Ningbo, China
Ningbo, China

Ningbo University is located in Ningbo, Zhejiang, China. It is a provincially governed key university in Zhejiang Province. Wikipedia.


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A method for optimizing an area of a ternary FPRM circuit using population migration algorithm, the method including: 1) establishing an area estimation model of the ternary FPRM circuit; 2) establishing a corresponding relationship between the ternary FPRM circuit and population migration algorithm; 3) setting an attraction function for calculating the attraction of the population location in population migration algorithm; 4) setting relevant parameters of population migration algorithm; and 5) employing population migration algorithm to calculate and obtain the greatest attractive site and the greatest attraction.


Wang Y.,Ningbo University | Cheng R.,Ningbo University | Ge H.,Ningbo University
Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications | Year: 2017

In this paper, a lattice hydrodynamic model is derived considering not only the effect of flow rate difference but also the delayed feedback control signal which including more comprehensive information. The control method is used to analyze the stability of the model. Furthermore, the critical condition for the linear steady traffic flow is deduced and the numerical simulation is carried out to investigate the advantage of the proposed model with and without the effect of flow rate difference and the control signal. The results are consistent with the theoretical analysis correspondingly. © 2017 Elsevier B.V.


Zhang A.B.,Ningbo University | Wang B.L.,University of Western Sydney | Wang J.,Ningbo University | Du J.K.,Ningbo University
International Journal of Thermal Sciences | Year: 2017

The two-dimensional problems of an elliptic hole or a rigid inclusion embedded in a thermoelectric material subjected to uniform electric current density and energy flux at infinity are studied based on the complex variable method of Muskhelishvili and conformal mapping technique. The closed-form solutions of electric potential, temperature and stress components are presented according to electrical insulated and thermal exact boundary conditions on the rim of the hole or inclusion. Numerical results are carried out to illustrate the influence of the value of major to minor axis ratio of the elliptic geometry and heat conductivity of inhomogeneity on thermoelectric and stress fields. It is found that energy flux at surfaces of the hole or rigid inclusion does not vanish due to the Joule heat and Seebeck effect when the electric field is applied. In addition, stress induced by applied electric field has a non-linear relationship with the electric current density. The heat conductivity of the air inside the elliptic hole reduces the concentration factors of energy flux and stress. However, the concentration factors of energy flux and stress at the bonding interface increase with the increasing values of heat conductivity of the flat rigid inclusion. © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS


Wang Q.,Ningbo University | Wang P.,Ningbo University | Gong D.,Ningbo University
2016 IEEE International Conference on Ubiquitous Wireless Broadband, ICUWB 2016 | Year: 2016

A novel single-edge explicit pulsed JKL flip-flop (S-JKL) and dual-edge explicit pulsed JKL flip-flop (D-JKL) are designed with Carbon Nanotube Field Effect Transistor (CNFET). Firstly, a single-edge pulsed generator (S-PG) is designed. Then combined with a ternary JKL latch, a S-JKL is obtained; D-JKL is designed by replacing S-PG with double-edge pulsed generator (D-PG). The circuits possess the character of high speed and low power by employing CNFET. The scheme is simulated by HSPICE, and the results show that the designed ternary explicit pulsed JKL flip-flop has correct logic function and low power consumption. © 2016 IEEE.


Chen C.-D.,Ming Chuan University | Zhao Q.,Ningbo University | Wang J.-L.,Ming Chuan University
Pacific Asia Conference on Information Systems, PACIS 2016 - Proceedings | Year: 2016

Psychological ownership (PO), a feeling of possessiveness and psychological attachment of an object, is ubiquitous. Previous studies have demonstrated the importance of PO on individuals' attitude and behaviors in organizations. However, few studies have empirically tested this concept in the online context, especially in social media. Basing on examining the antecedents and consequences of PO, this study aims to explore the effect of PO on customer engagement process and loyalty in online social media context. The proposed model was empirically evaluated using data via questionnaire survey in Taiwan. More than 350 LINE users participated in this study. Structural equation modelling was applied to analyze the results. We find that self-investment, perceived control, perceived familiarity and social influence have positive and significant effects on PO, which further influence online social media users' loyalty. Moreover, this study generates new finding to PO literature by proposing social influence as a critical driver. Finally, the implications of this study on theory and practice are discussed.


Xie X.,Ningbo University | Wang Y.,Jiangnan University | Li X.,Hangzhou Dianzi University
Computational Economics | Year: 2017

The promotion and application of low-carbon energy has become a basic energy policy in China. In the taxi industry, the adoption of natural gas is a typical reflection of the use of low-carbon energy, however, the application of CNG taxis in practice is difficult because of the ignorance of consumer behaviour choices and the lack of consideration of the reforming and maintenance costs of CNG taxis in practical use during the implementation of this policy. In this paper, the construction of a multi-stage dynamic game model is proposed: this is used to analyse the complex dynamic relationships among consumers, the taxis, and the policy-making behaviours of government. By the means of backward induction, a conclusion is drawn such that government should determine the subsidy coefficientper unit of product as well as the carbon taxand the optimal reduction rate of carbon emissions confirmed by operators determination. Based on these, concerning the behavioural choices among consumers, taxis, and government, this paper draws five conclusions, which answer the problems concerning whether, or not, the government should levy a carbon tax and subsidise such operations as well as how much that financial levy and subsidy should be. Besides, this paper also makes a value judgment of the future format/mode of taxi operations. The study shows that, with the increasing subsidy, the competitive advantages of the CNG taxis are strengthened while the revenues of oil-fired taxis decrease constantly, which forces oil-fired taxis out of the market. At the same time, the service prices of both kinds of taxis are proportional to the money paid by consumers and the positive impacts of service prices on CNG taxis are greater than that on oil-fired taxis.The carbon tax standard set by government can play a proper role only if it gives consideration to the interests of both consumers and CNG taxis. © 2017 Springer Science+Business Media New York


Jin H.,Ningbo University | Abu-Raya Y.S.,Russell Berrie Nanotechnology Institute | Haick H.,Russell Berrie Nanotechnology Institute
Advanced Healthcare Materials | Year: 2017

Skin-based wearable devices have a great potential that could result in a revolutionary approach to health monitoring and diagnosing disease. With continued innovation and intensive attention to the materials and fabrication technologies, development of these healthcare devices is progressively encouraged. This article gives a concise, although admittedly non-exhaustive, didactic review of some of the main concepts and approaches related to recent advances and developments in the scope of skin-based wearable devices (e.g. temperature, strain, biomarker-analysis werable devices, etc.), with an emphasis on emerging materials and fabrication techniques in the relevant fields. To give a comprehensive statement, part of the review presents and discusses different aspects of these advanced materials, such as the sensitivity, biocompatibility and durability as well as the major approaches proposed for enhancing their chemical and physical properties. A complementary section of the review linking these advanced materials with wearable device technologies is particularly specified. Some of the strong and weak points in development of each wearable material/device are highlighted and criticized. Several ideas regarding further improvement of skin-based wearable devices are also discussed. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


Li S.-X.,Ningbo University | Su Y.-S.,Lanzhou University of Technology | Shu X.-D.,Ningbo University | Chen J.-J.,Ningbo University
Wear | Year: 2017

The purpose of this investigation was to study microstructural evolution leading to the formation of wear debris and white etching areas (WEA) in the subsurface of AISI 52100 steel during rolling contact fatigue (RCF). The specimens were tested using a roller-on-roller geometry testing machine. Surface damage was characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Lamellar structures generated during the rubbing of crack faces give a clear picture of how wear debris is formed. In contrast to the previously reported WEA, which is composed of nano-ferrites generated under the mechanism of recrystallization, the WEA produced in the current RCF condition consists of an amorphous phase with nanocrystallites dispersed. Based on this, it is proposed that WEA can be classified into deformed WEA and transformed WEA depending on whether phase transformation occurs. In addition, the relationship between white etching crack (WEC) and WEA was discussed in detail. The result suggests that WEC does not initiate WEAs as it has been accepted. Instead, they form under different mechanisms. © 2017 Elsevier B.V.


Yuan Y.,Tongji University | Zhu X.,Tongji University | Li L.,Tongji University | Wang H.,Ningbo University
Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering | Year: 2017

Output of municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) can be classified as several different types of residues, of which bottom ash is a primary by-product. Utilization possibilities other than landfilling the incineration residues have been a tough task; most initiatives in this sense tend to use these residues as aggregate substitute materials in asphalt pavement. From previous research work, the use of MSWI bottom ash aggregates in asphalt pavement is feasible from the point of view of both environmental safety and structural stability. However, the MSWI bottom ash aggregates are highly multicomponent materials that consist of glass, brick, ceramics, metal, and slag. The compositional variability of bottom ash may affect the damage behavior of asphalt mixture considering that the strength and thickness of the interfacial zone are quite different for each aggregate-asphalt pair. Therefore, based on the finite-element method, numerical simulation has been conducted to investigate the effect of interfacial zone on the tensile damage behavior of asphalt mixture contained bottom ash under indirect tensile force. The stress distribution characteristics have been studied, and the effect of interfacial zone on the asphalt mixtures' damage behavior has been discussed. The conclusions can provide a theoretical guide for the forecast and control of the tensile damage caused by the variability of components. © 2016 American Society of Civil Engineers.


Zou C.-W.,Ningbo University | Deng Y.-M.,Ningbo University | He H.-B.,Ningbo University
Smart Innovation, Systems and Technologies | Year: 2017

An adaptable-function mechanical product belongs to a specific category of products that are feasible in delivering multiple functions by replacing/changing some of its components. The functions are referred to as being adaptable because they suit to different applications. To design such a product, it is necessary to study the process of function switching, during which there shall be detaching and/or disassembling of some existing components, as well as attaching and/or assembling some new components. Existing work on modular design and structure-sharing design provides certain research basis but has not directly addressed such a function switching process. In this paper, we make an initial attempt to study the mechanism and characteristics of the process. The mapping relation between the prior function and the prior structure, as well as the mapping relation between the posterior function and the posterior structure are investigated and represented. Specifically, in order to get a proper disassembly-assembly sequence in the process of function switching, we propose a sequence optimization method consisting of both disassemble (of existing non-sharing parts) and assemble (of new non-sharing parts). To simplify the conventional interference matrix used for the disassembly-assembly sequence planning, an aggregated interference matrix, which was used to express the interference of parts in the individual direction, was proposed. The disassembly-assembly sequence was optimized by using MATLAB. A case study was also presented to demonstrate the applicability of the proposed methodology. © Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2017.


Zhou J.,Ningbo University | Jin L.,Ningbo University | Pun E.Y.-B.,City University of Hong Kong
Optics Letters | Year: 2012

A tunable multichannel nonreciprocal perfect absorber with the asymmetric metal-photonic crystal hetero-structure is theoretically proposed. By using the transfer matrix method, the linear and nonlinear properties of the absorber are investigated.Anultra-narrow perfect absorption channel is realized in the linear case due to the impedance matching, and the channel number can be adjusted by changing the period of the photonic crystal. Bistable absorption and reflection are achieved in the nonlinear case due to the positive feedback between the metal nonlinear permittivity and the inner electric field, while the bistable thresholds can be altered by varying the incident light wavelength. Moreover, the absorber exhibits the intrinsic nonreciprocity in both absorption and reflection, and shows the polarization-independent directional characteristics when the incident angle is less than 40°. © 2012 Optical Society of America.


Wu T.,Ningbo University | Du Y.,Ningbo Institute of Medical Science
International Journal of Biological Sciences | Year: 2017

This review aimed to summarize the current research contents about long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) and some related lncRNAs as molecular biomarkers or therapy strategies in human cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Following the development of various kinds of sequencing technologies, lncRNAs have become one of the most unknown areas that need to be explored. First, the definition and classification of lncRNAs were constantly amended and supplemented because of their complexity and diversity. Second, several methods and strategies have been developed to study the characteristic of lncRNAs, including new species identifications, subcellular localization, gain or loss of function, molecular interaction, and bioinformatics analysis. Third, based on the present results from basic researches, the working mechanisms of lncRNAs were proved to be different forms of interactions involving DNAs, RNAs, and proteins. Fourth, lncRNA can play different important roles during the embryogenesis and organ differentiations. Finally, because of the tissue-specific expression of lncRNAs, they could be used as biomarkers or therapy targets and effectively applied in different kinds of diseases, such as human cancer and cardiovascular diseases. © Ivyspring International Publisher.


Cheng R.,Ningbo University | Sun F.,Ningbo University of Technology | Wang J.,Zhejiang University
International Journal of Computer Mathematics | Year: 2017

The Space-fractional wave equations (SFWE) have been found to be very adequate in describing anomalous transport and dispersion phenomena. Due to the non-local property of integro-differential operator of space-fractional derivative, it is very challenging to deal with fractional model. In this paper, a meshless analysis of two-dimensional two-sided SFWE is proposed based on the improved moving least-squares (IMLS) approximation. The trial function for the SFWE is constructed by the IMLS approximation, where the resulting algebraic equation system to obtain the shape functions is no more ill conditioned and has high computational efficiency. The Riemann–Liouville operator is discretized by the Grünwald formula. The centre difference method and the strong-forms of the SFWE are used to obtain the final fully discrete algebraic equation. And the essential boundary conditions can be directly and easily imposed on as a finite element method. Due to the adoption of IMLS approximation and strong-forms, this method will be highly accurate and efficient. Numerical results demonstrate that this method is highly accurate and computationally efficient for SFWE. Moreover, the convergence and error estimate have been analysed in our study. © 2017 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group


Zou C.,Ningbo University | Deng Y.,Ningbo University | Wang G.,Ningbo University
Jixie Gongcheng Xuebao/Journal of Mechanical Engineering | Year: 2016

To address the limitation of current research on the design of adaptable-function mechanical products, a functional design method and its implementation steps are proposed, followed by an investigation on the functional similarity of the adaptable-function mechanical products. As an adaptable-function mechanical product, it is imperative to disassemble and assemble the relevant components in order to realize function switching. Hence, it is indispensable to investigate the disassembly-assembly sequence planning for an adaptable-function mechanical product. To this end, it categorizes the components of an adaptable-function mechanical product into the shared parts and non-shared parts, and as such it attempts to address the disassembly-assembly sequence planning for the latter. By taking into account of all necessary parts of each adaptable function, a relation table is built up based on the relationship between the functions and the parts. To simplify the conventional interference matrix, an aggregated interference matrix (AIM), which is used to express the interference of parts in the individual direction, is established. In addition, a new method for generating AIM quickly and exactly is presented, where a bounding-box detection coupled with projection method is proposed. Subsequently, a genetic algorithm (GA) method is employed to optimize the disassembly-assembly sequences. Finally, a case study of the disassembly-assembly sequence planning of a micro tillage machine is provided to illustrate the feasibility of the proposed methodology. © 2016 Journal of Mechanical Engineering.


Wang G.,Ningbo University | Deng Y.,Ningbo University | Zou C.,Ningbo University
Jixie Gongcheng Xuebao/Journal of Mechanical Engineering | Year: 2016

It is of great practical value to design adaptable-function product. The research of this kind of product is still lacking. Based on a study of the behavioral process characteristics of the mechatronic products, behavioral process is Categorized into basic behavioral process and teleological behavioral process, as such points out the fact that it is due to the similarity of basic behavioral processes that makes it feasible to redesign existing products for a new adaptable-function product. Besides, the greater the similarity, the more feasible the redesign. After mapping the same or similar basic behavioral process to some structural components, it proposes a quantitative method for evaluation of similarity of the components. By extracting the components with maximum similarity, it is able to identify the shared components, as well as to determine the products to be redesigned. Furthermore, it is noted that one of the most essential problems to be tackled in redesign is to design the interface between the shared and non-shared components. To this end, it proposes two rules to be followed as well as two methods to be applied. A case study of redesigning two mechatronic products, namely an electric ice-shaker and an electric vegetable-shredder, for an adaptable-function product is also presented to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed methodologies. © 2016 Journal of Mechanical Engineering.


Hua C.,Ningbo University | Lu Y.,Ningbo University | Liu T.,Ningbo University
Progress in Electromagnetics Research Letters | Year: 2017

This paper presents a heart-shaped planar monopole antenna for ultra-wideband (UWB) applications. To increase the impedance bandwidth of the antenna and achieve UWB coverage, we use a heart-shaped radiating patch fed by a microstrip line and an elliptical curved ground plane. Based on this structure, by etching an annular slot loaded with a capacitor in the heart-shaped radiating patch, a planar band-notched UWB antenna can also be obtained. Specifically, to demonstrate the potential application of the proposed structure, a UWB antenna design with a reconfigurable notched band is presented by using a varactor to replace the capacitor. Commercial software ANSYS HFSS is used to analyze and design this antenna. Measured results of the fabricated antenna show good agreement with simulated ones. © 2017, Electromagnetics Academy. All rights reserved.


Gao M.,Ningbo University | Li Q.-Z.,Ningbo University | Yan X.-W.,Anyang University, China | Wang J.,Ningbo University
Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics | Year: 2017

Superconductivity in two-dimensional compounds is widely studied, not only because of its application in constructing nano-superconducting devices, but also for general scientific interest. Very recently, borophene (a two-dimensional boron sheet) has been successfully grown on the Ag(111) surface, through direct evaporation of a pure boron source. The experiment unveiled two types of borophene structures, namely β12 and χ3. Herein, we employed density-functional first-principles calculations to investigate the electron-phonon coupling and superconductivity in both structures of borophene. The band structures of β12 and χ3 borophenes exhibit inherent metallicity. We found that electron-phonon coupling constants in the two compounds are larger than that in MgB2. The superconducting transition temperatures were determined to be 18.7 K and 24.7 K through the McMillian-Allen-Dynes formula. These temperatures are much higher than the theoretically predicted 8.1 K and experimentally observed 7.4 K superconductivity in graphene. Our findings will enrich nano-superconducting device applications and boron-related materials science. © 2017 American Physical Society.


