 2010

For a system of N electrons in an external scalar potential v(r) and external vector potentialA(r),we prove that the wave function is a functional of the gauge invariant ground state density ρ(r) and ground state physical current density j(r), and a gauge function α(R) (with R = r1, . . , rN) : ψ = ψ[ρ, j, α]. It is the presence of the gauge function a(R) that ensures the wave function functional is gauge variant.We prove this via a unitary transformation and by a proof of the bijectivity between the potentials {v(r),A(r)} and the ground state properties {ρ(r), j(r)}. Thus, the natural basic variables for the system are the gauge invariant ρ(r) and j(r). Because each choice of gauge function corresponds to the same physical system, the choice of a(R) = 0 is equally valid. As such, we construct a {ρ(r), j(r)} functional theory with the corresponding Euler equations for the density ρ(r) and physical current density j(r), together with the constraints of charge conservation and continuity of the current. With the assumption of existence of a system of noninteracting fermions with the same ρ(r) and j(r) as that of the electrons, we provide the equations describing this model system, the definitions being within the framework of Kohn-Sham theory in terms of energy functionals of {ρ(r), j(r)} and their functional derivatives. A special case of the {ρ(r), j(r)} functional theory is the magnetic-field density-functional theory of Grayce and Harris. We discuss and contrast our work with the paramagnetic current- and density-functional theory of Vignale and Rasolt in which the variables are the gauge invariant ground state density ρ(r), and vorticity ρ(r) = δ × (jp(r)/ρ(r), where jp(r) is the paramagnetic current density. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


The adsorption of flexible polyelectrolytes (PEs) with the annealed charge distribution onto an oppositely charged sphere immersed in a PE solution is studied numerically with the continuum self-consistent field theory. The numerical study reveals interesting scaling relationships between the boundary layer thickness and the surface charge density of the sphere as well as the degree of ionization of the monomers of the PE chains in the bulk solution. The dependences of the degree of charge compensation of the total amount of charges on adsorbed PE chains over the surface charges upon various system parameters are investigated. In particular, the effect of the radius of the charged sphere on the degree of charge compensation is carefully examined. The numerical study indicates that the curvature effect is closely related to the surface electric potential of the charged sphere. Moreover, in this study of the adsorption of PEs with the annealed charge distribution, a comparison with the corresponding case for PEs with the smeared charge distribution in terms of the boundary layer scaling law and the degree of charge compensation is also presented. © 2013 AIP Publishing LLC.


Liang Q.,Zhejiang Normal University | Liang Q.,Ningbo University
Soft Matter | Year: 2013

Surface functionalization is an efficient method to modify the properties of nanoparticles for nanomedical and other applications. Here, we investigate the penetration of polymer-grafted nanoparticles through a lipid bilayer using self-consistent field theory. We examine the morphological deformation of the polymer-grafted nanoparticles and the lipid bilayer and the variation of the free energy of the system during the penetration of the nanoparticles grafted by polymers with different chain lengths and densities. It is found that the nanoparticles grafted by long polymers can penetrate through the lipid bilayer more easily. Additionally, with varying the grafting density, we find two different penetration pathways of the polymer-grafted nanoparticles. For the nanoparticle grafted by polymers with low density, the lipid bilayer is curved by the nanoparticle when the nanoparticle is inserted into the bilayer shallowly and then a pore is formed when the nanoparticle is inserted into the bilayer deeply enough; whereas, for the nanoparticle grafted by polymers with high density, the lipid bilayer is not curved before and after the pore formation. We further reveal the underlying mechanism of these two different penetration pathways. The results may yield some theoretical insights into the applications of nanoparticles in nanomedicine. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.


He Z.,Zhejiang University | Yao Y.,Zhejiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Lu Z.,Zhejiang University | Ye Y.,Ningbo University
Applied and Environmental Microbiology | Year: 2014

Although tetrahydrofuran-degrading Rhodococcus sp. strain YYL possesses tetrahydrofuran (THF) degradation genes similar to those of other tetrahydrofuran-degrading bacteria, a much higher degradation efficiency has been observed in strain YYL. In this study, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabolomics analyses were performed to explore the metabolic profiling response of strain YYL to exposure to THF. Exposure to THF slightly influenced the metabolome of strain YYL when yeast extract was present in the medium. The metabolic profile of strain YYL over time was also investigated using THF as the sole carbon source to identify the metabolites associated with high-efficiency THF degradation. Lactate, alanine, glutarate, glutamate, glutamine, succinate, lysine, trehalose, trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO), NAD+, and CTP were significantly altered over time in strain YYL grown in 20mMTHF. Real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) revealed changes in the transcriptional expression levels of 15 genes involved in THF degradation, suggesting that strain YYL could accumulate several disturbances in osmoregulation (trehalose, glutamate, glutamine, etc.), with reduced glycolysis levels, an accelerated tricarboxylic acid cycle, and enhanced protein synthesis. The findings obtained through 1H NMR metabolomics analyses and the transcriptional expression of the corresponding genes are complementary for exploring the dynamic metabolic profile in organisms. © 2014, American Society for Microbiology.


Zhang J.,Japan National Institute of Materials Science | Zhang J.,Ningbo University | Peng W.,Japan National Institute of Materials Science | Chen Z.,Japan National Institute of Materials Science | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Physical Chemistry C | Year: 2012

Rare earth element cerium (Ce) with variable valence states Ce 4+/Ce 3+ is doped in the TiO 2 photoanode for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The anatase crystalline phase keeps unchanged, while the crystalline size decreases slightly after Ce doping. The Ce positively changes the conduction band minimum of TiO 2 due to the unoccupied Ce-4f trap states in the band gap, and the Ce 4+ is reduced to Ce 3+ when electrons are injected in the photoanode. The cerium-doped photoanodes with special electrochemical properties severely influence the performance of DSSCs. Due to the increased electron injection, the small Ce content (0.05% and 0.1%) doped TiO 2 photoanodes improve the performance of DSSCs which is optimized to 7.65% with Ce0.1% doping (1 sun, AM1.5) compared with the one with a pure TiO 2 photoanode (7.2%). However, the Ce 4+ states effectively trap electrons in the photoanode with further increase of Ce from 0.3 to 0.9%, which is confirmed by the charge extraction method and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS); thus, it suppresses the photocurrent and the efficiency of the DSSCs but is helpful to the fill factor improvement. The trap states, mainly resting on the TiO 2 crystalline surface, are verified and effectively passivized by TiCl 4 surface treatment. © 2012 American Chemical Society.


Jin H.,Technion - Israel Institute of Technology | Jin H.,Ningbo University | Huynh T.-P.,Technion - Israel Institute of Technology | Haick H.,Technion - Israel Institute of Technology | Haick H.,Russell Berrie Nanotechnology Institute
Nano Letters | Year: 2016

Flexible and wearable electronic sensors are useful for the early diagnosis and monitoring of an individual's health state. Sampling of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) derived from human breath/skin or monitoring abrupt changes in heart-beat/breath rate should allow noninvasive monitoring of disease states at an early stage. Nevertheless, for many reported wearable sensing devices, interaction with the human body leads incidentally to unavoidable scratches and/or mechanical cuts and bring about malfunction of these devices. We now offer proof-of-concept of nanoparticle-based flexible sensor arrays with fascinating self-healing abilities. By integrating a self-healable polymer substrate with 5 kinds of functionalized gold nanoparticle films, a sensor array gives a fast self-healing (<3 h) and attractive healing efficiency in both the substrate and sensing films. The proposed platform was used in sensing pressure variation and 11 kinds of VOCs. The sensor array had satisfactory sensitivity, a low detection limit, and promising discrimination features in monitoring both of VOCs and pressure variation, even after full healing. These results presage a new type of smart sensing device, with a desirable performance in the possible detection and/or clinical application for a number of different purposes. © 2016 American Chemical Society.