Liu X.,Tongji University | Dong Z.,Tongji University | Bai Y.,Tongji University | Zhu Y.,Ningbo University
Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology | Year: 2017

It has been found that in the operation of shield tunnels in urban rail traffic system, different assembling segmental tunnel structures demonstrate distinct service qualities. There is still controversy among engineers and scientists regarding the influence of circumferential joints on the overall structural mechanical behavior. This study designed and performed full-scale experiments relating to the structural bearing capacity of stagger joint assembled shield tunnels based on an unloading situation, which combines engineering practices relevant to the current urban metro with circumferential disturbances. The design of tested linings and loading schemes are described. The most important results include the evolution of deformations, structural internal force, and behavior of both the longitudinal and circumferential joints. The failure mechanism of the tested linings is analyzed. The performance of different jointed segmental tunnel linings is further compared. Via the experimental investigation, the structural effect induced by stagger joints in segmental tunnel linings is quantitatively highlighted. And the progressive failure and ultimate capacity of staggered segmental linings are captured under the designed loading situation. It is concluded that circumferential joints of segmental tunnel linings should be designed in order to obtain the deemed structural-unity. What's more, the difference in mechanical behavior is clarified through the performance comparison of different jointed segmental tunnel linings, which offers direct evidences for the serviceability assessment of operated metro tunnels. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd


AIM To evaluate the effect of heat-clearing and dampness-expelling therapy combined with rosuvastatin on biochemical indexes and physical fitness in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). METHODS Eighty-six type 2 diabetic patients treated at our hospital from March 2015 to December 2015 were selected and randomly divided into a control group and an experimental group, with 43 cases in each group. Patients in the control group were treated with heat-clearing and dampness-expelling therapy alone, and the experimental group was treated with heatclearing and dampness-expelling therapy plus rosuvastatin. After 12 wk of treatment, blood biochemical indexes, physical indexes and adverse reactions of the two groups were compared. RESULTS After treatment, fasting blood glucose and triglyceride levels were significantly lower in the experimental group than in the control group (6.14 mmol/L ± 2.14 mmol/L vs 7.04 mmol/L ± 2.15 mmol/L, p < 0.05; 0.16 mmol/L ± 1.43 mmol/L vs 1.74 mmol/L ± 0.23 mmol/L, p < 0.05); body fat percentage was significantly lower in the experimental group than in the control group (29.16 ± 4.29 vs 34.24 ± 4.52, p < 0.05). Patients in both groups showed no obvious adverse reactions such as allergy, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and muscle pain. CONCLUSION Heat-clearing and dampness-expelling therapy combined with rosuvastatin can reduce blood biochemical parameters and improve physical fitness in patients with T2DM, with no obvious adverse reactions. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Baishideng Publishing Group Inc. All rights reserved.


Huang Y.,Ningbo University | Luo L.,Ningbo University | Luo L.,Zhejiang University
Journal of Alloys and Compounds | Year: 2017

Na0.5Bi0.5-xYbxTiO3 (NBT:xYb, x = 0–0.03) ceramics with different Yb doping contents were prepared with a conventional solid-state reaction method. A strong up-conversion photoluminescence (UC PL) based on the intrinsic defect of Na0.5Bi0.5TiO3:Yb3+ ceramics without doping any rare earth activators under a 980 nm diode laser excitation is found. The effects of annealing, temperatures, and external electric fields on the UC PL were investigated. It is found that the UC emissions can be tuned by both chemical method: annealing at 600 °C under a low oxygen pressure, and physical approach: an application of external electric field upon the ceramics. The possible UC PL mechanism of the defects in the ceramics is also discussed via the UC and down-conversion PL characteristics. The unique UC PL features, which is much different with the conventional rare earth activators, and universality of intrinsic defects in perovskite ferroelectrics open a new window for the development of UC PL materials. © 2017 Elsevier B.V.


Dong X.,Zhejiang University | Ye C.,Ningbo University
Revista de la Facultad de Ingenieria | Year: 2017

In order to obtaining better external development of resources, all kinds of enterprises in the industrial cluster of the internet of things is bound to break the trade restrictions, to meet the specific needs of the user, toset up ecological system through reasonable structure, scale and mode. The ecosystem of the internet of things industrial cluster is a dynamic and open system, which is composed of a plurality of core subjects in a certain relationship of value creation, there is a kind of vertical expansion relation, which realizes the value added of the system through the chain relation. The core subjects of the Internet of things industrial cluster ecosystem play an important role in the growth of the industry, those are the basis for the survival and development of the whole ecosystem. Based on the logistic growth model of the Internet of things industrial cluster ecosystem analysis shows that the impact of the government on the development of the Internet of things industry cluster is mainly from government procurement of the Internet of things in the region, the development of the Internet of things industry preferential policies, the Internet of things industry research and development investment support.


Yang W.,Ningbo University | Sheng Q.,Ningbo University
Journal of Practical Oncology | Year: 2017

Objective: To investigate the value of combined detection of Pap smear and liquid-based cytology test (LCT) in the screening of cervical precancerous lesions. Methods: Patients who received the screening of cervical precancerous lesions were enrolled. The test results were compared among Pap smear, LCT or the combination of the two methods. Biopsy result under the colposcope was used as the gold standard. Results: The sensitivity, specificity, accuracy and Youden index were 68.9%, 90.1%, 88.8% and 0.589 for Pap smear method only, were 73.8%, 89.5%, 88.5% and 0.630 for LCT only, and were 85.3%, 89.6%, 89.2% and 0.747 for Pap smear and LCT combined detection. Compared with Pap smear, LCT was not significantly different in sensitivity, specificity or accuracy (P>0.05). Nevertheless, the sensitivity of LCT combined with Pap smear method was improved compared to the single application of either LCT or Pap smear (P<0.05). The specificity and accuracy of the combined approach was not different with that of neither single method (P>0.05). Moreover, the diagnostic accuracy of LCT was higher than Pap smear [net reclassification improvement(NRI)=0.042], whereas the LCT and Pap smear combined method has higher diagnostic accuracy than Pap smear only (NRI=0.818) and LCT only (NRI=0.861). Conclusion: Pap smear combined with LCT detection can accurately and reliably detect cervical cancer lesions, which has high clinical application value. © 2017, The Second Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University. All right reserved.


Long non-coding RNAs (LncRNAs) is a group of non-coding RNAs with length exceeding 200 bp that can not code complete protein. Dysregulation of LncRNAs is involved in various molecular mechanisms and has a significant role in occurrence and development of tumor. Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common cancer. The screening, diagnosis and personalized treatment of CRC are urgent to be improved. Dysregulation of LncRNAs is related to tumor stage and clinicopathological features of CRC, which have been suggested to be used as novel potential biomarkers for diagnosis, prognostic prediction and treatment of CRC. This review summarizes the advances in expression and role of LncRNAs in CRC. © 2017 by TUMOR All rights reserved.


Zhang L.,Ningbo University | Yu W.,Ningbo University
Chinese Journal of Interventional Imaging and Therapy | Year: 2016

Endobronchial ultrasound (EBUS) is an important diagnostic tool in various pulmonary diseases. EBUS provides a guidance system for transbronchial bispsy (TBB) of peripheral lesions as well as for transbronchial needle aspiration (TBNA) of hilar and mediastinal lymph nodes or masses. EBUS-guided TBB and EBUS-guided TBNA contribute significantly to the diagnosis of benign and malignant lung diseases. As EBUS-TBNA is a minimally invasive procedure, it is recommended as the first step in the mediastinal staging in lung cancer patients. Furthermore, EBUS enables the evaluation of tumor invasion of the tracheobronchial wall. The new advances and clinical application of EBUS in pulmonary diseases were reviewed in this article. Copyright © 2016 by the Press of Chinese Journal of Medical Imaging and Technology.


Han X.,Ningbo University | Wang J.,Ningbo University | Xia Y.-S.,Ningbo University
Progress In Electromagnetics Research M | Year: 2017

A novel field-line-circuit hybrid algorithm based on finite difference time domain (FDTD) method is devoted to predicting the electromagnetic responses of transmission line with multi-ports network in a shelter in this paper. The full wave FDTD method, transmission line FDTD method, and the modified nodal analysis (MNA) are combined to be compatible with the multi-level electromagnetic (EM) coupling progress of the electromagnetic interference (EMI) problem. The proposed method divides the EM couplings among the spatial EM fields, antennas, transmission line networks, and terminal circuits in some typical electronic systems into different levels with appreciate simulation techniques used. The accuracy of the hybrid method is verified by comparing the terminal transient voltage responses of transmission lines with the results obtained by PSPICE, and good agreements are achieved. Numerical calculations are further performed to show the terminal coupling voltages and currents, and the effects of incident directions and polarizations of the illuminated electromagnetic pulse (EMP) are both taken into account. © 2017, Electromagnetics Academy. All rights reserved.


Jin Y.,Ningbo University | He Y.,Zhejiang University | Du J.,Ningbo University
International Journal of Computer Integrated Manufacturing | Year: 2017

Extrusion-based layered deposition is one of the widely used additive manufacturing (AM) technologies due to its flexibility and capability in producing prototypes without geometrical complexity limitations. One of the most important steps in determining the part quality and build time is the path planning, where the trajectory for guiding the extruder is defined by various aspects prior to actual deposition. In this paper, a novel methodology is presented to generate the deposition path for the extrusion-based AM of thin-walled parts, which is difficult to obtain desirable deposition quality using general filling paths. A wavy path pattern is adopted to fill the long and narrow cross-sections that are obtained from the slicing procedure of the thin-walled parts. This novel filling pattern can bring in better deposition results and has more excellence in enhancing the efficiency. The algorithms are proposed for the generation of wavy paths at first. Then, several implementations and optimisation methods are proposed to address some issues and extend its application. Finally, two cases are used to verify the developed methodology, and the comparison analysis demonstrates its evident advantages over traditional filling path in the fabrication efficiency for the extrusion-based additive fabrication of thin-walled objects. © 2017 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group


Lv T.,Ningbo University | Zheng R.-Y.,Ningbo University
Civil Engineering and Urban Planning IV - Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Civil Engineering and Urban Planning, CEUP 2015 | Year: 2016

In recent years, many masonry structure accidents happened and brought great dangers to the safety of people’s life and property. A common cause of the collapse of masonry structures is people renovating their buildings unauthorized. In this paper, ANSYS software and Monte-Carlo method are combined to simulate the failure of masonry walls under different loads and with different hole ratios; probability design method is applied innovatively in the analysis of structural failure. © 2016 Taylor & Francis Group, London.


Sheraz M.,Ningbo University | Preda V.,University of Bucharest
UPB Scientific Bulletin, Series A: Applied Mathematics and Physics | Year: 2016

The famous Black-Scholes option pricing model is a mathematical description of financial market and derivative investment instruments [3]. In Black-Scholes model volatility is a constant function, where trading option is indeed risky due to random components such as volatility. The notion of non constant volatility was introduced in GARCH processes [6]. Recently a Black-Scholes model with GARCH volatility has been presented [10]. In this article we derive the kurtosis formula for underlying financial time series using BS-Model with GARCH volatility for the case of at the money option. We present the kurtosis formula in terms of the model's parameters. Also we compare our computational results by using another measure of kurtosis for different values of volatilities.


Zhang M.,Ningbo University | Du J.-K.,Ningbo University | Wang J.,Ningbo University
Proceedings of the 2016 Symposium on Piezoelectricity, Acoustic Waves and Device Applications, SPAWDA 2016 | Year: 2016

In this article, acoustic waves in a phononic crystal which consists of MRE and PMMA periodic structure is studied. At the experimental stage, the bandgap of the phononic crystal designed by ourselves is recorded under different magnetic fields measured of Gauss meter. LMS is used to send, receive and process the experimental data. Finite element method is used to analyze the band gap of the acoustic waves in phononic crystal and the results are verified by experiments. The propagation of acoustic waves can be affected by the MRE whose storage modulus influenced by the magnetic field, which means, the band gap can be tuned by changing the magnetic field intensity. © 2016 IEEE.


Li X.-L.,Ningbo University | Du J.-K.,Ningbo University | Wang J.,Ningbo University
Proceedings of the 2016 Symposium on Piezoelectricity, Acoustic Waves and Device Applications, SPAWDA 2016 | Year: 2016

In this paper we present a kind of phononic crystals(PCs) with magnetorheological fluids(MRFs) and its band gaps can be tuned by the magnetic field for the reason that modulus of MRFs can be changed by means of the magnetic field. Finite element method and experimental method are applied to study the propagation of acoustic waves in the PC. Firstly, we obtain the variety of the shear storage modulus and the loss modulus of MRFs under different magnetic flux density. Secondly, relationships between the magnetic flux density and band gaps of the PC are achieved. We find that band gaps change in response to the magnetic field at first, but they keep constant when MRFs reach magnetic saturation state. The results demonstrate the feasibility of tuning band gaps by MRFs with changed magnetic field. © 2016 IEEE.


Yang G.-Y.,Ningbo University | Du J.-K.,Ningbo University | Wang J.,Ningbo University
Proceedings of the 2016 Symposium on Piezoelectricity, Acoustic Waves and Device Applications, SPAWDA 2016 | Year: 2016

We study the propagation of Love wave in phononic crystal with piezoelectric waveguide layer. The first band gap of Love wave is calculated by plane wave expansion (PWE) method and finite element method (FEM). The influence of the waveguide layer on the band gap is analyzed. Numerical analysis shows that the thickness of the layer has a significant effect on the first band gap. The band gap can be shift and widen by reduce the thickness of the layer. These results are obtained by PWE method and compared to finite element calculations. The transmission of the Love wave through finite element is also given. © 2016 IEEE.


Jin C.,Ningbo University | Wang R.,Ningbo University | Yan D.,Ningbo University
Multimedia Tools and Applications | Year: 2017

MP3Stego is a typical steganographic tool for MP3 audios, whose embedding behavior disturbs the intrinsic correlation of the quantized MDCT coefficients (refer to as QMDCTs). In this paper, the Markov feature captured this correlation were designed based on the QMDCTs. The feature is sensitive to the subtle alteration caused by MP3stego embedding even at a low embedding-rate. In addition, some work on QMDCT pre-processing, threshold selection and feature optimization were applied to feature construction, which contribute to improving the detection accuracy and reducing the computational complexity of the proposed scheme. Experimental results show that our approach can effectively detect MP3Stego of low embedding-rate and outperforms the prior arts. © 2016, Springer Science+Business Media New York.


Xu D.,Ningbo University of Technology | Wang R.,Ningbo University | Zhu Y.,Zhejiang University of Technology
Journal of Visual Communication and Image Representation | Year: 2017

An improved scheme of data hiding directly in partially encrypted H.264/AVC videos using CABAC bin-string substitution is proposed. The encryption of Luma prediction modes is designed in addition to residual encryption and motion vector encryption in order to significantly improve the structural deterioration. Both the bin-strings of abs_level and the bin-strings of abs_MVD are exploited for data hiding to provide a higher flexibility for users to select the tradeoff between hiding capacity and video quality. Since the data embedding is done in the encrypted domain, the proposed scheme preserves the confidentiality of video content. With an encrypted video containing the hidden data, the receiver can accomplish data extraction directly in encrypted domain using only the data-hiding key, or obtain a decrypted video similar to the original version using only the cryptographic key. Experimental results have demonstrated that the proposed scheme can achieve better scrambling performance and higher embedding capacity. © 2017 Elsevier Inc.


Tian L.,Ningbo University | Zhu Z.,Ningbo University | Zhang J.,Ningbo University | Ma J.,Ningbo University
Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering | Year: 2017

A low-cost deformable mirror (DM) driven by an underlying piezoelectric buzzer array though connection struts is proposed. Piezoelectric buzzer is a very low cost device that is easily commercial available. A numerical model of piezoelectric buzzer was built to predict the displacement of the actuator. The fabrication process without complicated technology was developed. Finally, a DM with 19 actuators arranged hexagonally was fabricated. © 2017 SPIE.


Zhang Q.,Ningbo University | Chen H.,Ningbo University | Li W.,Ningbo University | Song L.,Ningbo University
Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering | Year: 2017

Sensing block method was proposed for the dynamic force measurement by Tanimura et al. in 1994. Comparing with the Split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) technique, it can provide a much longer measuring time for the dynamic properties test of materials. However, the signals recorded by sensing block are always accompanied with additional oscillations. Tanimura et al. discussed the effect of force rising edge on the test results, whereas more research is still needed. In this paper, some more dominant factors have been extracted through dimensional analysis. The finite element simulation has been performed to assess these factors. Base on the analysis and simulation, some valuable results are obtained and some criterions proposed in this paper can be applied in design or selection of the sensing block. © 2017 SPIE.


Sun Y.,Yangzhou University | Fu W.,CAS Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular | Chen C.,Ningbo University | Wang J.,Industrial Research Ltd. | And 2 more authors.
Chemical Communications | Year: 2017

Well-defined nanostructures were constructed by self-assembling hexamethylenediamine-functionalized tetrachloroperylene bisimides (compound A) in water/acetone. These structures could further reversibly transform into fluorescent vesicles by adding and removing water-soluble pillar[5]arene. © 2017 The Royal Society of Chemistry.