The continuum self-consistent field (SCF) theory is applied to the study of the adsorption of flexible polyelectrolytes (PEs) onto the surfaces of two parallel and infinitely long charged columns, taking into account the short-range monomer-surface non-Coulombic interaction. Due to the complex interplay between the electrostatic and surface interactions, very interesting PE adsorption behaviors in terms of the degree of charge compensation and the bridging chain conformation are found from the numerical solution of the SCF equations. The screening-enhanced salt effect and the permanent adsorption of PEs, irrespectively of the salt concentration, emerge in the presence of the monomer-surface non-electrostatic interaction. The numerical results reveal that, for relatively weak monomer-surface interactions, the degree of charge compensation decreases with increasing monomer-surface interaction. Numerical result shows that, for the strength of monomer-surface interaction above the desorption-adsorption critical value and in a salt-free solution, the total amount of the adsorbed PE chains is linearly proportional to the surface charge density in the high PE charge fraction regime. © 2012 American Institute of Physics.


He C.,Nanjing University | Wu X.,Nanjing University | Wu X.,Ningbo University | He Z.,Nanjing University
Journal of Physical Chemistry C | Year: 2014

Hydrogen generated by water splitting provides a renewable energy source, but development of materials with efficient electrocatalytic water splitting capability is challenging. Thin-film electrocatalytic material (H 2-NiCat) with robust water reduction properties, which can be readily prepared by a reduction-induced electrodeposition method from nickel salts in a borate-buffered electrolyte (pH 9.2), is reported. The material consists of nanoparticles with nickel oxide or hydroxide species located at the surface and metallic nickel in the bulk. The catalyst mediates H2 evolution in a near-neutral aqueous buffer at low overpotential. The catalyst requires a subsequent oxidative pretreatment in order to attain a well-defined hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) activity, and the 1.5 h anodized catalyst film exhibits a HER current density of about 1.50 mA cm-2 at 0.452 V overpotential over a period of 24 h with no observable corrosion. In addition, it can be converted by anodic equilibration into an amorphous Ni-based oxide film (O 2-NiCat) to catalyze O2 evolution, and the switch between the two catalytic forms is fully reversible. The robust, bifunctional, switchable, and noble-metal-free catalytic material has immense potential in artificial solar water-splitting devices. © 2014 American Chemical Society.


Xu Y.,Ningbo University
Proceedings - 2010 International Conference on Web Information Systems and Mining, WISM 2010 | Year: 2010

In this article, we design a stream cipher based on the the conjugates of quasigroups. According to the analysis given in the article the method is extremely secure. Beside that, the plaintext and its cipher text are of the same length, and the stream cipher needs small storage in memory since one quasigroup can be used as three different quasigroups. © 2010 IEEE.


Zhan H.,Ningbo University
Applied Mechanics and Materials | Year: 2010

Complex network is becoming one of the effective research method for knowledge management. However, the building method for the complex network is the first problem that must be addressed. The e-EPC process case modeling method was adopted in the paper to solve the problem. The building method mentioned in the paper can provide a simple way to construct a knowledge resource complex network which can be used to analyze the innovation ability of an organization, or help to distribute knowledge resources to a business process. The scale-free parameters analysis based on the network, such as average path length, cluster coefficient, provides a helpful digital reference for knowledge management and decision. © (2010) Trans Tech Publications.


Yang H.-C.,Zhejiang University | Liao K.-J.,Zhejiang University | Huang H.,Zhejiang University | Wu Q.-Y.,Ningbo University | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Materials Chemistry A | Year: 2014

The surface structures and properties of a membrane largely determine its in-service performance during a filtration process. Here we report a facile hydrophilization method via co-deposition of mussel-inspired polydopamine (PDA) and polyethyleneimine (PEI) on a polypropylene microfiltration membrane. The deposition time is greatly shortened and the surface hydrophilicity is significantly improved compared to those membranes decorated only by PDA. The dopamine/PEI deposition solution can be reused several times with negligible effect on the surface hydrophilicity of membranes. Moreover, the PDA/PEI coating endows the membranes with ultra-high water permeability, allowing microfiltration separation of oil-in-water emulsions under atmospheric pressure. 2014 This journal is © the Partner Organisations.


Zhu Q.,Ningbo University | Cao J.,Nanjing Southeast University
Neurocomputing | Year: 2011

In this paper, we study a new class of stochastic Cohen-Grossberg neural networks with reaction-diffusion and mixed delays. Without the aid of nonnegative semimartingale convergence theorem, the method of variation parameter and linear matrix inequalities technique, a set of novel sufficient conditions on the exponential stability for the considered system is obtained by utilizing a new Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional, the Poincaré inequality and stochastic analysis theory. The obtained results show that the reaction-diffusion term does contribute to the exponentially stabilization of the considered system. Therefore, our results generalize and improve some earlier publications. Moreover, two numerical examples are given to show the effectiveness of the theoretical results and demonstrate that the stability criteria existed in the earlier literature fail. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.


Bu Z.,Ningbo University | Tang G.,China Merchants Chongqing Communications Research and Design Institute Co.
Zhongguo Tiedao Kexue/China Railway Science | Year: 2011

The model of unbonded prestressing precast segmental bridge piers with energy dissipation bars was set up utilizing fiber beam-column element with the OPENSEES program developed by the Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research Center in the U.S. to investigate the pseudo static test procedure. The parametric analysis about the influence of the prestressing level, axial compression ratio and prestressed tendon or conventional rebar ratio upon the earthquake response of the bridge piers and columns was carried out. The results show that raising prestressing level can increase the yield strength but has little effect on the ultimate lateral strength. A total axial compression ratio of 20 to 30 percent of prestressing and superstructure dead load contributes to higher lateral strength and larger equivalent damping ratio of bridge columns. The column has stable lateral strength and energy dissipation ability as the prestressing tendon ratio is between 0.20 and 0.50 percent. The equivalent damping ratio of the bridge piers will be decreased with the increase of tendon ratio. The yield strength, ultimate lateral strength, energy dissipation and equivalent damping ratio will be increased remarkably with the increase of conventional rebar ratio, but the residual displacement will also be increased. The seismic response analysis reveals that the lateral strength can be raised by adding conventional reinforcement in precast segmental bridge piers. The shear at the damage level of precast segmental bridge piers bottom under history excitation is approximately 70 to 90 percent of pseudo static test results. The ultimate displacement of the pier top is only about 50 percent of that in pseudo static tests.


Han M.,Ningbo University
International Journal of Sustainable Development and Planning | Year: 2015

In this research, the author tries to make factor analysis on producer services in the perspective of demand and supply based on Zhejiang annual data from 1990 to 2011. The result shows that the level of scientific and technological development and industrialization are the most important variables in two common factors. At present, factors such as level of services, economic development, urbanization, technological development, and opening-up intensity and level have considerable impacts on Zhejiang producer services' development according to the results of model analysis. On the other hand, factors such as degree of industrialization and ownership structure have relatively less impacts on supply and demand. This paper makes reasonable suggestions from the perspective of supply and demand framework. © 2015 WIT Press.


Zhang H.-J.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Shu J.,Ningbo University | Wang K.-X.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Chen X.-T.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Materials Chemistry A | Year: 2014

A one-step carbothermal reduction method has been developed for the preparation of hierarchical porous materials. In this method, CMK-3 acts both as a template casting the hierarchical porous structure and as a reducing agent for the carbothermal reaction. Hierarchical MoO2 nanotubes prepared through this method exhibit high charge/discharge capacities and rate capabilities when used as an anode material for lithium ion batteries. Cycled at current densities of 0.1 and 1.0 A g-1, the material delivers discharge capacities of 720 and 530 mA h g-1 after 70 cycles, respectively. The Li-ion insertion and extraction processes of MoO2 nanotubes have been investigated by using an in situ X-ray diffraction technique for the first time to elucidate the Li-ion storage mechanism for the MoO 2 material. We demonstrate that the discharge capacity increase of MoO2 during the first 30 cycles is attributed to the lithiation transformation of MoO2. © The Royal Society of Chemistry.