Zeng S.,Ningbo University | Streimikiene D.,Lithuanian Institute of Agrarian Economics | Balezentis T.,Lithuanian Institute of Agrarian Economics
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews | Year: 2017

This paper analyses the trends in energy security across the three Baltic States, namely Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania. The period of 2008–2012 is covered in the analysis. The aggregate measures of energy security are devised by the means of multi-criteria decision making techniques. The choice of indicators of energy security is based on the priorities set out in the European Union energy policy. The proposed system relies on the objective weighting that requires no expert assessment. However, this approach is also supplemented by the restricted models, where certain bounds are defined for groups of criteria, describing energy security in economic, energy supply chain, and environmental dimensions. The results show that Latvia maintained the highest level of energy security irrespectively of the multi-criteria approach taken. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd


Shi X.,Ningbo University | Tong C.,Ningbo University | Wang L.,Shanghai Institute of Technology
2016 IEEE Symposium Series on Computational Intelligence, SSCI 2016 | Year: 2016

Surrogate modelling and model management are key points for evolutionary optimization of chemical processes. This paper proposes an evolutionary algorithm with the help of adaptive surrogate functions (EASF), in which approximate models' establishment and management are combined to search the optimal result. To construct an appropriate surrogate model, a new hybrid modelling framework with adaptive Radial Basis Functions (RBF) (ARBF) is put forward. Different from most neural network modelling methods, ARBF is able to adaptively adjust the sample size by current approximation errors to effectively take into account the tradeoff between approximation accuracy and sample size. For model management, an approximation error fuzzy control strategy (AEFCS) is introduced. AEFCS in combination with ARBF can effectively perform exploratory and exploitative search in the evolutionary optimization. The superiority of EASF is demonstrated by the simulation results on three benchmark problems. To illustrate the performance of EASF further, it is employed to optimize the operating conditions of crude oil distillation process, and satisfactory results are obtained. © 2016 IEEE.


Yang J.,Ningbo University | Yang J.,University of Nebraska - Lincoln
Acta Mechanica Solida Sinica | Year: 2017

This paper presents a derivation of the equations of linear momentum, angular momentum, and energy of an electroelastic body using a composite particle consisting of two differential elements based on Tiersten's two-continuum model. The differential derivation shows the physics involved in a way different from the integral approach in the literature. Like the integral approach, it also produces the expressions of the electric body force, couple, and power which are fundamental to the development of the nonlinear macroscopic theory of an electroelastic body. © 2017


Zhu Z.,Ningbo University | Tian L.,Ningbo University | Zhang J.,Ningbo University | Ma J.,Ningbo University
Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering | Year: 2017

A water-cooled unimorph deformable mirror (DM) is proposed for high-power laser applications. The piezoelectric actuators are distributed around the correction area on the front side of the DM. The cooling water flows through the back side of the DM. This design realizes the physical separation between the electrical connections and cooling medium. It is important to optimize the structure of the designed water-cooled DM. First, a model of the DM was established using finite element method (FEM) to predict the deformation behavior of single actuator and the reconstruction of the DM. Then the comparison analysis of different apertures, radii and thicknesses were performed for structure optimization. The simulation results indicate that: The reconstructing precision of the DM is better than 98% for the typical low-order aberrations with relative large amplitude under the voltage range from-50V to +50V, which is suitable for high-power laser beam shaping. © 2017 SPIE.


Lu L.,Ningbo University | Deng P.,Ningbo University
Proceedings - 2016 International Conference on Industrial Informatics - Computing Technology, Intelligent Technology, Industrial Information Integration, ICIICII 2016 | Year: 2016

No consensus has been achieved about part of speech of liru (for example in English equivalent, in Chinese characters) among Chinese linguists, and moreover the diachronic perspective of big data-though most promising-was seldom adopted owing to technological constraints. This study deploys a diachronic corpus of Chinese language to examine the evolution of liru across the time span of ancient and modern Chinese. Results show that, contemporary liru undergoes lexicalization of li and ru from as early as the Six Dynasties (222-589 A. D.) and grammaticalization of liru through their semantic blurring. It is as a result of complexities and subjectivity in the communication contexts, liru gradually takes on discoursal functions of illustrating. © 2016 IEEE.


Zhang X.,Ningbo University | Hu J.,Ningbo University
International Journal of Simulation: Systems, Science and Technology | Year: 2016

The energy dissipation of a circuit is concerned problem for battery-operated mobile platforms. The super-threshold computing scheme based on FinFET CML (Current Mode Logic) circuits is addressed in this paper to attain low power dissipations. In near-threshold circuits, the power supply voltage is slightly above the threshold voltage of MOS devices, so that their PDN transistors operate on medium inversion regions. In the super-threshold circuit, much larger supply voltage is used, so that the larger biasing current can been used, and thus the super-threshold FinFET CML circuits can realize faster operation than near-threshold one. The basic logic gates such as AND/NAND and XOR/XNOR, and 1-bit full-adder based on FinFET CML are used to verify power efficiencies. All circuits are simulated with HSPICE at a PTM (Predictive Technology Model) 32nm BSIM-CMG FinFET technology. The results show that the power consumption of FinFET CML circuits can be reduced by scaling the supply voltage into super-threshold regions without performance degrading. © 2016, UK Simulation Society. All rights reserved.


Liu Y.,Ningbo University | Long H.,CAS Beijing Institute of Geographic Sciences and Nature Resources Research
Dili Xuebao/Acta Geographica Sinica | Year: 2016

Land use transition refers to the changes in land use morphology including dominant morphology and recessive morphology of a certain region over a certain period of time driven by different factors. Recently, issues related to land use transition in China have attracted interest from a wide variety of researchers as well as the government officials. This paper tries to examine the patterns of land use transition and their dynamic mechanism in the Huang-Huai- Hai Plain during 2000-2010. On the one hand, the temporal and spatial patterns of land use transition and their characteristics and laws were analyzed. On the other hand, based on the established conceptual framework of analyzing the dynamic mechanism of land use transition, spatial econometric regression analysis method was used to analyze the dynamic mechanism of the five kinds of major land use types transformation in the Huang-Huai-Hai Plain at the county level. Land use pattern changes in the study area were characterized by the increase of construction land, water body and forested land along with the decrease of farmland, unused land and grassland. The changes during 2000-2005 were much more significant than that during 2005-2010. In terms of factors affecting land use transitions, physical factors are the basis of land use transition, and it will generate a long-term impact on that, while socioeconomic factors such as population and GDP tend to determine the direction, structure, size and layout of land use transition at a short period. Land regulation and policy factors play a mandatory guidance and restraint role in land use transitions, so as to improve the overall land use efficiency. Land engineering is an important tool to control land use transition. In general, the five kinds of major land use types transformation are the results of combined action of a variety of physical, social and economic factors, during which traffic condition and location condition have the most significant effects, that is, they are the common factors. The authors argue that understanding the temporal and spatial processes of land use transitions and their dynamic mechanism is the important foundation for utilizing land resources, protecting regional ecological environment, and promoting regional socio-economic sustainable development. © 2016, Science Press. All right reserved.


Chen X.-F.,Ningbo University | Yu W.-J.,Ningbo University
Chinese Journal of Medical Imaging Technology | Year: 2015

As a non-invasive imaging technique, CT has got more attention in diagnosis of pulmonary hypertension and evaluation of right ventricular function. Based on morphology and function for CT are two methods in evaluation of pulmonary hypertension. The progresses of CT in diagnosis of pulmonary hypertension and evaluation of right ventricular function were reviewed in this article. Copyright © 2015 by the Press of Chinese Journal of Medical Imaging and Technology.


Chen Y.,Hohai University | Chen Y.,Ningbo University
RISTI - Revista Iberica de Sistemas e Tecnologias de Informacao | Year: 2016

On the basis of related research, we constructed an evaluation index system of talent competitiveness. Values are assigned to the indices with the use of the entropy weight method, so that reflecting the characteristics of competitiveness between different evaluation objects. In order to include more uncertainties of raw data in the evaluation process, the evaluation results were expressed by intuitionistic fuzzy sets and the data output was aggregated accordingly. By using the intuitionistic fuzzy information based data mining comprehensive evaluation method, a comparative research was conducted on different levels of talent competitiveness in eastern China. Meanwhile, some targeted advices were offered with respect to promoting the competitiveness levels of talents in eastern China. © AISTI 2016.


Zuo W.,Ningbo University | Qian X.-Q.,Ningbo University | Liang X.-T.,Ningbo University
Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications | Year: 2017

In this paper, the evolutions of two kinds of witnesses of the non-Markovianity and their rates of changes with time are investigated and compared. Four definitions, the trace distance, fidelity, quantum relative entropy, and quantum Fisher information are used for the first kind of witnesses which are based on the completely positive maps (CPM). Three definitions, the quantum entanglement, quantum mutual information, and quantum discord are used for the second kind of witnesses, and they are based on the local completely positive maps (LCPM). An open two-level quantum system model and a numerically quantum dissipative dynamics method, hierarchy equation of motion (HEM) are used in the investigations. It is shown that the evolutions of the witnesses and their rates of the changes calculated with different definitions clearly show the characteristics of the non-Markovianity and they are in agreement with each other. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.


Han L.,Ningbo University | Liu Y.,Ningbo University | Duan S.,Ningbo University | Perry B.,OmniActive Health Technologies Canada Ltd. | And 2 more authors.
Briefings in Functional Genomics | Year: 2016

Hypertension is a multifactorial disease influenced by an interaction of environmental and genetic factors. The exact molecular mechanism of hypertension remains unknown. Aberrant DNA methylation is the most well-defined epigenetic modification that regulates gene transcription. However, studies on the association between DNA methylation and hypertension are still in their infancy. This review summarizes the latest evidence and challenges regarding the role of DNA methylation on hypertension. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.


Zhang C.,Ningbo University | Chen Y.,Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications | Hu G.,Beijing Normal University
Frontiers of Physics | Year: 2017

Many practical systems in natural and social sciences can be described by dynamical networks. Day by day we have measured and accumulated huge amounts of data from these networks, which can be used by us to further our understanding of the world. The structures of the networks producing these data are often unknown. Consequently, understanding the structures of these networks from available data turns to be one of the central issues in interdisciplinary fields, which is called the network reconstruction problem. In this paper, we considered problems of network reconstructions using partially available data and some situations where data availabilities are not sufficient for conventional network reconstructions. Furthermore, we proposed to infer subnetwork with data of the subnetwork available only and other nodes of the entire network hidden; to depict group-group interactions in networks with averages of groups of node variables available; and to perform network reconstructions with known data of node variables only when networks are driven by both unknown internal fast-varying noises and unknown external slowly-varying signals. All these situations are expected to be common in practical systems and the methods and results may be useful for real world applications. © 2017, Higher Education Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Liu Y.-K.,Ningbo University | Li B.,Ningbo University
Chinese Physics Letters | Year: 2017

The (2+1)-dimension nonlocal nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS) equation with the self-induced parity-time symmetric potential is introduced, which provides spatially two-dimensional analogues of the nonlocal NLS equation introduced by Ablowitz et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 110 (2013) 064105]. General periodic solutions are derived by the bilinear method. These periodic solutions behave as growing and decaying periodic line waves arising from the constant background and decaying back to the constant background again. By taking long wave limits of the obtained periodic solutions, rogue waves are obtained. It is also shown that these line rogue waves arise from the constant background with a line profile and disappear into the constant background again in the (x, y) plane. © 2017 Chinese Physical Society and IOP Publishing Ltd.


Ju K.-K.,Ningbo University | Guo C.-X.,Ningbo University | Pan X.-Y.,Ningbo University
Chinese Physics Letters | Year: 2017

We investigate the effects of the initial-slip term by studying the dissipation-induced transition probabilities between any two eigenstates of a simple harmonic oscillator. The general analytical expressions for the transition probabilities are obtained, then the special cases of transition probabilities ignoring the Brownian motion from the ground state to the first few excited states are discussed. It is found that the initial-slip term not only makes the forbidden transitions between states of different parity possible but also lifts the initial value of the transition probabilities. © 2017 Chinese Physical Society and IOP Publishing Ltd.


Shi P.,Ningbo University | Shao Q.,Ningbo University | Liang D.,Ningbo University
2016 IEEE International Conference on Information and Automation, IEEE ICIA 2016 | Year: 2016

This paper presents a design of planar snake robot which consists of bottom-wheeled modular parts chained with servo actuator joints. Serpentine curve locomotion is recognized as the most efficient gait for snake robots control in terms of motor torques and friction forces. However, the traditional serpentine control model is based on fixed parameters. There is a slipping problem when snake robots change the shape. Changing parameters to implement a given manoeuvring motion causes the chained modular parts to slip. The improved serpentine curve equations are proposed here attaching a new angular parameter to compensate the slipping. So the manoeuvring motion of snake robots remains optimal even when the parameters changed. Both simulation and experiments show that the new angular parameter can effectively compensate the deviation caused by slipping. The results also show the efficiency of applying this method to the designed snake robot. © 2016 IEEE.


Wang M.,Tsinghua National Laboratory for Information Sciences and Technology | Liu J.,Ningbo University | Chen W.,Tsinghua National Laboratory for Information Sciences and Technology
2016 IEEE Globecom Workshops, GC Wkshps 2016 - Proceedings | Year: 2016

An important challenge in the Internet of Things (IoT) is to provide real-time services on low-energy-supply devices. In this paper, we study joint queue-aware and channelaware scheduling of arbitrarily bursty traffic over multi-state time-varying channels, where the bursty packet arrival in the network layer, the backlogged queue in the data link layer, and the power adaptive transmission with fixed modulation in the physical layer are jointly considered from a cross-layer perspective. To achieve minimum queueing delay given a power constraint, a probabilistic cross-layer scheduling policy is proposed, and characterized by a Markov chain model. To describe the delay-power tradeoff, we formulate a non-linear optimization problem, which however is very challenging to solve. To handle with this issue, we convert the optimization problem into an equivalent Linear Programming (LP) problem, which allows us to obtain the optimal threshold-based scheduling policy with an optimal threshold imposed on the queue length in accordance with each channel state. © 2016 IEEE.


Xie S.,Ningbo University | Xu Y.,Ningbo University
2016 IEEE International Conference on Information and Automation, IEEE ICIA 2016 | Year: 2016

Collision resistance is one of the most important properties to ensure the safety of a hash function. In this paper, we tweak the quasigroup string transformation R and then give an infinite classes hash functions called "Edon"-R on the base of "Edon"-R, which has a nice property of strongly collision free that can be proved mathematically and experimentally. © 2016 IEEE.


Zhou S.,Ningbo University | Liang D.,Ningbo University | Wei Y.,Ningbo University
2016 IEEE International Conference on Information and Automation, IEEE ICIA 2016 | Year: 2016

One of the key problems in detecting metal surface defects is that the lighting angles have great influence on the defect features information in the image. A multi-Angle lighting multivariate image analysis approach was proposed to improve the accuracy and reliability of detection results. By adjusting the lighting height selectively, the surface images with multi-Angle lighting could be obtained and used to constitute the multivariate images data, where each channel is the representation of the metal surface image with different lighting angles. It is based on the Multivariate Image Analysis (MIA) technique to extract defect features information. The effective lighting angles were selected according to score image and corresponding loading vector obtained by the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) strategy. Multivariate images with effective lighting angles were stacked and unfolded, from which the principal component scores of test images could be obtained. The Q-statistic image could be computed by removing first principal component score and the noise. With an appropriate threshold decided by training images and the morphological post-processing, the surface defects could be detected with accurate locations. Experimental work was performed. The results with lower pseudo reject rate verify the robustness and reliability of this method. © 2016 IEEE.


Zhang P.,Ningbo University | Li C.,Ningbo University | Zhu L.,Ningbo University | Su X.,Ningbo University | And 2 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Background:De novo transcriptome sequencing is a robust method of predicting miRNA target genes, especially samples without reference genomes. Differentially expressed miRNAs have been previously identified in hemocytes collected from healthy skin and from skin affected by skin ulceration syndrome (SUS) in Apostichopus japonicus. Target identification for these differentially expressed miRNAs is a major challenge for this non-model organism.Methodology/Principal Findings:To thoroughly understand the function of miRNAs, a normalized cDNA library was sequenced with the Illumina Hiseq2000 technology. A total of 91,098,474 clean reads corresponding to 251,148 unigenes, each with an average length of 494bp, were obtained. Blastx analysis against a nonredundant (nr) NCBI protein database revealed that in this set, 52,680 unigenes coded for 3,893 annotated proteins. Two digital gene expression (DGE) libraries from healthy and SUS samples showed that 4,858 of the unigenes were expressed at significantly different levels; 2,163 were significantly up-regulated, while 2,695 were significantly down-regulated. The computational prediction of miRNA targets from these differentially expressed genes identified 732 unigenes as the targets of 57 conserved and 8 putative novel miRNA families, including spu-miRNA-31 and spu-miRNA-2008. Conclusion:This study demonstrates the feasibility of identifying miRNA targets by transcriptome analysis. The DGE assembly data represent a substantial increase in the genomic resources available for this species and will provide insights into the gene expression profile analysis and the miRNAs function annotations of further studies. © 2013 Zhang et al.


Li Z.,Beijing Normal University | Liao K.,Beijing Normal University | Wu P.,Ningbo University | Yu H.,Hunan Normal University | And 2 more authors.
Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology | Year: 2013

In this paper, we quantify the ability of a future measurement of the Sandage-Loeb test signal from the Cosmic Dynamic Experiment-like spectrograph to constrain some popular modified gravity theories, including the Dvali-Gabadadze-Porrati braneworld scenario, f(R) modified gravity, and f(T) gravity theory. We find that the Sandage-Loeb test measurements are able to markedly break degeneracies between model parameters and thus greatly improve cosmological constraints for all concerned modified gravity theories when combined with the latest observations of the cosmic microwave background shift parameter. However, they yield almost the same degeneracy directions between model parameters as that from the distance ratio data derived from the latest observations of the cosmic microwave background and baryon acoustic oscillations. Moreover, for f(R) modified gravity, the Sandage-Loeb test could provide completely different bounded regions in model-parameter space as compared to cosmic microwave background and baryon acoustic oscillations and thus supplement strong complementary constraints. © 2013 American Physical Society.


Liu D.,Ningbo University | Reboucas M.J.,Brazilian Center for Research in Physics (CBPF)
Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology | Year: 2012

In the standard approach to cosmological modeling in the framework of general relativity, the energy conditions play an important role in the understanding of several properties of the Universe, including singularity theorems, the current accelerating expansion phase, and the possible existence of the so-called phantom fields. Recently, the f(T) gravity has been invoked as an alternative approach for explaining the observed acceleration expansion of the Universe. If gravity is described by a f(T) theory instead of general relativity, there are a number of issues that ought to be reexamined in the framework of f(T) theories. In this work, to proceed further with the current investigation of the limits and potentialities of the f(T) gravity theories, we derive and discuss the bounds imposed by the energy conditions on a general f(T) functional form. The null and strong energy conditions in the framework of f(T) gravity are derived from first principles, namely the purely geometric Raychaudhuri equation along with the requirement that gravity is attractive. The weak and dominant energy conditions are then obtained in a direct approach via an effective energy-momentum tensor for f(T) gravity. Although similar, the energy condition inequalities are different from those of general relativity, but in the limit f(T)=T, the standard forms for the energy conditions in general relativity are recovered. As a concrete application of the derived energy conditions to locally homogeneous and isotropic f(T) cosmology, we use the recent estimated value of the Hubble parameter to set bounds from the weak energy condition on the parameters of two specific families of f(T) gravity theories. © 2012 American Physical Society.


Zhou T.-B.,Ningbo University | Yang G.-S.,Shanghai University
Transplant Immunology | Year: 2011

The presently known cytokines that participate in acute rejection of organ transplantation include four categories by order of function: inflammatory cytokines, immunospecific cytokines, inflammatory cell activating cytokines and growth cytokines. Of them, growth cytokines that directly induce division, proliferation and migration of endothelial cells mainly include the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) family and the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family [1]. Recent studies [2] showed that interactions and time overlap of inflammatory cell infiltration and angiogenesis are the main mechanisms that induce acute rejection (AR) following organ transplantation, which has been demonstrated by the clinical fact that AR symptoms after liver transplantation could only be relieved by combination use of drugs for improving micro vessels and those for improving micro bile ducts. This article is a review of VEGF that mediates inflammatory cell infiltration and angiogenesis in the portal area [3]. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.


Wu P.,Ningbo University | Wu P.,Peking University | Li Z.,Beijing Normal University | Liu X.,Central South University | Yu H.,Ningbo University
Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology | Year: 2015

A check of the validity of the distance-duality relation (DDR) is necessary since a violation of one of the assumptions underlying this relation might be possible. In this paper, we test the DDR by combining the Union2.1 type Ia supernovae (SNIa) and five angular diameter distance data from the baryonic acoustic oscillation (BAO) measurements. We find that the DDR is consistent with the observations at the 2σ confidence level (CL) for the case of the Hubble constant h=0.7, and the consistency is improved to be 1σ CL when h=0.7 is replaced by the latest constraint from the Planck satellite, i.e., h=0.678, or h is marginalized. Our results show that the BAO measurement is a very powerful tool to test the DDR. With more and more BAO data being released in the future, we are expecting a better validity check of the DDR. © 2015 American Physical Society.


Fan Y.,Hunan Normal University | Wu P.,Ningbo University | Wu P.,Peking University | Yu H.,Hunan Normal University | Yu H.,Ningbo University
Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology | Year: 2015

We use the spherical collapse method to investigate the nonlinear density perturbations of pressureless matter in the cosmological models with the extended quintessence as dark energy in the metric and Palatini formalisms. We find that for both formalisms, when the coupling constant is negative, the deviation from the ΛCDM model is the least according to the evolutionary curves of the linear density contrast δc and virial overdensity Δv, and it is less than 1%. And this indicates that, in the extended quintessence cosmological models in which the coupling constant is negative, all quantities dependent on δc or Δv are essentially unaffected if the linear density contrast or the virial overdensity of the ΛCDM model is used as an approximation. Moreover, we find that the differences between different formalisms are very small in terms of structure formation, and thus cannot be used to distinguish the metric and Palatini formalisms. © 2015 American Physical Society.


Huang H.,Hunan Normal University | Wu P.,Ningbo University | Wu P.,Peking University | Yu H.,Hunan Normal University | Yu H.,Ningbo University
Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology | Year: 2015

In this paper, we investigate the stability of the Einstein static universe sourced by a single perfect fluid with a constant equation of state against homogeneous and inhomogeneous scalar perturbations in the context of f(G)-modified Gauss-Bonnet gravity. We find that for a spatially closed universe inhomogeneous scalar perturbations do not allow a stable Einstein static solution, although homogeneous ones do, and for a spatially open universe the Einstein static solution is unstable against either homogeneous or inhomogeneous scalar perturbations. As a result, the emergent scenario that aims to resolve the big bang singularity problem cannot be successfully implemented in the modified Gauss-Bonnet theory. © 2015 American Physical Society.


Zhu Q.,Ningbo University | Yang X.,Honghe University | Wang H.,South China Normal University
Journal of the Franklin Institute | Year: 2010

In this paper we study stochastic stability of delayed recurrent neural networks with both Markovian jump parameters and nonlinear disturbances. Based on the Lyapunov stability theory, the properties of a Brownian motion, the generalized It's formula and linear matrix inequalities technique, some new delay-dependent conditions are derived to guarantee the stochastically asymptotic stability of the trivial solution or zero solution. In particular, the activation functions in this paper depend on Markovian jump parameters and they are more general than those usual Lipschitz conditions. Also, time delays proposed in this paper comprise both constant delays and time-varying delays. Moreover, the derivative of time delays is allowed to take any value. Therefore, the results obtained in this paper are less conservatism and generalize those given in the previous literature. Finally, two numerical examples and their simulations are used to show the effectiveness of the obtained results. © 2010 The Franklin Institute. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Shao X.,Ningbo University | Xu F.,Ningbo University | Xie S.,Ningbo University | Yu D.,Ningbo University | Wang H.,Ningbo University
Postharvest Biology and Technology | Year: 2015

The antifungal activity of chitosan combined with clove oil against Penicillium digitatum, the causal agent of citrus green mold, was tested in vitro and in vivo. Chitosan combined with clove oil inhibited mycelial growth more than individual treatments, which was related to the greater release of cellular material and the largest alterations in hyphal morphology of P. digitatum. However, compared to chitosan alone, 1% chitosan coatings combined with various amounts of clove oil (0.5, 1 or 2. mL/L) showed no greater ability in controlling decay development on artificially inoculated citrus fruit. 1% chitosan combined with 0.5. mL/L clove oil appeared to slightly reduce lesion diameter and enhanced the activities of defense enzymes, including chitinase and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase at the later stages of incubation. This study indicated that the synergistic antifungal activity of chitosan-clove oil observed in in vitro studies was not found in in vivo tests. Therefore, the data suggest that a coating of 1% chitosan alone, not combined with clove oil, can effectively contribute to the control of green mold on citrus fruit. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.


Li Z.,Hunan Normal University | Li Z.,Beijing Normal University | Wu P.,Ningbo University | Yu H.,Hunan Normal University | And 2 more authors.
Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology | Year: 2013

With assumptions that the violation of the distance-duality relation entirely arises from nonconservation of the photon number and that the absorption is frequency independent in the observed frequency range, we perform cosmological-model-independent tests for the cosmic opacity. The observational data include the largest Union2.1 type Ia supernova sample, which is taken for observed DL, and galaxy cluster samples compiled by De Filippis et al. and Bonamente et al., which are responsible for providing observed DA. Two parametrizations, τ(z)=2Ïμz and τ(z)=(1+z)2Ïμ-1, are adopted for the optical depth associated with the cosmic absorption. We find that an almost transparent universe is favored by the Filippis et al. sample, but it is only marginally accommodated by the Bonomente et al. samples at 95.4% confidence level (C.L.) (even at 99.7% C.L. when the r<100 kpc-cut spherical β model is considered). Taking the possible cosmic absorption (in the 68.3% C.L. range) constrained from the model-independent tests into consideration, we correct the distance moduli of SNe Ia and then use them to study their cosmological implications. The constraints on the ΛCDM show that a decelerating expanding universe with =0 is only allowed at 99.7% C.L. by observations when the Bonamente et al. sample is considered. Therefore, our analysis suggests that an accelerated cosmic expansion is still needed to account for the dimming of SNe, and the standard cosmological scenario remains being supported by current observations. © 2013 American Physical Society.


Yang X.,Honghe University | Zhu Q.,Ningbo University | Huang C.,Changsha University of Science and Technology
Neurocomputing | Year: 2011

This paper investigates the problem of lag synchronization for a kind of chaotic neural networks with discrete and distributed delays (mixed delays). The driver system has uncertain parameters and uncertain nonlinear external perturbations, while the response system has channel noises. A simple but all-powerful robust adaptive controller is designed to circumvent the effects of uncertain external perturbations such that the response system synchronize with the driver system. Based on the invariance principle of stochastic differential equations and some suitable Lyapunov functions, several sufficient conditions are developed to solve this problem. Moreover, under certain conditions, parameters of the uncertain master system can be estimated. Numerical simulations are exploited to show the effectiveness of the theoretical results. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.


Lu Y.,Ningbo University | Li C.,Ningbo University | Zhang P.,Ningbo University | Shao Y.,Ningbo University | And 2 more authors.
Developmental and Comparative Immunology | Year: 2013

Myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) and tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6) are two key adaptor molecules in Toll-like receptor signal transduction that triggers downstream cascades involved in innate immunity. Here we reported the isolation and characterization the full-length cDNAs of MyD88 and TRAF6 from sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (denoted as AjMyD88 and AjTRAF6, respectively). Both of two factors shared a remarkable high degree of structural conservation with their mammalian and Drosophila orthologs, such as a typical death domain (DD) and a conservative Toll/IL-1R (TIR) domain for the deduced amino acid of AjMyD88, a zinc finger of RING-type, two zinc fingers of TRAF-type, a coiled-coil region, and a MATH domain for that of AjTRAF6. Constitutive expression patterns were also observed in the two genes with different expression levels. AjMyD88 mRNA transcripts were higher expressed in intestine and respiratory trees, and AjTRAF6 were abundant in coelomocytes and tentacle. During Vibrio splendidus challenge experiment, the expression levels of two genes were increased significantly with larger amplitude and longer duration in AjTRAF6. The peak expression levels were detected at 6. h for AjMyD88 with 1.80-fold increase, and at 24. h for AjTRAF6 with 2.73-fold increase compared with that in the control group. All these results suggested that AjMyD88 and AjTRAF6 might be involved into immune response toward V. splendidus challenge. © 2013.


Liang Q.,Zhejiang Normal University | Liang Q.,Ningbo University
Soft Matter | Year: 2013

Surface functionalization is an efficient method to modify the properties of nanoparticles for nanomedical and other applications. Here, we investigate the penetration of polymer-grafted nanoparticles through a lipid bilayer using self-consistent field theory. We examine the morphological deformation of the polymer-grafted nanoparticles and the lipid bilayer and the variation of the free energy of the system during the penetration of the nanoparticles grafted by polymers with different chain lengths and densities. It is found that the nanoparticles grafted by long polymers can penetrate through the lipid bilayer more easily. Additionally, with varying the grafting density, we find two different penetration pathways of the polymer-grafted nanoparticles. For the nanoparticle grafted by polymers with low density, the lipid bilayer is curved by the nanoparticle when the nanoparticle is inserted into the bilayer shallowly and then a pore is formed when the nanoparticle is inserted into the bilayer deeply enough; whereas, for the nanoparticle grafted by polymers with high density, the lipid bilayer is not curved before and after the pore formation. We further reveal the underlying mechanism of these two different penetration pathways. The results may yield some theoretical insights into the applications of nanoparticles in nanomedicine. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.


Zhong C.,Ningbo University | Yue X.,Shanghai University | Zhang Z.,Taiyuan University of Technology | Lei J.,Shanghai University of Electric Power
Pattern Recognition | Year: 2015

Abstract The aim of clustering ensemble is to combine multiple base partitions into a robust, stable and accurate partition. One of the key problems of clustering ensemble is how to exploit the cluster structure information in each base partition. Evidence accumulation is an effective framework which can convert the base partitions into a co-association matrix. This matrix describes the frequency of a pair of points partitioned into the same cluster, but ignores some hidden information in the base partitions. In this paper, we reveal some of those information by refining the co-association matrix from data point and base cluster level. From the data point level, as pairs of points in the same base cluster may have varied similarities, their contributions to the co-association matrix can be different. From the cluster level, since the base clusters may have diversified qualities, the contribution of a base cluster as a whole can also be different from those of others. After being refined, the co-association matrix is transformed into a path-based similarity matrix so that more global information of the cluster structure is incorporated into the matrix. Finally, spectral clustering is applied to the matrix to generate the final clustering result. Experimental results on 8 synthetic and 8 real data sets demonstrate that the clustering ensemble based on the refined co-association matrix outperforms some state-of-the-art clustering ensemble schemes. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Zhang P.,Ningbo University | Li C.,Ningbo University | Li Y.,Ningbo University | Shao Y.,Ningbo University | Jin C.,Ningbo University
Developmental and Comparative Immunology | Year: 2014

Skin ulceration syndrome (SUS) was the main limitation in the development of Apostichopus japonicus culture industries. To better understand how Vibrio splendidus modulates SUS outbreak, the immune response of A. japonicus coelomocytes after the pathogen challenge were investigated through comparative proteomics approach, and differentially expressed proteins were screened and characterized in the present study. A total of 40 protein spots representing 30 entries were identified at 24, 72 and 96. h post-infection. Of these proteins, 32 were up-regulated and 8 were down-regulated in the V. splendidus challenged samples compared to those of control. These differentially expressed proteins were mainly classified into four categories by GO analysis, in which approximate 33% of proteins showed to be related to immunity response. The mRNA expression levels of 6 differentially expressed proteins were further validated by qRT-PCR. Similar protein-mRNA-level expression patterns were detected in genes of phospholipase (spot 4), G protein (spot 20), annexin (spot 30) and filamin (spot 31). Whilst the levels of ficolin (spot 12) and calumenin (spot 14) transcripts were not corresponded with those of their translation products. These data provide a new insight to understand the molecular immune mechanism of sea cucumber responsive towards pathogen infection. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


Li H.,Zhejiang Normal University | Li H.,Ohio State University | Lee Y.-C.,Dongguk University | Zhou Y.-C.,Ningbo University | Sun J.,Zhejiang Normal University
Knowledge-Based Systems | Year: 2011

This paper proposes the random subspace binary logit (RSBL) model (or random subspace binary logistic regression analysis) by taking the random subspace approach and using the classical logit model to generate a group of diverse logit decision agents from various perspectives for predictive problem. These diverse logit models are then combined for a more accurate analysis. The proposed RSBL model takes advantage of both logit (or logistic regression) and random subspace approaches. The random subspace approach generates diverse sets of variables to represent the current problem as different masks. Different logit decision agents from these masks, instead of a single logit model, are constructed. To verify its performance, we used the proposed RSBL model to forecast corporate failure in China. The results indicate that this model significantly improves the predictive ability of classical statistical models such as multivariate discriminant analysis, logit model, and probit model. Thus, the proposed model should make logit model more suitable for predictive problems in academic and industrial uses. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Jin C.,Ningbo University | Li C.,Ningbo University | Su X.,Ningbo University | Li T.,Ningbo University
Developmental and Comparative Immunology | Year: 2011

Ferritin, a conserved iron storage protein of most living organisms, plays a crucial role in iron metabolism. In this study, the ferritin gene from Tegillarca granosa (denoted as TgFER) was identified by expressed sequence tag (EST) and PCR approaches. The full-length cDNA of TgFER was of 895bp, consisting of a 5'-UTR of 163bp with a putative iron regulatory element (IRE), a 3'-UTR of 213bp, and a complete open reading frame of 519bp encoding a polypeptide with 172 amino acid residues. The predicted molecular mass of deduced amino acid of TgFER was 20.00kDa and the theoretical pI was 4.89. The deduced amino acid of TgFER shared high identities to ferritin from abalone, oyster, clam and human. The tissue distribution of TgFER in the tissues of mantle, foot, gill, haemocytes and hepatopancreas was examined by quantitative real-time PCR (q-PCR) and mRNA transcripts of TgFER were found to be dominately expressed in haemocytes, hepatopancreas and gill and weakly in foot and mantle. The temporal expression of TgFER in haemocytes or hepatopancreases after challenged by metals ion (FeCl2 and FeCl3) exposure and thermal stress were also analyzed with q-PCR. The diverse expression patterns of TgFER were detected depending upon the types of stimulators and tissues. The ployconal antibodies generated from the recombinant product of TgFER could be specifically identified not only the recombinant product, but also the native protein from haemocytes. All these results strongly suggested that TgFER was involved in the iron metabolism and thermal stress regulation in T. granosa. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.