Wang B.,CAS Ningbo Institute of Material Technology and Engineering | Li H.,CAS Ningbo Institute of Material Technology and Engineering | Li L.,CAS Ningbo Institute of Material Technology and Engineering | Chen P.,CAS Ningbo Institute of Material Technology and Engineering | And 2 more authors.
Composites Science and Technology | Year: 2013

Electrically conductive ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE)/graphene nanosheets composites with a segregated structure were prepared by electrostatic adsorption method. It was found that UHMWPE powders could generate static electricity after high-speed mechanical friction which was beneficial to adsorb fluffy graphene on the surface of polymer powders. UHMWPE/graphene nanosheets composites with a segregated network produced by hot-pressing exhibited a dramatic enhancement in electrical conductivity with the percolation threshold of 0.1. vol.%. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Shen L.-J.,Ningbo University
European Journal of Mechanics, A/Solids | Year: 2016

The associated flow rule is commonly supposed to be one of the cornerstones of classical plasticity theory for metals though some experimental results do not accord with it. This paper investigates the flow rule of plastic deformation rate for von Mises materials exhibiting kinematic hardening. It is found that the associated flow rule is not valid in rigid-plastic deformations. The associated flow rule for von Mises materials exhibiting kinematic hardening is modified. The modified associated flow rule implies that the vector of plastic deformation rate need not be perpendicular to the yield surface in nine-dimensional stress space. Finally, the principle of maximum plastic dissipation is modified as well. © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All Rights Reserved.


Wang N.,Ningbo University
Proceedings - 2011 4th International Conference on Information Management, Innovation Management and Industrial Engineering, ICIII 2011 | Year: 2011

Industrial design is now being recognized as important pillar and development planning in Ningbo. Based on the Computer-Aided Industrial Design (CAID) and status of the SMEs, this study is dedicated to the establishment of an advanced service platform for SMEs in the Industrial Innovation Design, characterized by informatization and management. So as to realize the transformation from OE-M to ODM and to OBM, to further promote the develop-pment of traditional advantage manufacturing, enhanced the international competitiveness of industries. Based on the international trends of the industril design and domestic SMEs of its domestic development, more specifically - with local experience in practise of Ningbo, this paper proposed the idea to advance the service platform in the industry design which is characterized by informatization and intelligence. © 2011 IEEE.


Design improvement is critical for achieving a low-cost and high energy-efficient building with low carbon emissions. Thus, designers need to consider many factors (such as energy, economic and environmental performance) in the early design stage. This paper presents a multi-objective analysis for better building design and compares the EDH-based design improvements (introduced by the author in a previous work, EDH means energy difference between households) with seven potential improvement measures commonly used in achieving a better overall performance for the energy, economy and environment. A typical residential building in China was modeled for a number of simulations, and the simulation results were used to carry out a life cycle-based performance analysis. Seven potential improvement options that are commonly used are compared, and the results show that it is difficult to identify an option that has a better performance in all these three aspects. On the other hand, EDH-based design improvement achieves relatively high energy, economic and environmental performance compared to the former seven options. Moreover, EDH-based design improvement can provide designers with flexible options to select from in order to address diverse demands for building aesthetics, function, and so on, or to avoid potential difficulties when some kinds of materials or measures that are planned to be used are unavailable locally. © 2014 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.


Jia N.,Anhui University of Science and Technology | Wang Y.,Ningbo University | Sun L.,Anhui University of Science and Technology
Quaternary Research | Year: 2012

Large desiccation cracks were discovered in the intertidal zone of Zhoushan archipelago, East China Sea. Radiocarbon dating showed that desiccation cracks were formed around 31.2-30.4. cal. ka BP. Palynological, mineralogical, and elemental geochemical analyses indicated that the cracks were formed as the result of an abrupt climate shift event. The climate changed from warm and humid, to cold and arid, and back to warm and humid again. This climate event is quite likely linked to Heinrich event 3 via the East Asian Monsoon. Desiccation cracks may provide a new proxy material for studying paleoclimate and paleoenvironment in the Quaternary. © 2011 University of Washington.


Xu W.-S.,Ningbo University
Communications in Theoretical Physics | Year: 2014

We consider the backreaction of the fundamental flavor degrees of freedom on the AdS5-Schwarz background, and calculate their contributions to the shear viscosity and jet-quenching parameter of the thermal quark-gluon plasma. © 2014 Chinese Physical Society and IOP Publishing Ltd.


Chen L.,Sanming University | Zhang H.,Ningbo University | Gao S.,Sanming University | Yan H.,Sanming University
Energy | Year: 2014

A new hybrid system mainly consists of a molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) and a Stirling heat engine is established, where the Stirling heat engine is driven by the high-quality waste heat generated in the MCFC. Based on the electrochemistry and non-equilibrium thermodynamics, analytical expressions for the efficiency and power output of the hybrid system are derived by taking various irreversible losses into account. It shows that the performance of the MCFC can be greatly enhanced by coupling a Stirling heat engine to further convert the waste heat for power generation. By employing numerical calculations, not only the influences of multiple irreversible losses on the performance of the hybrid system are analyzed, but also the impacts of some operating conditions such as the operating temperature, input gas compositions and operating pressure on the performance of the hybrid system are also discussed. The investigation method in the present paper is feasible for some other similar energy conversion systems as well. © 2013.


Wu J.,Ningbo University | Wu J.,Barrow Neurological Institute | Gao M.,Barrow Neurological Institute | Taylor D.H.,Barrow Neurological Institute
Acta Pharmacologica Sinica | Year: 2014

Neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors are important targets for alcohol reward and dependence. Alcoholism is a serious public health problem and has been identified as the third major cause of preventable mortality in the world. Worldwide, about 2 billion people consume alcohol, with 76.3 million having diagnosable alcohol use disorders. Alcohol is currently responsible for the death of 4% of adults worldwide (about 2.5 million deaths each year), and this number will be significantly increased by 2020 unless effective action is taken. Alcohol is the most commonly abused substance by humans. Ethanol (EtOH) is the intoxicating agent in alcoholic drinks that can lead to abuse and dependence. Although it has been extensively studied, the mechanisms of alcohol reward and dependence are still poorly understood. The major reason is that, unlike other addictive drugs (eg, morphine, cocaine or nicotine) that have specific molecular targets, EtOH affects much wider neuronal functions. These functions include phospholipid membranes, various ion channels and receptors, synaptic and network functions, and intracellular signaling molecules. The major targets in the brain that mediate EtOH's effects remain unclear. This knowledge gap results in a therapeutic barrier in the treatment of alcoholism. Interestingly, alcohol and nicotine are often co-abused, which suggests that neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), the molecular targets for nicotine, may also contribute to alcohol's abusive properties. Here, we briefly summarize recent lines of evidence showing how EtOH modulates nAChRs in the mesolimbic pathway, which provides a perspective that nAChRs are important targets mediating alcohol abuse. © 2014 CPS and SIMM.