Li Z.,Beijing Normal University | Gonzalez J.E.,Observatorio Nacional | Yu H.,Ningbo University | Yu H.,Hunan Normal University | And 2 more authors.
Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology | Year: 2016

We apply two methods, i.e., the Gaussian processes and the nonparametric smoothing procedure, to reconstruct the Hubble parameter H(z) as a function of redshift from 15 measurements of the expansion rate obtained from age estimates of passively evolving galaxies. These reconstructions enable us to derive the luminosity distance to a certain redshift z, calibrate the light-curve fitting parameters accounting for the (unknown) intrinsic magnitude of type Ia supernova (SNe Ia), and construct cosmological model-independent Hubble diagrams of SNe Ia. In order to test the compatibility between the reconstructed functions of H(z), we perform a statistical analysis considering the latest SNe Ia sample, the so-called joint light-curve compilation. We find that, for the Gaussian processes, the reconstructed functions of Hubble parameter versus redshift, and thus the following analysis on SNe Ia calibrations and cosmological implications, are sensitive to prior mean functions. However, for the nonparametric smoothing method, the reconstructed functions are not dependent on initial guess models, and consistently require high values of H0, which are in excellent agreement with recent measurements of this quantity from Cepheids and other local distance indicators. © 2016 American Physical Society.


Zhou J.,Ningbo University | Gan N.,Ningbo University | Li T.,Ningbo University | Zhou H.,Ningbo University | And 2 more authors.
Sensors and Actuators, B: Chemical | Year: 2013

A single antibody sandwich electrochemiluminescence (ECL) immunosensor for ultratrace detection of protein was developed using magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers (MMIPs) as an alternative to the first antibody as capture probes and antibodies labeled with Ru-silica (Ru(bpy)3 2+-doped silica) doped Au (Ru@SiO2@Au) nanocomposites as labels. Using MMIPs as capture probes will aid mass production, greatly reduce costs and avoid the loss of bioactivity associated with the use of conventional antibodies. Moreover, MMIPs can be easily immobilized on and washed off simply by adding or removing a magnet on the electrode, which will greatly simplify the preparation and allow regeneration of the sensor. Lastly, MMIPs can enrich ultratrace levels of antigens from sample solutions to produce more immunocomplex than the conventional capture probe, thus providing an ultrasensitive assay. The logarithm of ΔECL intensity depended linearly on the logarithm of the hemoglobin (Hb) concentration in the range from 0.1 to 4 × 104 pg mL-1 with a detection limit of 0.023 pg mL-1. This approach offers obvious advantages of low cost, high sensitivity and enhanced stability compared with other immunosensors, and therefore offers significant potential for protein detection in a clinical laboratory setting. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.


Guo L.,Ningbo University | Zhang Y.,Ningbo University | Wu Z.,Ningbo University | He J.,Ningbo University
Physica Scripta | Year: 2014

We construct higher order rogue wave solutions for the Gerdjikov-Ivanov equation explicitly in terms of a determinant expression. The dynamics of both soliton and non-soliton solutions is discussed. A family of solutions with distinct structures, which are new to the Gerdjikov-Ivanov equation, are presented. © 2014 The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences.


He J.,Ningbo University
AIP Advances | Year: 2015

The mixed nonlinear Schrödinger (MNLS) equation is a model for the propagation of the Alfvén wave in plasmas and the ultrashort light pulse in optical fibers with two nonlinear effects of self-steepening and self phase-modulation(SPM), which is also the first non-trivial flow of the integrable Wadati-Konno-Ichikawa(WKI) system. The determinant representation Tn of a n-fold Darboux transformation(DT) for the MNLS equation is presented. The smoothness of the solution q[2k] generated by T2k is proved for the two cases (non-degeneration and double-degeneration) through the iteration and determinant representation. Starting from a periodic seed(plane wave), rational solutions with two parameters a and b of the MNLS equation are constructed by the DT and the Taylor expansion. Two parameters denote the contributions of two nonlinear effects in solutions. We show an unusual result: for a given value of a, the increasing value of b can damage gradually the localization of the rational solution, by analytical forms and figures. A novel two-peak rational solution with variable height and a non-vanishing boundary is also obtained. © 2015 Author(s).


Fan Y.,Hunan Normal University | Wu P.,Ningbo University | Wu P.,Peking University | Yu H.,Hunan Normal University | Yu H.,Ningbo University
Physics Letters, Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and High-Energy Physics | Year: 2015

Cosmological perturbations of the non-minimally coupled scalar field dark energy in both the metric and Palatini formalisms are studied in this paper. We find that on the large scales with the energy density of dark energy becoming more and more important in the low redshift region, the gravitational potential becomes smaller and smaller, and the effect of non-minimal coupling becomes more and more apparent. In the metric formalism the value of the gravitational potential in the non-minimally coupled case with a positive coupling constant is less than that in the minimally coupled case, while it is larger if the coupling constant is negative. This is different from that in the Palatini formalism where the value of gravitational potential is always smaller. Based upon the quasi-static approximation on the sub-horizon scales, the linear growth of matter is also analyzed. We obtain that the effective Newton's constants in the metric and Palatini formalisms have different forms. A negative coupling constant enhances the gravitational interaction, while a positive one weakens it. Although the metric and Palatini formalisms give different linear growth rates, the difference is very small and the current observation cannot distinguish them effectively. © 2015 The Authors.


Chen L.,Sanming University | Zhang H.,Ningbo University | Gao S.,Sanming University | Yan H.,Sanming University
Energy | Year: 2014

A new hybrid system mainly consists of a molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) and a Stirling heat engine is established, where the Stirling heat engine is driven by the high-quality waste heat generated in the MCFC. Based on the electrochemistry and non-equilibrium thermodynamics, analytical expressions for the efficiency and power output of the hybrid system are derived by taking various irreversible losses into account. It shows that the performance of the MCFC can be greatly enhanced by coupling a Stirling heat engine to further convert the waste heat for power generation. By employing numerical calculations, not only the influences of multiple irreversible losses on the performance of the hybrid system are analyzed, but also the impacts of some operating conditions such as the operating temperature, input gas compositions and operating pressure on the performance of the hybrid system are also discussed. The investigation method in the present paper is feasible for some other similar energy conversion systems as well. © 2013.


Huang H.,Hunan Normal University | Wu P.,Ningbo University | Wu P.,Peking University | Yu H.,Hunan Normal University | Yu H.,Ningbo University
Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology | Year: 2014

Emergent theory assumes that the universe originates from an Einstein static (ES) state rather than the big bang singularity, and, thus, provides a possible way to resolve the singularity problem. The stability against all kinds of perturbations that ensures the past eternity of the ES state is crucial for a successful realization of the emergent scenario. Recently, it has been found that in the context of the Jordan-Brans-Dicke (JBD) theory there exists a stable ES solution under homogenous and anisotropic perturbations. In this paper, we extend the analysis to the stability against tensor and inhomogeneous scalar perturbations. We find that, different from general relativity and f(R) theory, a stable ES solution is allowed in the JBD theory when different kinds of perturbations are considered, although the stability conditions are tighter for tensor and inhomogeneous scalar perturbations than those for homogenous and anisotropic ones. © 2014 American Physical Society.


Chu H.-Y.,Ningbo University | Chen J.-K.,Ningbo University | Chen J.-K.,Peking University
Cement and Concrete Composites | Year: 2016

This paper investigates the correlation of conductivity and damage evolution in carbon fiber reinforced conductive concrete. Under axial static loading and quasi-static cycle loading, the damage evolution is detected by ultrasonic technique, and the variation of resistivity is also inspected using real-time measurement method. According to the stress wave theory, the relationship between the damage evolution in concrete and variation of ultrasonic velocity is obtained, eventually concluding in the correlation of concrete damage and its resistivity. The research results indicate that concrete real-time damage and resistivity exhibits cubic polynomial correlation under the condition of a static load, and concrete resistivity and residual damage shows exponential growth rule under the condition of a cyclic load. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Yang X.,Honghe University | Zhu Q.,Ningbo University | Huang C.,Changsha University of Science and Technology
Nonlinear Analysis: Real World Applications | Year: 2011

Chaotic systems in practice are always influenced by some unknown factors, which may make the chaotic behavior completely different from that of unaffected system. In this paper, generalized lag-synchronization for a general class of coupled chaotic systems with mixed delays, uncertain parameters, as well as external perturbations is investigated. A simple but all-powerful robust adaptive controller is designed to achieve this goal. Based on Lyapunov stability theory, integral inequality and Barbalat lemma, rigorous proofs are given for the asymptotic stability of the error systems of the coupled systems with or without external perturbations. Sufficient conditions for inaccuracy or accuracy estimation of unknown parameters are also given. Moreover, the designed adaptive controller has better anti-interference capacity than those of references. Numerical simulations verify the effectiveness of the theoretical results. © 2010 Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Ge Y.,Ningbo University | Chang C.,National University of Singapore
Proceedings - 2011 IEEE International Conference on Computer Science and Automation Engineering, CSAE 2011 | Year: 2011

This paper proposes a torque coordinated control system for four-wheel motor independent drive electric vehicle (EV) in yaw motion, which carries out torque distribution control based on a wheel traction force observer, since it is impossible to measure this force in practice. A computational-intelligence (CI) based controller and a sliding mode based training system are developed to get the reference traction force for each driven wheel. Numerical results validate that the controller guarantees the EV movements follow the ideal yaw moving tracks. The construction of observer is simple and its response is quickly. Moreover, the robustness of systems is improved. © 2011 IEEE.


Cheng F.,China Institute of Technology | Ye F.,Ningbo University
International Journal of Production Research | Year: 2011

To correctly split an order among parallel suppliers is one of the most important ways to improve the agility and competitiveness of a supply chain. For this order splitting problem, an evaluation criterion of production load equilibrium among parallel suppliers is introduced and a two objective order splitting model is developed to minimise the comprehensive cost and balance the production loads among the selected suppliers. The procedure of the suppliers' selection is proposed and non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm (NSGA-II) is applied to find the feasible solution set of Pareto. The simulation results indicate that the proposed model and algorithm is capable of obtaining satisfactory solutions. © 2011 Taylor & Francis.


He J.,Ningbo University | Porseizan K.,Pondicherry University
Physical Review E - Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics | Year: 2012

The rogue waves in a resonant erbium-doped fiber system governed by a coupled system of the nonlinear Schrödinger equation and the Maxwell-Bloch equation (NLS-MB equations) are given explicitly by a Taylor series expansion about the breather solutions of the normalized slowly varying amplitude of the complex field envelope E, polarization p, and population inversion η. The n-order breather solutions of the three fields are constructed using a Darboux transformation (DT) by assuming periodic seed solutions. Moreover, the n-order rogue waves are given by determinant forms with n+3 free parameters. Furthermore, the possible connection between our rouge waves and the generation of supercontinuum generation is discussed. © 2012 American Physical Society.


Li C.,Ningbo University | Li H.,Ningbo University | Su X.,Ningbo University | Li T.,Ningbo University
Fish and Shellfish Immunology | Year: 2011

Ferritin, a major iron storage protein of most living organisms, plays a crucial role in iron metabolism. Here we reported the isolation and characterization of a cDNA of ferritin gene from Sinonovacula constricta (denoted as ScFER). The full-length cDNA of ScFER was of 996 bp, consisting of a 5′-UTR of 120 bp, a 3′-UTR of 360 bp, and a complete open reading frame of 516 bp encoding a polypeptide with 171 amino acid residues. The predicted molecular mass of deduced amnio acid of ScFER was 19.76 kDa and the theoretical pI was 5.07. Quantitative real-time PCR was employed to analyze the expression profiles of ScFER mRNA in muscle, mantle and visceral mass after iron exposure. The peak expression level of ScFER in the three tissues was 1.79-fold, 1.31-fold and 3.51-fold increases in muscle, mantle and visceral mass, respectively. The ployclonal antibodies generated from the recombinant product of ScFER could be specifically identified not only the recombinant product, but also the native protein from muscle. All these results strongly suggested that ScFER was involved in the iron metabolism regulation in S. constricta. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.


Tong C.,Ningbo University | Palazoglu A.,University of California at Davis
Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research | Year: 2016

Despite the fact that fault diagnosis, similar to pattern recognition, has been widely studied in recent years, two key challenges remain: insufficient training samples and overlapping characteristics faced by reference fault classes. Recognition of these challenges motivate this study. First, an ensemble filtering of informative variables, also serving as a dimensionality reduction step, is proposed to address the challenge of insufficient training samples vs high dimensionality. Second, to characterize the difference among overlapped fault classes, a dissimilarity analysis, that detects changes in a distribution of two data sets, is employed. A moving window technique with incrementally increasing window sizes is used to gather data from online abnormal samples as well as each reference fault class. The dissimilarity for a pairwise set of data windows is then computed using the informative variables. The fault class recognition depends on the minimum dissimilarity achieved by the reference fault classes at each moving window step. The comparisons demonstrate that the recognition performance of the proposed approach is considerably better than that of discriminate models as well as other pattern matching methods. © 2016 American Chemical Society.


Xu S.,Beijing Computational Science Research Center | Porsezian K.,Pondicherry University | He J.,Ningbo University
Physical Review E - Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics | Year: 2013

The rotating reduced Maxwell-Bloch (RMB) equations, which describe the propagation of few-cycle optical pulses in a transparent media with two isotropic polarized electronic field components, are derived from a system of complete Maxwell-Bloch equations without using the slowly varying envelope approximations. Two hierarchies of the obtained rational solutions, including rogue waves, which are also called few-cycle optical rogue waves, of the rotating RMB equations are constructed explicitly through degenerate Darboux transformation. In addition to the above, the dynamical evolution of the first-, second-, and third-order few-cycle optical rogue waves are constructed with different patterns. For an electric field E in the three lower-order rogue waves, we find that rogue waves correspond to localized large amplitude oscillations of the polarized electric fields. Further a complementary relationship of two electric field components of rogue waves is discussed in terms of analytical formulas as well as numerical figures. © 2013 American Physical Society.


Mohr A.,University of Essex | Yu R.,Ningbo University | Zwacka R.M.,University of Essex
BMC Cancer | Year: 2015

Background: TRAIL is a potent and specific inducer of apoptosis in tumour cells and therefore is a possible new cancer treatment. It triggers apoptosis by binding to its cognate, death-inducing receptors, TRAIL-R1 and TRAIL-R2. In order to increase its activity, receptor-specific ligands and agonistic antibodies have been developed and some cancer types, including pancreatic cancer, have been reported to respond preferentially to TRAIL-R1 triggering. The aim of the present study was to examine an array of TRAIL-receptor specific variants on a number of pancreatic cancer cells and test the generality of the concept of TRAIL-R1 preference in these cells. Methods: TRAIL-R1 and TRAIL-R2 specific sTRAIL variants were designed and tested on a number of pancreatic cancer cells for their TRAIL-receptor preference. These sTRAIL variants were produced in HEK293 cells and were secreted into the medium. After having measured and normalised the different sTRAIL variant concentrations, they were applied to pancreatic and control cancer cells. Twenty-four hours later apoptosis was measured by DNA hypodiploidy assays. Furthermore, the specificities of the sTRAIL variants were validated in HCT116 cells that were silenced either for TRAIL-R1 or TRAIL-R2. Results: Our results show that some pancreatic cancer cells use TRAIL-R1 to induce cell death, whereas other pancreatic carcinoma cells such as AsPC-1 and BxPC-3 cells trigger apoptosis via TRAIL-R2. This observation extended to cells that were naturally TRAIL-resistant and had to be sensitised by silencing of XIAP (Panc1 cells). The measurement of TRAIL-receptor expression by FACS revealed no correlation between receptor preferences and the relative levels of TRAIL-R1 and TRAIL-R2 on the cellular surface. Conclusions: These results demonstrate that TRAIL-receptor preferences in pancreatic cancer cells are variable and that predictions according to cancer type are difficult and that determining factors to inform the optimal TRAIL-based treatments still have to be identified. © 2015 Mohr et al.


Zhang M.,Ningbo University | Chen J.,Ningbo University | Chen J.,Beihang University | Lv Y.,Ningbo University | Wang D.,Ningbo University
Construction and Building Materials | Year: 2013

This paper describes an experimental study on the expansion and subsequent damage of concrete specimens immersed in pure water, sulfate solutions of different sulfate concentrations, and mixed solutions of different sulfate and chloride concentrations. Based on experimentally obtained results, a theoretical expansion model is proposed for predicting the stresses, strains and volume expansion developed during the process of sulfate attack. The model proposed is based on the assumption that concrete may be treated as a porous visco-elastic material, and was developed by using a micromechanics approach method. The internal expansion force produced by delayed ettringite and gypsum is considered as the main cause of the expansion. The expansion model was validated using the experimental results obtained. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: IA | Phase: MG-5.5a-2015 | Award Amount: 17.68M | Year: 2016

Port Cities can be seen as multidimensional laboratories where challenges connected with urban mobility are more complex due to the dual system of gravity centre: the city, the port, not to mention their shared hinterland.These peculiarities are at once a challenge and an opportunity, as they provide scope for planning, researching and implementing integrated mobility solutions in distinctively complex urban contexts. Civitas PORTIS designs, demonstrates and evaluates integrated sets of sustainable mobility measures in 5 major port cities located on the North Sea (Aberdeen and Antwerp), the Mediterranean Sea (Trieste), the Black Sea (Constanta), and Baltic Sea (Klaipeda). The project also involves a major international follower port city on the East China Sea (Ningbo). Thanks to the Civitas Initiative, the partner cities expect to prove that more efficient and sustainable mobility is conducive to the establishment of vital and multi-modal hubs for urban, regional, national and International movements of passengers and goods. To do this, they establish integrated living laboratories clustering local measures according to four major aspects of sustainable urban mobility: 1. Governance: to increase port-city collaborative planning and participation, leading to enhanced forms of SUMPs. 2. People: to foster less car-dependent mobility styles, leading to modal shift in favour of collective and more active transport. 3. Transport system: to strengthen the efficiency of road traffic management to/from the port and through the city, and foster the use of clean vehicles. 4. Goods: to enhance logistics and freight transport, improving the efficiency and coordination of city, port and regional freight movements. Working with port cities, Civitas PORTIS will generate a strong and twofold replication potential: 1) specifically to other port cities, and 2) more generally to cities presenting major transport nodes and attractors for the benefit of the whole CIVITAS Initiative.


Wu P.,Ningbo University | Wu P.,Peking University | Yu H.,Ningbo University
Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics | Year: 2014

We study the diamagnetic interaction between a ground-state atom, which is located at a distance z from a planar body, e.g., a perfect mirror or a nondispersive and nonabsorbing dielectric substrate, and the body-assisted electromagnetic fields from vacuum, equilibrium, and out of equilibrium thermal fluctuations. We find that the diamagnetic potential at zero temperature is always proportional to z-4 in both the retarded and the nonretarded zones, and the Casimir-Polder (CP) force is attractive. The CP potential due to the thermal fluctuations at equilibrium dominates over that due to the zero-point fluctuations in the long-distance or high-temperature limit and behaves like T/z3, and the corresponding force is attractive. However, in the case of out of thermal equilibrium, the CP potential exhibits a different behavior with slower dependence on the distance and stronger dependence on temperature in the same limit, and it decays like (Te2-Ts2)/z2, where Te is the temperature of the environment and Ts is that of the substrate, yielding a CP force that can either be attractive or repulsive. Meanwhile, in the short-distance or low-temperature limit the CP potential is always dominated by the contribution due to the vacuum fluctuations. © 2014 American Physical Society.


Zhu Q.,Ningbo University | Huang C.,Changsha University of Science and Technology | Yang X.,Honghe University
Nonlinear Analysis: Hybrid Systems | Year: 2011

In this paper we study the stability for a class of stochastic jumping bidirectional associative memory (BAM) neural networks with time-varying and distributed delays. To the best of our knowledge, this class of stochastic jumping BAM neural networks with time-varying and distributed delays has never been investigated in the literature. The main aim of this paper tries to fill the gap. By using the stochastic stability theory, the properties of a Brownian motion, the generalized Ito's formula and linear matrix inequalities technique, some novel sufficient conditions are obtained to guarantee the stochastically exponential stability of the trivial solution or zero solution. In particular, the activation functions considered in this paper are fairly general since they may depend on Markovian jump parameters and they are more general than those usual Lipschitz conditions. Also, the derivative of time delays is not necessarily zero or small than 1. In summary, the results obtained in this paper extend and improve those not only with/without noise disturbances, but also with/without Markovian jump parameters. Finally, two interesting examples are provided to illustrate the theoretical results. © 2010.


Wang J.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Wang J.,Ningbo University | Yin W.-Y.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Yin W.-Y.,Zhejiang University
IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation | Year: 2013

We present a modified fourth-order finite-difference time-domain [FDTD (2, 4)] conformal scheme for accurately computing electromagnetic characteristics of some complex three-dimensional (3D) perfectly conducting (PEC) objects. It has higher accuracy and efficiency than those of conventional FDTD and FDTD (2, 4) methods, as coarse meshes are employed with staircase errors reduced effectively during its implementation. Two integration loops of the Faraday's law are used for updating magnetic field components, while the updating equations of electric field ones are the same as those in the normal FDTD method. A rigorous analysis of its global stability, based on the conventional high-order FDTD stability criterion and the Fourier method, is also performed. In order to obtain stable and accurate numerical results, a user-defined geometric precision technique, which gives a criterion for determining the time step, is employed for our computations. It is numerically demonstrated that using our proposed FDTD (2, 4)-compatible conformal scheme, high accuracy and low dispersion errors can be achieved for fast predicting radar cross sections as well as induced current distribution of some complex 3-D structures. © 1963-2012 IEEE.


Zhang H.-J.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Shu J.,Ningbo University | Wang K.-X.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Chen X.-T.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Materials Chemistry A | Year: 2014

A one-step carbothermal reduction method has been developed for the preparation of hierarchical porous materials. In this method, CMK-3 acts both as a template casting the hierarchical porous structure and as a reducing agent for the carbothermal reaction. Hierarchical MoO2 nanotubes prepared through this method exhibit high charge/discharge capacities and rate capabilities when used as an anode material for lithium ion batteries. Cycled at current densities of 0.1 and 1.0 A g-1, the material delivers discharge capacities of 720 and 530 mA h g-1 after 70 cycles, respectively. The Li-ion insertion and extraction processes of MoO2 nanotubes have been investigated by using an in situ X-ray diffraction technique for the first time to elucidate the Li-ion storage mechanism for the MoO 2 material. We demonstrate that the discharge capacity increase of MoO2 during the first 30 cycles is attributed to the lithiation transformation of MoO2. © The Royal Society of Chemistry.


Zhang X.,Ningbo University | Zhang X.,University of Regina | Yao Y.,University of Regina | Yu H.,University of Regina | Yu H.,Chongqing University of Posts and Telecommunications
Information Sciences | Year: 2010

A graph G is panconnected if, for any two distinct vertices x and y of G, it contains an [x, y ]path of length l for each integer l satisfying d G(x,y) ≤ l ≤ |V(G)| - 1, where dG(x,y) denotes the distance between vertices x and y in G, and V(G) denotes the vertex set of G. For insight into the concept of panconnectedness, we propose a more refined property, namely panpositionable panconnectedness. Let x, y, and z be any three distinct vertices in a graph G. Then G is said to be panpositionably panconnected if for any dG(x,z) ≤ l1 ≤ |V(G)| -dG(y,z) - 1, it contains a path P such that x is the beginning vertex of P, z is the (l1, + 1)th vertex of P, and y is the (l 1 +l2 + 1)th vertex of P for any integer l2 satisfying dG(y,z) ≤ l2 ≤ |VG|-l1 -1. The augmented cube, proposed by Choudum and Sunitha [6] to be an enhancement of the n-cube Qn, not only retains some attractive characteristics of Qn but also possesses many distinguishing properties of which Q n lacks. In this paper, we investigate the panpositionable panconnectedness with respect to the class of augmented cubes. As a consequence, many topological properties related to cycle and path embedding in augmented cubes, such as pancyclicity, panconnectedness, and panpositionable Hamiltonicity, can be drawn from our results. © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


Chen H.,University of Tokyo | Chen H.,Fujitsu Limited | Wang G.,Ningbo University | Wang Z.,Stanford University | And 2 more authors.
IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications | Year: 2012

An unknown-position sensor can be localized if there are three or more anchors making time-of-arrival (TOA) measurements of a signal from it. However, the location errors can be very large due to the fact that some of the measurements are from non-line-of-sight (NLOS) paths. In this paper, a semi-definite programming (SDP) based node localization algorithm in NLOS environments is proposed for ultra-wideband (UWB) wireless sensor networks. The positions of sensors can be estimated using the distance estimates from location-aware anchors as well as other sensors. However, in the absence of line-of-sight (LOS) paths, e.g., in indoor networks, the NLOS range estimates can be significantly biased. As a result, the NLOS error can remarkably decrease the location accuracy, and it is not easy to accurately distinguish LOS from NLOS measurements. According to the information known about the prior probabilities and distributions of the NLOS errors, three different cases are introduced and the respective localization problems are addressed. Simulation results demonstrate that this algorithm achieves high location accuracy even for the case in which NLOS and LOS measurements are not identifiable. © 2012 IEEE.


Yi T.-F.,Anhui University of Technology | Xie Y.,Heilongjiang University | Shu J.,Ningbo University | Wang Z.,Harbin Institute of Technology | And 3 more authors.
Journal of the Electrochemical Society | Year: 2011

Niobium-substituted Li 4 Ti5-x Nb x O 12 electrodes (0≤x≤0.25) have been synthesized by a solid-state method. The structure and electrochemical performance of these as prepared powders have been characterized by differential thermal analysis (DTA) and thermogravimetery (TG), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy (RS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and the galvanostatic charge-discharge test. The XRD and RS results show that the Nb 5+ can partially replace Ti 4+ and Li + in the spinel and there are very few oxygen vacancies in the Li 4 Ti 4.95 Nb 0.05 O 12 with a higher electronic conductivity. The Nb-doped lithium titanium oxide samples show smaller particle size and more regular morphology structure, and Li 4 Ti 4.95 Nb 0.05 O 12 has the highest initial discharge capacity and cycling performance among all the samples cycled between 0.0 and 2.0 V. CV implies that the niobium doping is beneficial to the reversible intercalation and deintercalation of Li +. EIS indicates that Li 4 Ti 4.95 Nb 0.05 O 12 has a smaller charge transfer resistance corresponding to a much higher conductivity than that of Li 4 Ti 5 O 12 corresponding to the extraction of Li + ions. The superior cycling performance and wide discharge voltage range, as well as simple synthesis route and low synthesis cost of the Li 4 Ti 4.95 Nb 0.05 O 12 are expected to show a potential commercial application. © 2011 The Electrochemical Society.


Zhu Z.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Zhu Z.,Changsha University of Science and Technology | Yu H.,Ningbo University | Wang B.,Shanghai JiaoTong University
Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics | Year: 2012

We demonstrate that the thermal Casimir-Polder forces on molecules near a conducting surface whose transition wavelengths are comparable to the molecule-surface separation are dependent on the ambient temperature and molecular polarization and they can even be changed from attractive to repulsive by varying the temperature across a threshold value for anisotropically polarizable molecules. Remarkably, this attractive-to-repulsive transition may be realized at room temperature. Let us note that the predicted repulsion is essentially a nonequilibrium effect since the force we calculated on a ground-state (or an excited-stated) molecule actually contains the contribution of the absorption (or emission) of thermal photons. © 2012 American Physical Society.


Du S.,Ningbo University | Guo Z.,Ningbo University | Chen B.,Ningbo University | Sha Y.,Ningbo University | And 4 more authors.
Biosensors and Bioelectronics | Year: 2014

A novel sandwich-type electrochemiluminescence (ECL) immunosensor was developed for highly sensitive and selective determination of tumor markers based on biological barcode mode. N-(4-aminobutyl)-N-ethylisoluminol (ABEI) and the second antibody (Ab2) were simultaneously immobilized on conductive nanospheres to construct ABEI/Ab2-CNSs probes, which could form sandwich immunocomplex by Ab2 and emit ECL signals by ABEI. The gold layer coated on the surface of the conductive nanospheres could extend the outer Helmholtz plane (OHP) of the ECL immunosensor effectively. Benefited from it, all ABEI molecules immobilized on conductive nanospheres would act as biological barcode to give in-situ ECL signals without interfering with the activity of the second antibody. In such a case, the sensitivity of the ECL immunosensor would be greatly improved because an antigen molecule would correspond to ECL signals of thousands of ABEI molecules. Using prostate specific antigen (PSA) as a model tumor marker, the ECL intensity was found to increase with the logarithm of PSA concentration with a wide linear range from 0.04 to 10fg/mL. In addition, specificity, stability, reproducibility, regeneration and application were satisfactory. Therefore, this developed ECL immunosensor has a potential for practical detection of disease-related proteins besides tumor markers in the clinical diagnostics. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.


Qiu D.-H.,Ningbo University | Huang Z.-L.,Ningbo University | Zhou T.,Zhejiang GongShang University | Shen C.,Zhejiang GongShang University | Hider R.C.,King's College London
FEMS Microbiology Letters | Year: 2011

The antimicrobial activity of the iron(III)-selective 3-hydroxypyridin-4-one chelators, CP251(1) and CP252(2), was evaluated in comparison with that of diethylenetriamine-penta acetic acid (3). CP251 was found to exhibit an inhibitory effect on the growth of both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. CP251 may find application in the treatment of external infections such as those associated with wounds. © 2010 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.


Yu H.,Tsinghua University | Chen X.,Ningbo University | Zhu W.,University of Illinois at Urbana - Champaign | Cao C.,Tsinghua University
International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance | Year: 2012

Purpose: To examine the effectiveness of threshold and polarized models in the training organization of Chinese top-level sprint speed skaters using a 2-y quasi-experimental design. Methods: Two years (2004-05 and 2005-06 seasons) of the Chinese national speed-skating team's daily training load (N = 9; 5 men, 23.6 ± 1.7 y, weight 76.6 ± 4.1 kg, competitive experience 5.0 ± 0.8 y, 500-m time 35.45 ± 0.72 s, 1000-m time 71.18 ± 2.28 s; 4 women, 25.3 ± 6.8 y, 73.0 ± 8.5 kg, 6.3 ± 3.5 y, 37.81 ± 0.46 s, 75.70 ± 0.81 s) were collected and analyzed. Each season's training load included overall duration (calculated in min and km), frequency (calculated by overall sessions), and training intensity (measured by ear blood lactate or estimated by heart rate), Their performances at national, World Cup, and Olympic competitions during the 2 seasons (2004-06), as well as lactate data measured 15 and 30 min after these competitions, were also collected and analyzed. Based on the lactate data (<2, 2-4, >4 mmol/L), training zones were classified as low, moderate, and high intensity. Results: The total durations and frequencies of the training load were similar across the seasons, but a threshold-training model distribution was used in 2004-05, and a polarized-training-load organization in 2005-06. Under the polarized-training model, or load organization, all speed skaters' performance improved and their lactate after competition decreased considerably. Conclusion: Training-intensity distribution based on a polarized-training model led to the success in top Chinese sprint speed skaters in the 2005-06 season. © 2012 Human Kinetics, Inc.


Li J.-H.,Ningbo University | Luczka J.,University of Silesia
Physical Review E - Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics | Year: 2010

Transport properties of a Brownian particle in thermal-inertial ratchets subject to an external time-oscillatory drive and a constant bias force are investigated. Since the phenomena of negative mobility, resonant activation and noise-enhance stability were reported before, in the present paper, we report some additional aspects of negative mobility, resonant activation and noise-enhance stability, such as the ingredients for the appearances of these phenomena, multiple resonant activation peaks, current reversals, noise-weakened stability, and so on. © 2010 The American Physical Society.


Miao F.,Ningbo University | Sun G.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Chen K.,Shanghai JiaoTong University
International Journal of Mechanical Sciences | Year: 2013

This study extends the method of reverberation-ray matrix (MRRM) to analyze the transient response of a laminated composite beam subjected to an impulse force load. To validate the MRRM for this application, we first analyze the velocity response of a laminated cantilever beam model, then solve the transient responses of a laminated composite beam under a half-cycle pulse force and a rectangular pulse force using the MRRM. We present the reverberation-ray matrix of multi-reflected and scattered waves in the laminated composite beam, and analyze the influence of the impact load type and the axial-flexural coupling effects due to asymmetric ply stacking sequences. The effects of different beam models on the calculation results for transient responses are also emphasized. Compared with the finite element method, the proposed MRRM approach yields results that are in good agreement with previous findings, and the MRRM solution process is simpler, faster, and requires fewer computational elements. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Hardrat B.,University of Kiel | Wang N.-P.,Ningbo University | Freimuth F.,Jülich Research Center | Mokrousov Y.,Jülich Research Center | Heinze S.,University of Kiel
Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics | Year: 2012

We present an implementation of the ballistic Landauer-Büttiker transport scheme in one-dimensional systems based on density functional theory calculations within the full-potential linearized augmented plane-wave (FLAPW) method. In order to calculate the conductance within the Green's function method, we map the electronic structure from the extended states of the FLAPW calculation to Wannier functions, which constitute a minimal localized basis set. Our approach benefits from the high accuracy of the underlying FLAPW calculations, allowing us to address the complex interplay of structure, magnetism, and spin-orbit coupling and is ideally suited to study spin-dependent electronic transport in one-dimensional magnetic nanostructures. To illustrate our approach, we study ballistic electron transport in nonmagnetic Pt monowires with a single stretched bond including spin-orbit coupling, and in ferromagnetic Co monowires with different collinear magnetic alignment of the electrodes with the purpose of analyzing the magnetoresistance when going from tunneling to the contact regime. We further investigate spin-orbit scattering due to an impurity atom. We consider two configurations: a Co atom in a Pt monowire and vice versa. In both cases, the spin-orbit induced band mixing leads to a change of the conductance upon switching the magnetization direction from along the chain axis to perpendicular to it. The main contribution stems from ballistic spin scattering for the magnetic Co impurity in the nonmagnetic Pt monowire, and for the Pt scatterer in the magnetic Co monowire from the band formed from states with d xy and d x2-y2 orbital symmetry. We quantify this effect by calculating the ballistic anisotropic magnetoresistance, which displays values up to as much as 7% for ballistic spin scattering and gigantic values of around 100% for the Pt impurity in the Co wire. In addition, we show that the presence of a scatterer can reduce as well as increase the ballistic anisotropic magnetoresistance. © 2012 American Physical Society.