Elghawi U.M.,Academy of Graduate Studies | Mayouf A.M.,Ningbo University
Fuel | Year: 2014

The analysis of carbonyl species of a gasoline fuelled Spark-Ignition and Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (SI/HCCI) engine operating modes was performed upstream and downstream of a three way catalyst (TWC) converter. All data were obtained during steady-state, fully warmed-up operation at different engine conditions, using a winter grade commercial gasoline containing 2% w/w ethanol (C2H5OH). Qualitative and quantitative analysis of carbonyl compounds in exhaust gases were performed using 2,4- dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH)-high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The major carbonyl compounds detected in the collected samples were acetaldehyde, acrolein, benzaldehyde and m-tolualdehyde. Depending on the engine operation conditions, the percentage contribution of the carbonyl compounds to the total hydrocarbons emission in this study lies between 2.7% and 5.2%. Formation of low molecular weight carbonyl compounds was more prominent when the engine operated at low load HCCI mode (low combustion temperature), while aromatic aldehydes were more significant in the case of SI mode operation, in which the combustion temperature is relatively high compared to the temperature from low load HCCI mode. Even though, the catalyst reduced the hydrocarbons emission effectively, including the carbonyls, there is no significant effect on the emission of acetaldehyde and acrolein emissions. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Current energy designs for a building in China focus on the energy efficiency of the whole building and thus often neglect the energy difference between different housing units in apartment buildings. The best design technique in terms of energy savings is not only to decrease whole building energy demand, but also to reduce the energy difference between different housing units to a relatively low level. This paper introduces an important index "energy performance difference between housing units" (EDH) to evaluate the drawbacks of conventional designs on a typical residential building in hot summer and cold winter zone. Then nine improved design options were considered as the possible strategies to diminish the EDH, based on a number of building simulations with the program DeST-h. Results show that the option 9 (add movable shading for the east facing windows and west facing windows, and reduce the U-values of the east walls and west facing windows), an improved design strategy according to the EDH of the current design, reduces the EDH to less than 4% that is much lower than other options and meanwhile ensures a decrease in whole building energy demands. A case study was carried out to validate the effectiveness of this index in optimization. As a conclusion, EDH is a very useful index for optimizing energy designs of apartment buildings and can be used in China to improve conventional building designs. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


Fu X.,Hunan University of Science and Technology | Wu P.,Ningbo University | Yu H.,Hunan Normal University
International Journal of Modern Physics D | Year: 2011

In this paper, we study the growth index of matter density perturbations for the power law model in f(T) gravity. Using the parametrization γ(z) = γ0 + γ1(z/1 + z) for the growth index, which approximates the real evolution of γ(z) very well, and the observational data of the growth factor, we find that, at the 1σ confidence level, the power law model in f(T) gravity is consistent with the observations, since the obtained theoretical values of γ0 and γ1 are in the allowed region. © 2011 World Scientific Publishing Company.


Jin Q.Q.,Ningbo University
Zhonghua liu xing bing xue za zhi = Zhonghua liuxingbingxue zazhi | Year: 2012

To study the genetic variations between measles vaccine strain S191 and strains that circulated in Zhejiang province causing the epidemics during 1999 to 2011. Complete sequence of the nine Zhejiang measles strains were amplified by RT-PCR assay. Products were sequenced and the obtained sequences were aligned and analyzed with vaccine strains S191 and the major epidemic strains isolated in foreign countries. The homology of amino acid among the nine Zhejiang strains were 98.77% - 99.89%. The strains were not affected by positive selection and the variations on each gene were still in random drift. Compared to vaccine strain S191, there were 135 to 159 amino acid changes in Zhejiang measles virus, in which 113 points were common variable positions, resulting in mutations on five glycosylation sites. At the nucleotide level, the biggest differences between the Zhejiang strains and the vaccine strain S191 were found on N gene, with the average divergent ratio as 5.5%, while the biggest one was P protein, in the amino acid level, with the average mutation rate as 7.7%. In addition, with the complete genome sequences, the genetic distance between Zhejiang epidemic strains and vaccine strains was greater than the distances between epidemic strains of genotype D(4), B(3) and vaccine strains (t = -9.76, P < 0.05; t = -12.39, P < 0.05). There were significant differences found in the each of the genes between Zhejiang epidemic strains and the vaccine strain S191. The differences between the current vaccine strains and H genotype epidemic strains were much larger than the differences between the vaccine and the foreign epidemic strains (genotype D(4), B(3)). Therefore, we should pay close attention to this trend, and to develop candidates for the development of vaccines, as early as possible.


Xu D.,Ningbo University of Technology | Wang R.,Ningbo University | Shi Y.Q.,New Jersey Institute of Technology
Journal of Visual Communication and Image Representation | Year: 2014

As H.264/AVC video streams are highly compressed, they become sensitive to errors caused by unreliable transmission channels. In order to address this issue, an improved version of Chung et al.'s reversible data hiding-based approach for intra-frame error concealment is proposed for H.264/AVC codec. By using the histogram shifting technique, the original work reversibly embeds the motion vector (MV) of a macroblock (MB) into other MB within the same intra-frame. If an MB is corrupted at the decoder side, the embedded MV can be extracted from the corresponding MB for the recovery of the corrupted MB. However, Chung et al.'s work did not fully exploit the number of coefficients which need to be modified in order to reversibly hiding data, and did not consider many extra nonzero residual blocks produced by data hiding. These two issues could reduce the visual quality of the stego-video. This paper adopts MV data pre-processing, the selection of most suitable embedding region, and the minimum possible amount of histogram modification, which lead to higher PSNR of the stego-video for a given payload. Experimental results further reveal that the proposed method offers stego-video with better visual quality over Chung et al.'s work. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


Fan H.-Y.,Ningbo University | Wang Z.,Changzhou Institute of Technology
International Journal of Theoretical Physics | Year: 2014

With the help of technique of integration within an ordered product (IWOP) of operators we find new integration transformation connecting the coherent state and the biparticle entangled state. We also point out that under this kind of integration transformation the direct product of two single-variable Hermite polynomials behaves quite different from the two-variable Hermite polynomials, in this way we show that the latter is intrinsic to the phase space of quantum entanglement. As a byproduct, some operator identities for theoretical quantum optics can also be neatly expressed in terms of the two-variable Hermite polynomials. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York.


Yang J.,Jilin University | Jiang G.,Ningbo University
Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies | Year: 2014

Route choice models have important theoretical value and practical significance for the systematic analysis of urban transportation. The method utilized to determine the reference point of travel time by considering the restrictions on reserved travel time of travelers is improved in this study. On this basis, a route choice model based on cumulative prospect theory (CPT) is proposed. A stochastic user equilibrium model based on CPT that integrates the Wardrop equilibrium principle is also developed. The data analysis results indicate that CPT provides a better description of risk attitudes than expected utility theory (EUT). The improved reference point of travel time can capture the demand of reliable travel time from different travelers. Furthermore, the numerical results of the stochastic user equilibrium model based on CPT are in agreement with the route choice behavior observed in an actual road network. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


Zhang Y.,Ningbo University
Dong wu xue yan jiu = Zoological research / "Dong wu xue yan jiu" bian ji wei yuan hui bian ji | Year: 2010

The lipopolysaccharide -and beta-1,3-glucan-binding protein (LGBP) is a pattern recognition receptor, which is fundamental for the innate immune response of crustaceans. A LGBP gene was cloned from the haemocytes of Portunus trituberculatus using SMART RACE methods. The full-length LGBP cDNA (1 378 bp) had a 1 095 bp open reading frame encoding a protein of 365 amino acid residues including a 16 amino acid residues signal peptide, a 138 bp 5' untranslated region (UTR) and a 144 bp untranslated region in the 3' UTR with a 29 bp polyA tail. The calculated molecular mass of the mature protein (349 amino acid residues) is 39,825.24 with an estimated pI of 4.49. The gene sequence and secondary structure of LGBP were analyzed by bio-informatics. Additionally, a Glyco hydro 16 domain was identified. The expression of P. trituberculatus in various tissues were detected through RT-PCR methods. The results showed that the LGBP gene expressed in all the tissues detected, including haemocytes, hepatopancreas, heart, gills and muscle. In response to the challenge of Staphyloccocus aureus and Vibrio alginolyticus, the LGBP gene expression in haemocytes of the group challenged with mixed bacteria were higher than the control group within 48 h. It suggested that the LGBP gene plays an active role in immunologic process against bacterial infection.