Gao X.N.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Lou S.Y.,East China Normal University | Lou S.Y.,Ningbo University | Tang X.Y.,Shanghai JiaoTong University
Journal of High Energy Physics | Year: 2013

Assuming that there exist at least two fermionic parameters, the classical N=1 supersymmetric Korteweg-de Vries (SKdV) system can be transformed to some coupled bosonic systems. The boson fields in the bosonized SKdV (BSKdV) systems are defined on even Grassmann algebra. Due to the intrusion of other Grassmann parameters, the BSKdV systems are different from the usual non-supersymmetric integrable systems, and many more abundant solution structures can be unearthed. With the help of the singularity analysis, the Painlevé property of the BSKdV system is proved and a Bäcklund transformation (BT) is found. The BT related nonlocal symmetry, we call it as residual symmetry, is used to find symmetry reduction solutions of the BSKdV system. Hinted from the symmetry reduction solutions, a more generalized but much simpler method is established to find exact solutions of the BSKdV and then the SKdV systems, which actually can be applied to any fermionic systems. © 2013 SISSA, Trieste, Italy.


Tian T.F.,University of Wollongong | Li W.H.,University of Wollongong | Deng Y.M.,Ningbo University
Smart Materials and Structures | Year: 2011

This paper presents both experimental and theoretical investigations of the sensing capabilities of graphite based magnetorheological elastomers (MREs). In this study, eight MRE samples with varying graphite weight fractions were fabricated and their resistance under different magnetic fields and external loadings were measured with a multi-meter. With an increment of graphite weight fraction, the resistance of MRE sample decreases steadily. Higher magnetic fields result in a resistance increase. Based on an ideal assumption of a perfect chain structure, a mathematical model was developed to investigate the relationship between the MRE resistance with external loading. In this model, the current flowing through the chain structure consists of both a tunnel current and a conductivity current, both of which depend on external loadings. The modelling parameters have been identified and reconstructed from comparison with experimental results. The comparison indicates that both experimental results and modelling predictions agree favourably well.


Li W.,Ningbo University | Liu P.X.,Carleton University
Journal of Control Theory and Applications | Year: 2011

Microelectromechanical systems (MEMSs) pose unique measurement and control problems compared with conventional ones because of their small size, low cost, and low power consumption. The vibrating gyroscope is one of those MEMS devices that have significant potential in many industry applications. When the MEMS gyroscope system is considered simultaneously with the coupling terms, the exogenous disturbances and the parameter variations, the controller design of this system becomes very challenging. This paper investigates the primary control problem of a perturbed vibrating MEMS gyroscope. A nonlinear robust adaptive control scheme is proposed for the drive axis of a vibrating MEMS gyroscope. By combining the dynamic surface control (DSC) method with the H-infinity disturbance attenuation technique, a simpler systematic design procedure is developed. The derived H-infinity controller has a simplified structure, and it can drive the drive axis to resonance, regulate the output amplitude of the drive axis to a desired value, and attenuate the generalized disturbances. The features of the derived controller are discussed and illustrated by the simulation of a closed-loop system. The analysis and simulation show that the obtained controller possesses good adaptability and robustness to system uncertainties. © 2011 South China University of Technology, Academy of Mathematics and Systems Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Zhang J.,Japan National Institute of Materials Science | Zhang J.,Ningbo University | Peng W.,Japan National Institute of Materials Science | Chen Z.,Japan National Institute of Materials Science | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Physical Chemistry C | Year: 2012

Rare earth element cerium (Ce) with variable valence states Ce 4+/Ce 3+ is doped in the TiO 2 photoanode for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The anatase crystalline phase keeps unchanged, while the crystalline size decreases slightly after Ce doping. The Ce positively changes the conduction band minimum of TiO 2 due to the unoccupied Ce-4f trap states in the band gap, and the Ce 4+ is reduced to Ce 3+ when electrons are injected in the photoanode. The cerium-doped photoanodes with special electrochemical properties severely influence the performance of DSSCs. Due to the increased electron injection, the small Ce content (0.05% and 0.1%) doped TiO 2 photoanodes improve the performance of DSSCs which is optimized to 7.65% with Ce0.1% doping (1 sun, AM1.5) compared with the one with a pure TiO 2 photoanode (7.2%). However, the Ce 4+ states effectively trap electrons in the photoanode with further increase of Ce from 0.3 to 0.9%, which is confirmed by the charge extraction method and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS); thus, it suppresses the photocurrent and the efficiency of the DSSCs but is helpful to the fill factor improvement. The trap states, mainly resting on the TiO 2 crystalline surface, are verified and effectively passivized by TiCl 4 surface treatment. © 2012 American Chemical Society.


Wu N.,CAS Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics | Czajkowsky D.M.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Zhang J.,CAS Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics | Qu J.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | And 7 more authors.
Journal of the American Chemical Society | Year: 2013

The DNA origami technology holds great promise for the assembly of nanoscopic technological devices and studies of biochemical reactions at the single-molecule level. For these, it is essential to establish well controlled attachment of functional materials to predefined sites on the DNA origami nanostructures for reliable measurements and versatile applications. However, the two-sided nature of the origami scaffold has shown limitations in this regard. We hypothesized that holes of the commonly used two-dimensional DNA origami designs are large enough for the passage of single-stranded (ss)-DNA. Sufficiently long ssDNA initially located on one side of the origami should thus be able to "thread" to the other side through the holes in the origami sheet. By using an origami sheet attached with patterned biotinylated ssDNA spacers and monitoring streptavidin binding with atomic force microscopic (AFM) imaging, we provide unambiguous evidence that the biotin ligands positioned on one side have indeed threaded through to the other side. Our finding reveals a previously overlooked critical design feature that should provide new interpretations to previous experiments and new opportunities for the construction of origami structures with new functional capabilities. © 2013 American Chemical Society.


Chen C.-L.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Lou S.-Y.,Ningbo University
Communications in Theoretical Physics | Year: 2014

A consistent tanh expansion (CTE) method is developed for the dispersion water wave (DWW) system. For the CTE solvable DWW system, there are two branches related to tanh expansion, the main branch is consistent while the auxiliary branch is not consistent. From the consistent branch, we can obtain infinitely many exact significant solutions including the soliton-resonant solutions and soliton-periodic wave interactions. From the inconsistent branch, only one special solution can be found. The CTE related nonlocal symmetries are also proposed. The nonlocal symmetries can be localized to find finite Bäcklund transformations by prolonging the model to an enlarged one. © 2014 Chinese Physical Society and IOP Publishing Ltd.


Jiang F.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Jiang F.,Ningbo University | Wu Z.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Zhang W.,Shanghai JiaoTong University
Tetrahedron Letters | Year: 2010

The Pd-catalyzed asymmetric aza-Wacker-type cyclization reaction of the olefinic tosylamides with molecular oxygen as the green oxidant was developed. Under the optimized conditions, excellent catalytic activity and good enantioselectivity with up to 74% ee were obtained with quinolineoxazoline ligands. This reaction provides direct and easy access to chiral nitrogen-containing heterocycles which retain the olefin functionality. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Cheng X.-P.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Lou S.Y.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Lou S.Y.,East China Normal University | Lou S.Y.,Ningbo University | And 2 more authors.
Physical Review E - Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics | Year: 2014

The nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS) equation is widely used in natural science. Various nonlinear excitations of the NLS equation have been found by many methods. However, except for the soliton-soliton interactions, it is very difficult to find interaction solutions between different types of nonlinear excitations. In this paper, the symmetry reduction method is further developed to find interaction solutions between solitons and other types of NLS waves. Especially, the soliton-cnoidal wave interaction solutions are explicitly studied in terms of the Jacobi elliptic functions and the third type of incomplete elliptic integrals. Some special concrete interaction solutions and their asymptotic behaviors are discussed both in analytical and graphical ways. © 2014 American Physical Society.


Gao X.N.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Lou S.Y.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Lou S.Y.,Ningbo University | Lou S.Y.,Fudan University
Physics Letters, Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and High-Energy Physics | Year: 2012

Bosonization approach to the classical supersymmetric systems is presented. By introducing the multi-fermionic parameters in the expansions of the superfields, the N=1 supersymmetric KdV (sKdV) system is transformed to a system of coupled bosonic equations. The method can be applied to any fermionic systems. By solving the coupled bosonic equations, some novel types of exact solutions can be explicitly obtained. Especially, the richness of the localized excitations of the supersymmetric integrable system is discovered. The rich multi-soliton solutions obtained here have not yet been obtained by using other methods. However, the traditional known multi-soliton solutions can also not be obtained by the bosonization approach of this Letter. Some open problems on the bosonization of the supersymmetric integrable models are proposed in the both classical and quantum levels. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.


Yi T.-F.,Anhui University of Technology | Xie Y.,Heilongjiang University | Zhu Y.-R.,Anhui University of Technology | Shu J.,Ningbo University | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Power Sources | Year: 2012

A theoretical study of the structural, elastic and electronic properties of spinel LiTi2O4 anode has been performed by density functional theory (DFT) plane-wave pseudopotential method. The independent elastic constants, shear modulus (G), bulk modulus (B), and Young's modulus (E) are evaluated, respectively. The results suggest that cubic LiTi 2O4 is mechanically stable. The G/B ratio of 0.584 indicates the ductility of LiTi2O4 is good. The electron density difference of LiTi2O4 shows that the O2p orbits overlap effectively with Ti3d ones, confirming the formations of strong covalent bonds between them, while Li is fully ionized in the lattice. The formation enthalpy for LiTi2O4 is calculated to be ?2070.723 ± 1.6 kJ mol?1. The strong covalent bonds between O and Ti atoms are not only responsible for the excellent mechanical stabilities but also very crucial for the thermodynamic stability of LiTi2O4 compound. Furthermore, in Li2Ti2O4compound, the full occupation of 16(c) sites by Li+ not only leads to a smaller C12 value but also leads to a much larger C44 one. Therefore, the plasticity and ductility of the Li2Ti2O4 become poor in comparison to LiTi2O4, while the thermodynamic stability of Li2Ti2O4 can be further improved after the Li+ intercalation of LiTi2O4. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Hu X.-R.,East China Normal University | Lou S.-Y.,Ningbo University | Lou S.-Y.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Chen Y.,East China Normal University | Chen Y.,Ningbo University
Physical Review E - Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics | Year: 2012

In nonlinear science, it is very difficult to find exact interaction solutions among solitons and other kinds of complicated waves such as cnoidal waves and Painlevé waves. Actually, even if for the most well-known prototypical models such as the Kortewet-de Vries (KdV) equation and the Kadomtsev-Petviashvili (KP) equation, this kind of problem has not yet been solved. In this paper, the explicit analytic interaction solutions between solitary waves and cnoidal waves are obtained through the localization procedure of nonlocal symmetries which are related to Darboux transformation for the well-known KdV equation. The same approach also yields some other types of interaction solutions among different types of solutions such as solitary waves, rational solutions, Bessel function solutions, and/or general Painlevé II solutions. © 2012 American Physical Society.


He J.S.,Ningbo University | Charalampidis E.G.,Aristotle University of Thessaloniki | Charalampidis E.G.,University of Oldenburg | Charalampidis E.G.,University of Massachusetts Amherst | And 2 more authors.
Physics Letters, Section A: General, Atomic and Solid State Physics | Year: 2014

We explore the form of rogue wave solutions in a select set of case examples of nonlinear Schrödinger equations with variable coefficients. We focus on systems with constant dispersion, and present three different models that describe atomic Bose-Einstein condensates in different experimentally relevant settings. For these models, we identify exact rogue wave solutions. Our analytical findings are corroborated by direct numerical integration of the original equations, performed by two different schemes. Very good agreement between numerical results and analytical predictions for the emergence of the rogue waves is identified. Additionally, the nontrivial fate of small numerically induced perturbations to the exact rogue wave solutions is also discussed. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.


Tian T.F.,University of Wollongong | Li W.H.,University of Wollongong | Alici G.,University of Wollongong | Du H.,University of Wollongong | Deng Y.M.,Ningbo University
Rheologica Acta | Year: 2011

This study focuses on the magnetorheology of graphite-based magnetorheological elastomers (Gr MREs). By introducing graphite to conventional MREs, the Gr MREs with various graphite weight fractions are fabricated. Both steady-state and dynamic tests were conducted to study rheological properties of the samples. For dynamic tests, the effects of magnetic field, strain amplitude and frequency on both storage modulus and loss modulus were measured. The influence of graphite weight fraction on mechanical performances of these samples was summarized. Also, the microstructures of isotropic and anisotropic Gr MREs were observed. In anisotropic MREs, the graphite powders disperse in matrix randomly. The graphite particles lead to an increment of initial mechanical properties and a decrement of the MR effect. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.


Yi T.-F.,Anhui University of Technology | Xie Y.,Heilongjiang University | Jiang L.-J.,Anhui University of Technology | Shu J.,Ningbo University | And 3 more authors.
RSC Advances | Year: 2012

Mo 6+-doped Li 4Ti 5-xMo xO 12 (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.2) samples have been synthesized via a simple solid-state reaction. The products were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy (RS), scanning electronic microscope (SEM), cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and galvanostatic charge-discharge testing. Li 4Ti 5-xMo xO 12 (x = 0, 0.05) shows the pure phase structure, but several impurity peak can be detected when x ≥ 0.1. Mo-doping did not change the electrochemical reaction process and basic spinel structure of Li 4Ti 5O 12. The particle size of the Li 4Ti 5-xMo xO 12 (0≤ x ≤ 0.2) sample was about 2-3 μm and Li 4Ti 5O 12 has less agglomeration. Electrochemical results show that the Mo 6+-doped Li 4Ti 5O 12 samples display a larger diffusion coefficient of lithium ions, lower charge transfer resistance, higher rate capability and excellent reversibility. The Li 4Ti 5-xMo xO 12 (x = 0.1, 0.15) sample maintained considerable capacities until 6 C rates, whereas pristine Li 4Ti 5O 12 shows a severe capacity decline at high rates. After 100 cycles, the specific reversible capacities of Li 4Ti 5O 12 and Li 4Ti 4.9Mo 0.1O 12 are 195.8 and 210.8 mAh g -1, respectively. The superior cycling performance and wide discharge voltage range, as well as simple synthesis route and low synthesis cost of the Mo-doped Li 4Ti 5O 12 are expected to show a potential commercial application. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.


Chen C.-L.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Lou S.-Y.,Ningbo University
Chinese Physics Letters | Year: 2013

A consistent tanh expansion (CTE) is used to solve the Broer - Kaup (BK) system. It is proved that the BK system is CTE solvable. Some exact interaction solutions among different nonlinear excitations such as solitons, rational waves, periodic waves, error function waves and any Burgers waves are explicitly given. © 2013 Chinese Physical Society and IOP Publishing Ltd.


Lou S.-Y.,Ningbo University | Lou S.-Y.,East China Normal University | Cheng X.-P.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Tang X.-Y.,Shanghai JiaoTong University
Chinese Physics Letters | Year: 2014

The nonlinear Schrödinger equation is proved to be consistent-tanh-expansion (CTE) solvable. Some types of dark soliton solutions dressed by cnoidal periodic waves are obtained by means of the CTE method. © 2014 Chinese Physical Society and IOP Publishing Ltd.


Lou S.Y.,Ningbo University | Lou S.Y.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Hu X.,Ningbo University | Hu X.,East China Normal University | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical | Year: 2012

Starting from nonlocal symmetries related to Bäcklund transformation (BT), many interesting results can be obtained. Taking the well-known potential KdV (pKdV) equation as an example, a new type of nonlocal symmetry in an elegant and compact form which comes from BT is presented and used to perform research works in two main subjects: the nonlocal symmetry is localized by introducing suitable and simple auxiliary-dependent variables to generate new solutions from old ones and to consider some novel group invariant solutions; some other models both in finite and infinite dimensions are generated under new nonlocal symmetry. The finite-dimensional models are completely integrable in Liouville sense, which are shown equivalent to the results given through the nonlinearization method for Lax pair. © 2012 IOP Publishing Ltd.


Zhu Q.,Ningbo University | Cao J.,Nanjing Southeast University
IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks | Year: 2010

This paper is concerned with the problem of exponential stability for a class of Markovian jump impulsive stochastic Cohen-Grossberg neural networks with mixed time delays and known or unknown parameters. The jumping parameters are determined by a continuous-time, discrete-state Markov chain, and the mixed time delays under consideration comprise both time-varying delays and continuously distributed delays. To the best of the authors' knowledge, till now, the exponential stability problem for this class of generalized neural networks has not yet been solved since continuously distributed delays are considered in this paper. The main objective of this paper is to fill this gap. By constructing a novel Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional, and using some new approaches and techniques, several novel sufficient conditions are obtained to ensure the exponential stability of the trivial solution in the mean square. The results presented in this paper generalize and improve many known results. Finally, two numerical examples and their simulations are given to show the effectiveness of the theoretical results. © 2006 IEEE.


Zhu Q.,Ningbo University | Cao J.,Nanjing Southeast University
Neurocomputing | Year: 2011

In this paper, we study a new class of stochastic Cohen-Grossberg neural networks with reaction-diffusion and mixed delays. Without the aid of nonnegative semimartingale convergence theorem, the method of variation parameter and linear matrix inequalities technique, a set of novel sufficient conditions on the exponential stability for the considered system is obtained by utilizing a new Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional, the Poincaré inequality and stochastic analysis theory. The obtained results show that the reaction-diffusion term does contribute to the exponentially stabilization of the considered system. Therefore, our results generalize and improve some earlier publications. Moreover, two numerical examples are given to show the effectiveness of the theoretical results and demonstrate that the stability criteria existed in the earlier literature fail. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.