Peng X.-F.,Ningbo University
Guangdianzi Jiguang/Journal of Optoelectronics Laser | Year: 2013

The high loss of polymer optical fiber (POF) is a great obstacle to replace silica glass fiber in local area nets. In order to overcome this problem, a novel quantum dot (QD) doped polymer fiber amplifier (QDPFA) is presented in this paper. In the QDPFA, CdSe/ZnS QD is used as the gain medium. Based on a two-level rate equation and the pump power propagation equation, the gain performance of the CdSe/ZnS quantum dot doped polymer fiber amplifier is calculated. The rate and power propagation equations of the model are further solved to investigate the effects of the CdSe/ZnS QD doped concentration, QD doped polymer fiber length, signal and pump intensities on the gain spectra. The results show that when pumped in the milliwatt level, the gain can be more than 35 dB. The needed pumped power to get the same gain is just about 1/10000 of that in the usual dye-doped polymer fiber amplifier. The corresponding relation between the pump power and QD doped concentration is shown and the best number is about 6.33×107/mW. QDPFA has wide room-temperature gain spectra in the range of 550-610 nm, which covers the low-loss window of PMMA POF.


Li J.-H.,Ningbo University
Communications in Theoretical Physics | Year: 2014

In this paper, we investigate a Josephson-junction device with dichotomous resistance or a special SQUID (superconducting quantum interference device). It is shown that frequency (stochastic) resonance and stochastic resonance can appear for some suitably selected parameters' values of the device respectively. Our results can provide some insights for the investigation of the SQUID response to the signal (including the input alternating current, the added alternating voltage, the vertically added alternating magnetic field, and the detected (electric-magnetic) temporal-periodic signal). © 2014 Chinese Physical Society and IOP Publishing Ltd.


Zhu H.-L.,Ningbo University
Acta Crystallographica Section E: Structure Reports Online | Year: 2012

The asymmetric unit of the title compound, {[Tb(C8H 2NO6)(H2O)3]·H 2O}n, contains one TbIII ion, one pyridine-2,4,6-tricarboxylate (ptc) anion, three aqua ligands and one lattice water molecule. The TbIII ion is nine coordinated by one N and five O atoms from three ptc ligands and by three O atoms from the three aqua ligands in a distorted bicapped trigonal-prismatic geometry. The ptc ligands bridge the TbIII ions into a two-dimensional polymeric framework parallel to (100). An extensive O - H⋯O hydrogen-bonding network consolidates the crystal packing. © 2012 International Union of Crystallography.


Guo X.,Xidian University | Guo X.,Chinese Academy of Sciences | Gao L.,Xidian University | Liao Q.,Chinese Academy of Sciences | And 13 more authors.
Nucleic Acids Research | Year: 2013

More and more evidences demonstrate that the long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) play many key roles in diverse biological processes. There is a critical need to annotate the functions of increasing available lncRNAs. In this article, we try to apply a global network-based strategy to tackle this issue for the first time. We develop a bi-colored network based global function predictor, long non-coding RNA global function predictor ('lnc-GFP'), to predict probable functions for lncRNAs at large scale by integrating gene expression data and protein interaction data. The performance of lnc-GFP is evaluated on protein-coding and lncRNA genes. Cross-validation tests on protein-coding genes with known function annotations indicate that our method can achieve a precision up to 95%, with a suitable parameter setting. Among the 1713 lncRNAs in the bi-colored network, the 1625 (94.9%) lncRNAs in the maximum connected component are all functionally characterized. For the lncRNAs expressed in mouse embryo stem cells and neuronal cells, the inferred putative functions by our method highly match those in the known literature. © 2012 The Author(s).


Zhao F.F.,Ningbo University
Zhonghua yu fang yi xue za zhi [Chinese journal of preventive medicine] | Year: 2011

To analyze the consistency of evolution condition between HA gene and the whole genome of influenza virus subtype A/H3N2 strains isolated in Zhejiang province from 1998 to 2009, and to study the potential antigenic region on the whole genome. The sequences of whole genome of 19 Zhejiang influenza virus isolates circulated from 1998 to 2009, which conserved by influenza laboratory of Zhejiang Provincial Centre for Disease Prevention and Control, were amplified using RT-PCR assays. The obtained sequences were used to conduct phylogenetic analysis with 10 contemporaneous vaccine strains. Three methods, including comparison of the amino acid substitutions, calculation of the entropy value and the filtering of positive selection sites, were used to confirm the mutable sites on each gene. The whole genome of influenza virus subtype A/H3N2 was 4466 amino acids in length, with 137 stable mutations. The 144, 158 aa of HA gene mutate four and three times respectively; 93, 143, 307, 370, 372 aa of NA gene and 450 aa of NP gene mutate twice, and there were 29% (12/41) and 77% (24/31) mutations of HA and NA genes occurred on the non-epitope regions respectively. Analysis of the entropy value suggest that many amino acid sites on the non-epitope regions were prone to mutation, including 3, 225, 361 aa of HA gene; 93, 143, 147, 150, 372 aa of NA gene; 113, 576, 586 aa of PB1 gene; 101,256, 382, 421, 437 aa of PA; 377, 450 aa of NP gene; 218 aa of M1 gene and 31 aa of M2 gene. Based on the whole genome of influenza virus subtype A/H3N2 strains isolated in Zhejiang province in 1998 to 2009, there may be several unknown or new antigen sites existing on the non-epitope regions of HA and NA genes and parts of internal genes. The phylogenetic tree constructed based on the complete sequence was more comprehensive than on the HA gene to reflect the genetic relationship and law of evolution among the influenza virus strains.


Wang T.,Xiamen University | Liu N.S.,Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology | Liu N.S.,Ningbo University | Seet L.-F.,Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology | And 4 more authors.
Traffic | Year: 2010

The maintenance of cellular homeostasis and execution of regulatory mechanisms to dynamically govern various cellular processes require the correct delivery of proteins to their target subcellular compartments. It is estimated that over 30% of the proteins encoded by the human genome, projected to encode about 25 000 proteins and other macromolecules, are delivered to the secretory and endocytic pathways where movement of proteins between various compartments is primarily mediated by vesicles/carriers budding from one compartment for delivery to another. Sorting of cargo proteins into budding vesicles/carriers is mediated by adaptors that link the cargo proteins to the coat proteins. The adaptor function of VHS domain proteins, GGA proteins, STAM proteins and Hrs is well-established and is evolutionarily conserved from yeast to humans. Recent studies suggest that Tom1, Tom1L1 and Tom1L2 subfamily of VHS domain proteins, which do not exist in yeast, are emerging as novel regulators for post-Golgi trafficking and signaling. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.


Jin Y.B.,Ningbo University
Advanced Materials Research | Year: 2014

Complying to the characteristics of terminals fordangerous bulk liquid cargoes and combined with the risk guidelines requirements, to conduct risk identification in the whole operations process covering risk items and common accident analysis, and propose risk assessment work ratings, accident hazard prediction, risk prevention measures and emergency plans for accidents of fire, spill, gaseous and liquid chemical leakage. © (2014) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.


Zhou Q.-C.,Ningbo University | Buentello J.A.,Texas A&M University | Gatlin D.M.,Texas A&M University
Aquaculture | Year: 2010

An 8-week feeding trial was conducted with juvenile red drum to evaluate four different prebiotics: fructooligosaccharides (FOS) in the form of inulin, galactooligosaccharides (GOS), Bio-MOS®, containing mannanoligosaccharides (MOS) derived from yeast, and Previda™ containing galacto-gluco-mannans from hemicellulose extract. Each prebiotic was added at a level of 10g kg-1 to the basal diet which was formulated to contain 41% protein and 10% lipid. Each diet was randomly assigned to three aquaria and fed twice daily to apparent satiation. Fish fed the diet containing Previda™ had significantly higher (P<0.05) weight gain than fish fed the basal diet and the one supplemented with Bio-MOS®. Feed efficiency and protein efficiency ratio of fish fed the various diets were not significantly different (P>0.05), although fish fed the basal diet had the lowest values. Fish fed the Bio-MOS® diet had lower survival than fish fed the other diets. Hepatosomatic index, muscle ratio and condition factor were not affected by the dietary treatments. Fish fed the FOS diet had a significantly lower neutrophil oxidative radical production than fish fed the other diets. However, serum lysozyme activity was significantly lower (P<0.05) in fish fed the basal diet compared with those fed the diets supplemented with prebiotics. Quantitative changes in the ultrastructural characteristics of the gastrointestinal tract of red drum fed the various diets were evaluated using histological methods. Fold height and enterocyte height in pyloric caeca and proximal, mid- and distal intestines were not significantly affected by diet. However, microvilli heights in pyloric caeca, proximal and mid-intestine were significantly increased by the supplementation with prebiotics. In this experiment, Previda™ supplementation resulted in significant improvements in growth performance and immunological responses, even as compared to other commercially available prebiotics. Because prebiotic supplementation may result in enhancement of different performance indicators in various fish species, tailored evaluations are recommended before suggesting specific prebiotic strategies. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.


Xu W.-S.,Ningbo University | Zeng D.-F.,Beijing University of Technology
Nuclear Physics B | Year: 2015

We study a quark-monopole bound system moving in N=4 SYM plasma with a constant velocity by the AdS/CFT correspondence. The screening length of this system is calculated, and it is smaller than that of the quark-antiquark bound state. © 2014.


Fan H.-Y.,Ningbo University | Chen J.-H.,Hefei University of Technology | Zhang P.-F.,Hefei University of Technology
Frontiers of Physics | Year: 2015

We propose an entangled fractional squeezing transformation (EFrST) generated by using two mutually conjugate entangled state representations with the following operator: (Fprmula Presented.); this transformation sharply contrasts the complex fractional Fourier transformation produced by using (Formula Presented.) (see Front. Phys. DOI: 10.1007/s11467-014-0445-x). The EFrST is obtained by converting the triangular functions in the integration kernel of the usual fractional Fourier transformation into hyperbolic functions, i.e., tanα → tanhα and sinα → sinh α. The fractional property of the EFrST can be well described by virtue of the properties of the entangled state representations. © 2015, Higher Education Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Peng X.,Ningbo University
Journal of Optics (India) | Year: 2015

Low-cost and high-color-quality white light emitting diodes (WLEDs) have been realized based on CdSe/ZnS colloidal quantum dots (QDs). CdSe/ZnS QDs with different diameters and emission wavelengths were used as phosphors and coated on the unpackaged blue InGaN/GaN LED chips, the emission of QDs and the unabsorbed LED light collectively contribute to the white light generation. Drop-coating and layer-by-layer assembly techniques were used to integrate QDs on the LED chips. Comparison of the experimental results, we found layer-by-layer assembly method with larger QDs at the bottom were the suitable method to generate controllable white light emission. Using this easy and low cost method, WLED samples were fabricated using QD mixtures with one (‘single’), or two (‘dual’) emission wavelengths. High-quality warm WLED were obtained with a correlated color temperature of CCT = 3778 K, tristimulus coordinates of (x, y) = (0.36, 0.28) and color rending index of CRI = 80.8. © 2015, The Optical Society of India.


Chen H.,Ningbo University
Wei sheng wu xue bao = Acta microbiologica Sinica | Year: 2011

Nitrite accumulation in aquaculture water is toxic to reared animals. One of the solutions to this problem is to apply denitrifying bacteria. This paper is intended to get a strain of phototrophic bacteria for efficient removal of nitrite from aquaculture water. We used soft agar to isolate and purify phototrophic bacteria. We investigated biological characteristics of the isolate by means of light and electronic observations, physical and chemical tests. We analyzed its phylogenetical position based on the sequences of 16S rDNA and the gene that codes for photosynthetic reaction center subunit M (pufM). A photosynthetic bacterial strain, named wps, showing high removal efficiency of nitrite, was isolated from the freshwater ponds. Cells were Gram-negative, rod-shaped, slightly curved, 0.4 - 0.6 x 1.5 - 4.0 microm, motile by means of polar multiple flagella. Intracellular membranes were of the lamellar type. It grew under facultative anaerobic conditions in the light with bacteriochlorophyll a and carotenoid of sppirilloxanthin series as photosynthetic pigment. The optimum growth was obtained at pH 5.5 - 8.5, in a range of 0 - 2% salinity and at 25 - 38 degrees C. The similarity of 16S rDNA between strain wps and Rhodopseudomonas palustris was 98.9% and 94.9% for pufM gene. However, there are significant differences between them in the morphological and physiological characteristics, i. e. grew at pH 5.5; no growth photoautotrophicaly with sodium hydrogen carbonate; could not utilize citrate or formate as only carbon source; required thiamine hydrochloride and calcium pantothenate as growth factors. Strain wps may represent a novel species in genus Rhodopseudomonas and possibly find its application in the bioremediation of polluted aquaculture water.


Yao J.,Ningbo University
Journal of Green Building | Year: 2015

The purpose of this research is to investigate the impact of movable solar shading on energy performance in subtropical regions of China. An office building retrofitted with a novel internal roller shading system consisting of two shading layers was selected to carry out field measurements and numerous computer simulations were conducted in order to quantify the energy saving performance of this solar shading system, which was further compared with commonly used Low-E windows and regular fabric roller shades. The results show that the solar transmittance ratio is only 1.3% to 7% depending on used solar shading layers in summer and there is almost no negative impact on heating season in winter. The room base temperature reduction ranges from 4-14°C in summer, indicating a significant indoor thermal performance improvement. Meanwhile, the total energy saving for this shading system is 26.06%, 24.42% and over 50%, respectively, compared to Low-E windows, fabric roller shades and the bare window case. Thus, this novel solar shading system is a high energy saving measure and can be widely used in a subtropical zone. © 2014 College Publishing. All rights reserved.


Fan H.-Y.,Ningbo University | Fan H.-Y.,Hefei University of Technology | Chen J.-H.,Hefei University of Technology
Frontiers of Physics | Year: 2015

By a quantum mechanical analysis of the additive rule Fα[Fβ[f]]=Fα+β[f], which the fractional Fourier transformation (FrFT) Fα[f] should satisfy, we reveal that the position-momentum mutual-transformation operator is the core element for constructing the integration kernel of FrFT. Based on this observation and the two mutually conjugate entangled-state representations, we then derive a core operator for enabling a complex fractional Fourier transformation (CFrFT), which also obeys the additive rule. In a similar manner, we also reveal the fractional transformation property for a type of Fresnel operator. © 2015, Higher Education Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Li C.,Ningbo University
International Journal of Geometric Methods in Modern Physics | Year: 2016

In this paper, we construct the additional W-symmetry and ghost symmetry of two-lattice field integrable hierarchies. Using the symmetry constraint, we construct constrained two-lattice integrable systems which contain several new integrable difference equations. Under a further reduction, the constrained two-lattice integrable systems can be combined into one single integrable system, namely the well-known one-dimensional original Toda hierarchy. We prove that the one-dimensional original Toda hierarchy has a nice Block Lie symmetry. © 2016 World Scientific Publishing Company.


Li J.-H.,Ningbo University
Communications in Theoretical Physics | Year: 2015

In this paper, we investigate the stationary probability current (or flux) of a Brownian ratchet model as a function of the flipping rate of the fluctuating potential barrier. It is shown that, with suitably selecting the parameters' values of the ratchet system, we can get the negative resonant activation, the positive resonant activation, the double resonant activation, and the current reversal, for the stationary probability current versus the flipping rate. The appearance of these phenomena is the result of the cooperative effects of the potential's dichotomous fluctuations and the internal thermal fluctuations on the evolution of the flux versus the flipping rate of the fluctuating potential barrier. In addition, some applications of our results to the motor proteins are discussed. © 2015 Chinese Physical Society and IOP Publishing Ltd.


Liu X.,Northwest University, China | Liu Y.,University of Texas at Arlington | Olver P.J.,University of Minnesota | Qu C.,Ningbo University
Nonlinearity | Year: 2014

The orbital stability of the peaked solitary-wave solutions for a generalization of the modified Camassa-Holm equation with both cubic and quadratic nonlinearities is investigated. The equation is a model of asymptotic shallow-water wave approximations to the incompressible Euler equations. It is also formally integrable in the sense of the existence of a Lax formulation and bi-Hamiltonian structure. It is demonstrated that, when the Camassa-Holm energy counteracts the effect of the modified Camassa-Holm energy, the peakon and periodic peakon solutions are orbitally stable under small perturbations in the energy space. © 2014 IOP Publishing Ltd & London Mathematical Society.


Mao H.,Zhejiang University | Tan F.-Q.,Zhejiang University | Wang D.-H.,Zhejiang University | Zhu J.-Q.,Ningbo University | And 2 more authors.
Aquatic Toxicology | Year: 2012

Metallothionein (MT) participates in metallic homeostasis and detoxification in living animals. Previous studies have focused mainly on the functions of MT in vertebrates, but the functions of MT during spermiogenesis in invertebrates remain unclear. In order to investigate the functions of MT during spermiogenesis in the Japanese stone crab (Charybdis japonica), we identified the C. japonica MT complete cDNA sequence from the total RNA of the testis using RT-PCR and RACE. The 587. bp MT cDNA contains: an 80. bp 5' untranslated region, a 333. bp 3' untranslated region, and a 174. bp open reading frame. MT has 57 amino acids including 19 cysteines. The protein alignment between MT sequences of C. japonica and other crabs shows a high similarity and a strong identity in cysteine residues vital for the metal-binding affinity of MT. After the cadmium (Cd) exposure, the testis displays both abnormal morphology and MT mRNA expression both of which indicate a sensitive response of testis MT to Cd. Therefore, we suggest that MT is an excellent biomarker candidate for evaluating Cd pollution. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.


Zhang L.,CAS Wuhan Institute of Physics and Mathematics | Ye Y.,CAS Wuhan Institute of Physics and Mathematics | Ye Y.,Ningbo University | An Y.,CAS Wuhan Institute of Physics and Mathematics | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Proteome Research | Year: 2011

Exposure to aflatoxins causes liver fibrosis and hepatocellular carcinoma posing a significant health risk for human populations and livestock. To understand the mammalian systems responses to aflatoxin-B1 (AFB1) exposure, we analyzed the AFBI-induced metabonomic changes in multiple biological matrices (plasma, urine, and liver) of rats using 1H NMR spectroscopy together with clinical biochemistry and histopathologic assessments. We found that AFB1 exposure caused significant elevation of glucose, amino acids, and choline metabolites (choline, phosphocholine, and glycero-phosphocholine) in plasma but reduction of plasma lipids. AFB1 also induced elevation of liver lipids, amino acids (tyrosine, histidine, phenylalanine, leucine, isoleucine, and valine), choline, and nucleic acid metabolites (inosine, adenosine, and uridine) together with reduction of hepatic glycogen and glucose. AFB1 further caused decreases in urinary TCA cycle intermediates (2-oxoglutarate and citrate) and elevation of gut microbiota cometabolites (phenylacetylglycine and hippurate). These indicated that AFB1 exposure caused hepatic steatosis accompanied with widespread metabolic changes including lipid and cell membrane metabolisms, protein biosynthesis, glycolysis, TCA cycle, and gut microbiota functions. This implied that AFB1 exposure probably caused oxidative-stress-mediated impairments of mitochondria functions. These findings provide an overview of biochemical consequences of AFB1 exposure and comprehensive insights into the metabolic aspects of AFB1-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. © 2011 American Chemical Society.


Huang Z.A.,Ningbo University
Dong wu xue yan jiu = Zoological research / "Dong wu xue yan jiu" bian ji wei yuan hui bian ji | Year: 2011

Coagulation factor X (FX) plays an important role in the immune response of mammals. In this study, the full length cDNA sequence of the ayu FX gene, 1817 bp in length excluding 3'-polyA tail, was determined for the first time. The sequence contained an open reading frame, which encoded a protein of 453 amino acids with a molecular weight of 5.07×10(4). The predicted protein had motifs typical of animal FX, and its N-terminal 24 residues were the signal peptides. Sequence comparison showed that ayu FX shared 53% amino acid sequence identity with zebrafish FX. In healthy ayu, FX mRNA was expressed mainly in the liver and weakly in the brain and gill. After Listonella anguillarum infection, liver FX transcriptions significantly increased, and peaked at 16 h post infection. The serine protease motif of ayu FX was expressed in Escherichia coli and was subsequently used for antiserum preparation. Western blotting analysis revealed that serum FX significantly increased in bacterially infected ayu fish. In conclusion, the ayu FX gene expression was significant in the progress of bacterial infection, which suggests FX's role in fish immune response.


Zhang Y.,CAS Shenzhen Institutes of Advanced Technology | Zhang Y.,City University of Hong Kong | Kwong S.,City University of Hong Kong | Xu L.,University of Science and Technology Beijing | And 3 more authors.
IEEE Transactions on Image Processing | Year: 2013

In this paper, we propose a view synthesis distortion model (VSDM) that establishes the relationship between depth distortion and view synthesis distortion for the regions with different characteristics: color texture area corresponding depth (CTAD) region and color smooth area corresponding depth (CSAD), respectively. With this VSDM, we propose regional bit allocation (RBA) and rate distortion optimization (RDO) algorithms for multiview depth video coding (MDVC) by allocating more bits on CTAD for rendering quality and fewer bits on CSAD for compression efficiency. Experimental results show that the proposed VSDM based RBA and RDO can improve the coding efficiency significantly for the test sequences. In addition, for the proposed overall MDVC algorithm that integrates VSDM based RBA and RDO, it achieves 9.99% and 14.51% bit rate reduction on average for the high and low bit rate, respectively. It can improve virtual view image quality 0.22 and 0.24 dB on average at the high and low bit rate, respectively, when compared with the original joint multiview video coding model. The RD performance comparisons using five different metrics also validate the effectiveness of the proposed overall algorithm. In addition, the proposed algorithms can be applied to both INTRA and INTER frames. © 2013 IEEE.


Cheng X.-P.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Lou S.Y.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Lou S.Y.,East China Normal University | Lou S.Y.,Ningbo University | And 2 more authors.
Physical Review E - Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics | Year: 2014

The nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS) equation is widely used in natural science. Various nonlinear excitations of the NLS equation have been found by many methods. However, except for the soliton-soliton interactions, it is very difficult to find interaction solutions between different types of nonlinear excitations. In this paper, the symmetry reduction method is further developed to find interaction solutions between solitons and other types of NLS waves. Especially, the soliton-cnoidal wave interaction solutions are explicitly studied in terms of the Jacobi elliptic functions and the third type of incomplete elliptic integrals. Some special concrete interaction solutions and their asymptotic behaviors are discussed both in analytical and graphical ways. © 2014 American Physical Society.


Zhu Q.,Ningbo University | Cao J.,Nanjing Southeast University
Nonlinear Dynamics | Year: 2012

This paper is a contribution to the analysis of the pth moment exponential synchronization problem for a class of stochastic delayed Cohen-Grossberg neural networks with Markovian switching. The jumping parameters are determined by a continuous-time, discrete-state Markov chain, and the delays are time-varying delays. By using the Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional, stochastic analysis theory, a generalized Halanay-type inequality as well as output coupling with delay feedback control technique, some novel sufficient conditions are derived to achieve complete pth moment exponential synchronization of the addressed neural networks. In particular, the traditional assumptions on the differentiability of the time varying delay and the boundedness of its derivative are removed in this paper. The results obtained in this paper generalize and improve many known results. Moreover, a numerical example and its simulation are also provided to demonstrate the effectiveness and applicability of the theoretical results. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.


Zhu H.B.,Ningbo University | Gao J.B.,Guangxi University | Gao J.B.,PMB Intelligence LLC
Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications | Year: 2014

The fractal behavior of traffic flow is studied by the adaptive fractal analysis method on the basis of the vehicle headway time series, which are obtained from the numerical simulation of the NaSch model. We find that the vehicle headway time series has a fractal behavior that is similar to the standard Brownian motion (BM) over a wide range of scales when the density is low. As the density increases well-defined sharp spectral peaks, corresponding to the stop-and-go waves, appear while the scale range showing BM-like behavior rapidly shrinks. In the high density regime, a new type of fractal behavior with long-range correlations appears, accompanying the worsening of traffic congestions. The underlying dynamics of traffic flow is analyzed, and some meaningful results are obtained. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Qian Y.,Baoji University of Arts And Sciences | Zhang Z.,Ningbo University
PLoS ONE | Year: 2016

In this paper we have systematically investigated the fundamental structure and the reproduction of spiral wave in a two-dimensional excitable lattice. A periodically rotating spiral wave is introduced as the model to reproduce spiral wave artificially. Interestingly, by using the dominant phase-advanced driving analysis method, the fundamental structure containing the loop structure and the wave propagation paths has been revealed, which can expose the periodically rotating orbit of spiral tip and the charity of spiral wave clearly. Furthermore, the fundamental structure is utilized as the core for artificial spiral wave. Additionally, the appropriate parameter region, in which the artificial spiral wave can be reproduced, is studied. Finally, we discuss the robustness of artificial spiral wave to defects. Copyright © 2016 Qian, Zhang.


Zhou W.,Hunan Normal University | Yu H.,Hunan Normal University | Yu H.,Ningbo University
Journal of High Energy Physics | Year: 2012

The Lamb shift results from the coupling of an atom to vacuum fluctuations of quantum fields, so corrections are expected to arise when the spacetime is curved since the vacuum fluctuations are modified by the presence of spacetime curvature. Here, we calculate the curvature-induced correction to the Lamb shift outside a spherically symmetric object and demonstrate that this correction can be remarkably significant outside a compact massive astrophysical body. For instance, for a neutron star or a stellar mass black hole, the correction is ∼ 25% at a radial distance of 4GM/c 2, ∼ 16% at 10GM/c 2 and as large as ∼ 1.6% even at 100GM/c 2, where M is the mass of the object, G the Newtonian constant, and c the speed of light. In principle, we can look at the spectra from a distant compact super-massive body to find such corrections. Therefore, our results suggest a possible way of detecting fundamental quantum effects in astronomical observations. © 2012 SISSA.


Gao X.N.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Lou S.Y.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Lou S.Y.,Ningbo University | Lou S.Y.,Fudan University
Physics Letters, Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and High-Energy Physics | Year: 2012

Bosonization approach to the classical supersymmetric systems is presented. By introducing the multi-fermionic parameters in the expansions of the superfields, the N=1 supersymmetric KdV (sKdV) system is transformed to a system of coupled bosonic equations. The method can be applied to any fermionic systems. By solving the coupled bosonic equations, some novel types of exact solutions can be explicitly obtained. Especially, the richness of the localized excitations of the supersymmetric integrable system is discovered. The rich multi-soliton solutions obtained here have not yet been obtained by using other methods. However, the traditional known multi-soliton solutions can also not be obtained by the bosonization approach of this Letter. Some open problems on the bosonization of the supersymmetric integrable models are proposed in the both classical and quantum levels. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.


Zhou W.,Hunan Normal University | Yu H.,Hunan Normal University | Yu H.,Ningbo University
Classical and Quantum Gravity | Year: 2012

We study the spontaneous excitation of a radially polarized static multilevel atom outside a spherically symmetric black hole in multipolar interaction with quantum electromagnetic fluctuations in the Boulware, Unruh and HartleHawking vacuum states. We find that spontaneous excitation does not occur in the Boulware vacuum, and, in contrast to the scalar field case, the spontaneous emission rate is not well behaved at the event horizon as a result of the blow-up of the proper acceleration of the static atom. However, spontaneous excitation can take place both in the Unruh and the HartleHawking vacua as if there were thermal radiation from the black hole. Distinctive features in contrast to the scalar field case are the existence of a term proportional to the proper acceleration squared in the rate of change of the mean atomic energy in the Unruh and the Hartle-Hawking vacua and the structural similarity in the spontaneous excitation rate between the static atoms outside a black hole and uniformly accelerated ones in a flat space with a reflecting boundary, which is particularly dramatic at the event horizon where a complete equivalence exists. © 2012 IOP Publishing Ltd.


Zhang D.Y.,Ningbo University
Zhonghua yu fang yi xue za zhi [Chinese journal of preventive medicine] | Year: 2012

To compare the differences in the complete genome sequence between mumps epidemic strain and mumps vaccine strain S79 isolated in Zhejiang province. A total of 4 mumps epidemic strains, which were separated from Zhejiang province during 2005 to 2010, named as ZJ05-1, ZJ06-3, ZJ08-1 and ZJ10-1 were selected in the study. The complete genome sequences were amplified using RT-PCR. The genetic differences between vaccine strain S79 and other genotype strains were compared; while the genetic-distance was calculated and the evolution was analyzed. The biggest difference between the 4 epidemic strains and the vaccine strain S79 was found on the membrane associated protein gene; whose average nucleotide differential number was 42.5 +/- 3.0 and the average variant ratio was 13.6%; while the mean amino acid differential number was 12.8 +/- 1.5 and the average variant ratio was 22.4%. The smallest difference among the 4 epidemic strains and the vaccine strain was found in stromatin genes, whose average nucleotide differential number was 73.8 +/- 2.5 and the average variant ratio was 5.9%; while the mean amino acid differential number was 3.0 +/- 0.8 and the average variant ratio was 0.8%. The dn/ds value of the stromatin genes of the 4 epidemic strains reached the highest, as 0.6526; but without any positive pressure (dn/ds < 1, chi2 = 0.87, P > 0.05). There were mutations happened on the known antigen epitope, as 8th amino acid of membrane associated protein genes and on the 336th and 356th amino acid of hemagglutinin/neuraminidase proteins. Compared with the vaccine strain, the glycosylation sites of ZJ05-1, ZJ06-3, ZJ08-1 and ZJ10-1 increased 1, 1, 2 and 2 respectively. The complete amino acid sequence of all strains showed that there were 17 characteristic sites found on the genotype-F mumps strain. Within the complete genome, the genetic-distance between epidemic strains and vaccine strains in Zhejiang province (0.071) was significantly larger than the genetic-distance between strains in Yunnan province (0.013); the difference showing statistical significance (t = 4.14, P < 0.05). Except nucleocapsid protein genes, all the genes shared similar evolution tree. There were significant differences found in the genes between mumps epidemic strain and mumps vaccine in Zhejiang province.


Gui G.,Jiangsu University | Gui G.,Chinese University of Hong Kong