Ren Y.,Tsinghua University | Qiu X.,Tsinghua University | Yu T.,Hong Kong University of Science and Technology | Yu T.,Ningbo University
International Journal of Impact Engineering | Year: 2014

Comprised of cover ply, tensor ply and carrying ply, tensor skin is a kind of composite sandwich structure developed to improve the helicopter's crashworthiness in water impacts. In this study, a theoretical model is proposed to analyze the static and dynamic response of a kind of tensor skin. The whole response of tensor skin is divided into three stages: an elastic deformation stage of the whole beam; an unfolding stage of the tensor ply; and a stretching stage of the tensor ply. At the beginning of impact, the whole beam undergoes elastic deformation until the breakage of the cover and carrying plies; then the tensor ply left is unfolded and stretched to absorb more impact kinetic energy. In the unfolding stage, by adopting the rigid, perfectly plastic material idealization, a deformation mechanism with stationary plastic hinges is proposed. It is found that the static critical pressure first decreases then increases with the increasing central deflection. The static critical pressure varies with the geometric parameters, but the total energy dissipated in the unfolding stage is independent of the geometric parameters. The residual kinetic energy at the end of unfolding stage will be dissipated by the plastic stretching. The dynamic responses of the tensor skin are analyzed for step loaded pressure and rectangular pressure pulse. It is verified that the theoretical predictions display very good agreement with the corresponding finite element simulations. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Sun B.,Jiangsu University | Chen M.-Y.,Jiangsu University | Zhang Y.-K.,Nanjing Southeast University | Zhou J.,Ningbo University
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics | Year: 2013

We propose an ultracompact polarization beam splitter based on an asymmetric directional coupler, which comprises of a horizontally slotted waveguide and a hybrid plasmonic waveguide. The splitter is designed such that there is a large difference between the effective indices of the TE-polarized modes for the two waveguides, while the effective index difference between the TM-polarized modes are quite small in a wide wavelength range. Numerical results demonstrate that the proposed splitter with a short device length of 5 μm shows extinction ratios as low as -20 dB with bandwidths as great as 100 nm. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Chen M.-Y.,Jiangsu University | Li Y.-R.,Jiangsu University | Zhou J.,Ningbo University | Zhang Y.-K.,Nanjing Southeast University
Journal of Lightwave Technology | Year: 2013

We propose the design of a simple large-mode area microstructured optical fiber with low bending loss and large loss difference between the fundamental mode and the high-order modes. Single-mode operation in the fiber is realized by the introduction of small diameter holes, whereas the bending loss of the fiber is realized by the introduction of three large holes in the two-ring hole microstructured optical fiber. We also introduce low-index rods into the core of the fiber, which can effectively compensate the reduction of mode area induced by bending the fiber. © 1983-2012 IEEE.


Gan Y.,China Agricultural University | Qiu Q.,China Agricultural University | Qiu Q.,Ningbo University | Liu P.,China Agricultural University | And 2 more authors.
Applied and Environmental Microbiology | Year: 2012

Propionate is one of the major intermediary products in the anaerobic decomposition of organic matter in wetlands and paddy fields. Under methanogenic conditions, propionate is decomposed through syntrophic interaction between proton-reducing and propionate-oxidizing bacteria and H2-consuming methanogens. Temperature is an important environmental regulator; yet its effect on syntrophic propionate oxidation has been poorly understood. In the present study, we investigated the syntrophic oxidation of propionate in a rice field soil at 15°C and 30°C. [U-13C]propionate (99 atom%) was applied to anoxic soil slurries, and the bacteria and archaea assimilating 13C were traced by DNA-based stable isotope probing. Syntrophobacter spp., Pelotomaculum spp., and Smithella spp. were found significantly incorporating 13C into their nucleic acids after [13C]propionate incubation at 30°C. The activity of Smithella spp. increased in the later stage, and concurrently that of Syntrophomonas spp. increased. Aceticlastic Methanosaetaceae and hydrogenotrophic Methanomicrobiales and Methanocellales acted as methanogenic partners at 30°C. Syntrophic oxidation of propionate also occurred actively at 15°C. Syntrophobacter spp. were significantly labeled with 13C, whereas Pelotomaculum spp. were less active at this temperature. In addition, Methanomicrobiales, Methanocellales, and Methanosarcinaceae dominated the methanogenic community, while Methanosaetaceae decreased. Collectively, temperature markedly influenced the activity and community structure of syntrophic guilds degrading propionate in the rice field soil. Interestingly, Geobacter spp. and some other anaerobic organisms like Rhodocyclaceae, Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Thermomicrobia probably also assimilated propionate-derived 13C. The mechanisms for the involvement of these organisms remain unclear. © 2012, American Society for Microbiology.


Zhu Q.,Ningbo University | Cao J.,Nanjing Southeast University
IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems | Year: 2012

This paper discusses the issue of stability analysis for a class of impulsive stochastic bidirectional associative memory neural networks with both Markovian jump parameters and mixed time delays. The jumping parameters are modeled as a continuous-time discrete-state Markov chain. Based on a novel Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional, the generalized Itô's formula, mathematical induction, and stochastic analysis theory, a linear matrix inequality approach is developed to derive some novel sufficient conditions that guarantee the exponential stability in the mean square of the equilibrium point. At the same time, we also investigate the robustly exponential stability in the mean square of the corresponding system with unknown parameters. It should be mentioned that our stability results are delay-dependent, which depend on not only the upper bounds of time delays but also their lower bounds. Moreover, the derivatives of time delays are not necessarily zero or smaller than one since several free matrices are introduced in our results. Consequently, the results obtained in this paper are not only less conservative but also generalize and improve many earlier results. Finally, two numerical examples and their simulations are provided to show the effectiveness of the theoretical results. © 2012 IEEE.


Zhu Q.,Ningbo University | Cao J.,Nanjing Southeast University
Neurocomputing | Year: 2010

In this paper, the global asymptotic stability is investigated for stochastic neural networks of neutral type with both Markovian jump parameters and mixed time delays. The jumping parameters are modeled as a continuous-time, finite-state Markov chain. By employing the Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional and stochastic analysis theory as well as linear matrix inequality technique, some novel sufficient conditions are derived to guarantee the global asymptotic stability of the equilibrium point in the mean square. The proposed model of neutral type is quite general since many factors such as noise perturbations, Markovian jump parameters and mixed time delays are considered in this paper. The activation functions in this paper may be neither monotonically increasing nor continuously differentiable, and they are more general than those usual Lipschitz conditions. The results obtained in this paper comprise and generalize those given in the previous literature. Two numerical examples are provided to show the effectiveness of the theoretical results. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.


Jin H.,Technion - Israel Institute of Technology | Jin H.,Ningbo University | Huynh T.-P.,Technion - Israel Institute of Technology | Haick H.,Technion - Israel Institute of Technology | Haick H.,Russell Berrie Nanotechnology Institute
Nano Letters | Year: 2016

Flexible and wearable electronic sensors are useful for the early diagnosis and monitoring of an individual's health state. Sampling of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) derived from human breath/skin or monitoring abrupt changes in heart-beat/breath rate should allow noninvasive monitoring of disease states at an early stage. Nevertheless, for many reported wearable sensing devices, interaction with the human body leads incidentally to unavoidable scratches and/or mechanical cuts and bring about malfunction of these devices. We now offer proof-of-concept of nanoparticle-based flexible sensor arrays with fascinating self-healing abilities. By integrating a self-healable polymer substrate with 5 kinds of functionalized gold nanoparticle films, a sensor array gives a fast self-healing (<3 h) and attractive healing efficiency in both the substrate and sensing films. The proposed platform was used in sensing pressure variation and 11 kinds of VOCs. The sensor array had satisfactory sensitivity, a low detection limit, and promising discrimination features in monitoring both of VOCs and pressure variation, even after full healing. These results presage a new type of smart sensing device, with a desirable performance in the possible detection and/or clinical application for a number of different purposes. © 2016 American Chemical Society.


Chen H.,Ningbo University | Wang F.,Lihuili Hospital | Mao H.,Ningbo University | Yan X.,Ningbo University
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - General Subjects | Year: 2014

Background Carrageenan (CGN), a high molecular weight sulfated polysaccharide, is a traditional ingredient used in food industry. Its degraded forms have been identified as potential carcinogens, although the mechanism remains unclear. Methods The effects of degraded λ-carrageenan (λ-dCGN) on murine RAW264.7 cells and human THP-1-derived macrophage cells were investigated by studying its actions on tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) secretion, Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) expression, and activation of nuclear factor-κb (NF-κB) and activation protein-1 (AP-1) pathways. Results We found that λ-dCGN was much stronger than native λ-CGN in the activation of macrophages to secrete TNF-α. Treatment of RAW264.7 cells with λ-dCGN resulted in the upregulation of TLR4, CD14 and MD-2 expressions, but it did not increase the binding of lipopolysacchride (LPS) with macrophages. Meanwhile, λ-dCGN treatment activated NF-κB via B-cell lymphoma/leukemia 10 (Bcl10) and nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells inhibitor, alpha (IκBα) phosphorylation. In addition, λ-dCGN induced extracellular signal-regulated kinases/1/2/mitogen-activated protein kinases (ERK1/2/MAPK) and AP-1 activation. Interestingly, pretreatment of RAW264.7 cells with λ-dCGN markedly enhanced LPS-stimulated TNF-α secretion. This pretreatment resulted in the enhanced phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and intensified activation of AP-1. Conclusions λ-dCGN induced an inflammatory reaction via both NF-κB and AP-1, and enhanced the inflammatory effect of LPS through AP-1 activation. General significance The study demonstrated the role of λ-dCGN to induce the inflammatory reaction and to aggravate the effect of LPS on macrophages, suggesting that λ-dCGN produced during food processing and gastric digestion may be a safety concern. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.


Zhu Q.,Ningbo University | Cao J.,Nanjing Southeast University
Nonlinear Analysis: Real World Applications | Year: 2012

This paper is concerned with the stability of delayed recurrent neural networks with impulse control and Markovian jump parameters. The jumping parameters are modeled as a continuous-time, discrete-state Markov process. By applying the Lyapunov stability theory, Dynkin's formula and linear matrix inequality technique, some new delay-dependent conditions are derived to guarantee the exponential stability of the equilibrium point. Moreover, three numerical examples and their simulations are given to show the less conservatism and effectiveness of the obtained results. In particular, the traditional assumptions on the differentiability of the time varying delays and the boundedness of their derivatives are removed since the time varying delays considered in this paper may not be differentiable, even not continuous. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Sun B.,Jiangsu University | Chen M.-Y.,Jiangsu University | Zhou J.,Ningbo University | Zhang Y.-K.,Nanjing Southeast University
Plasmonics | Year: 2013

The polarization characteristics of a dual-core photonic crystal fiber (PCF) with a metal wire filled into the cladding air hole between the two cores have been investigated. Numerical investigation shows that the inclusion of the metal wire greatly changes the coupling characteristics of the modes in the two cores. In fact, the coupling lengths of the two polarizations show increased difference, which leads to the possibility of designing a dual-core PCF with a coupling length ratio of 1:2 for the two polarization states. The proposed polarization splitter shows extinction ratios as low as -20 dB with bandwidths as great as 146 nm. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York.


Huang L.,Hefei University of Technology | Wu J.,Hefei University of Technology | Zheng L.,Hefei University of Technology | Qian H.,Hefei University of Technology | And 6 more authors.
Analytical Chemistry | Year: 2013

A novel electrochemical aptasensor is described for rapid and ultrasensitive detection of ochratoxin A (OTA) based on signal enhancement with rolling circle amplification (RCA). The primer for RCA was designed to compose of a two-part sequence, one part of the aptamer sequence directed against OTA while the other part was complementary to the capture probe on the electrode surface. In the presence of target OTA, the primer, originally hybridized with the RCA padlock, is replaced to combine with OTA. This induces the inhibition of RCA and decreases the OTA sensing signal obtained with the electrochemical aptasensor. Under the optimized conditions, ultrasensitive detection of OTA was achieved with a limit of detection (LOD) of 0.065 ppt (pg/mL), which is much lower than previously reported. The electrochemical aptasensor was also successfully applied to the determination of OTA in wine samples. This ultrasensitive electrochemical aptasensor is of great practical importance in food safety and could be widely extended to the detection of other toxins by replacing the sequence of the recognition aptamer. © 2013 American Chemical Society.


Zhu Q.,Ningbo University | Cao J.,Nanjing Southeast University
Nonlinear Dynamics | Year: 2012

This paper is a contribution to the analysis of the pth moment exponential synchronization problem for a class of stochastic delayed Cohen-Grossberg neural networks with Markovian switching. The jumping parameters are determined by a continuous-time, discrete-state Markov chain, and the delays are time-varying delays. By using the Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional, stochastic analysis theory, a generalized Halanay-type inequality as well as output coupling with delay feedback control technique, some novel sufficient conditions are derived to achieve complete pth moment exponential synchronization of the addressed neural networks. In particular, the traditional assumptions on the differentiability of the time varying delay and the boundedness of its derivative are removed in this paper. The results obtained in this paper generalize and improve many known results. Moreover, a numerical example and its simulation are also provided to demonstrate the effectiveness and applicability of the theoretical results. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.


Zhu Q.,Ningbo University | Cao J.,Nanjing Southeast University
IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, Part B: Cybernetics | Year: 2011

In this paper, the problem of exponential stability is investigated for a class of stochastic neural networks with both Markovian jump parameters and mixed time delays. The jumping parameters are modeled as a continuous-time finite-state Markov chain. Based on a Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional and the stochastic analysis theory, a linear matrix inequality (LMI) approach is developed to derive some novel sufficient conditions, which guarantee the exponential stability of the equilibrium point in the mean square. The proposed LMI-based criteria are quite general since many factors, such as noise perturbations, Markovian jump parameters, and mixed time delays, are considered. In particular, the mixed time delays in this paper synchronously consist of constant, time-varying, and distributed delays, which are more general than those discussed in the previous literature. In the latter, either constant and distributed delays or time-varying and distributed delays are only included. Therefore, the results obtained in this paper generalize and improve those given in the previous literature. Two numerical examples are provided to show the effectiveness of the theoretical results and demonstrate that the stability criteria used in the earlier literature fail. © 2006 IEEE.


Gu Y.,Nanjing Southeast University | Shen W.,Ningbo University
International Journal of Biomedical Engineering and Technology | Year: 2013

The purpose of this study was to explore the difference of plantar pressure distribution between flat and tilt walking interface. Twenty-five female healthy volunteers were participated in the test, each subject walked three times on the flat and tilt surface at normal speed, while plantar pressure data was recorded 3 gait cycles each time. Compared with the flat walking surface, the FTI value of M-H, MF-M, MF-L, FF-M, BT and OT on tilt surface is significantly higher (p < 0.05), while the FF-L region is reflected in lower trend (p < 0.05) and the L-H region is similar. It has found out that planter pressure distribution was significantly difference between flat and tilt walking interface. The high loading in forefoot region in tilt interface walking shall be noticed and especially for the footwear company adding some function design relate to forefoot area. Copyright © 2013 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.


Ba M.,Ningbo University | Qian C.,Nanjing Southeast University
Advanced Materials Research | Year: 2012

The capillary porous structures of the pre-cast concrete with different initial steam-curing duration were analyzed with MIP techniques. Then the hydration degree of cement, fly ash and slag in pre-cast concrete versus time were obtained respectively by combing the hydrochlorides and EDTA selecting dissolution methods, based on which the corresponding evolution of capillary porosity was determined. The comparison between calculated results and experimental capillary porosity showed that the proposed evolution model of capillary porosity could be adopted to reveal the developing trend of capillary porosity of pre-cast concrete with fly ash and slag under certain curing conditions. © (2012) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: CSA | Phase: INT-01-2014 | Award Amount: 2.23M | Year: 2015

China is already an important global actor in the fields of research and innovation, and has the potential of becoming a leading force in the next few decades. The shift in Chinas strategy focusing towards R&I and transforming the essence of its economy has been complimented with massive public investments in research and technology. The EU having recognised the leading role China is expected to play, and having adopted a strategic position for becoming a knowledge-based economy, is required to collaborate with China in areas of mutual interest, and for common benefit and prosperity. Moreover for critical global issues which demand close scientific and technological cooperation at an international level, EU has identified in China a natural partner able to contribute and complement its own capacity. The proposed initiative aims to provide support services to European and Chinese researchers, and a flexible platform to facilitate policy discussions between European and Chinese stakeholders. Moreover, DRAGON-STARPLUS will provide the EC and the Member States with a toolset for setting a long term cooperation strategy in research and innovation with China. The project aims to provide efficient services on three levels (priority areas): - Support the European and Chinese research communities to establish collaborations under Horizon 2020 and beyond. -Provide a cooperation platform and tools to policy makers, aiming ultimately to support and enhance the bilateral cooperation, through the concept of mutual benefit. -Provide an ERA-NET style platform to funding agencies for exchanging best practices and planning joint activities. The proposed activities take into account the current on-going policy dialogue and the peculiarities of the research and innovation environment in China, and are based upon the outputs and the established mechanisms of the previous DRAGON-STAR project, as well as upon the sound results of previous related projects (e.g. OPEN-ICT, CO-REACH).


Lin C.,Ningbo University | Dai S.,Ningbo University | Liu C.,Wuhan University of Technology | Song B.,Ningbo University | And 3 more authors.
Applied Physics Letters | Year: 2012

We report the fabrication and characterization of 80GeS 2· 20Ga 2S 3:0.5Tm 2S 3 chalcogenide glass-ceramics. A careful thermal process has led to the formation of ∼50 nm Ga 2S 3 nanocrystals. By monitoring the 3H 5→ 3F 4 Tm 3+ transition, an almost fivefold increase of in the intensity and ∼76 μs prolongation in the lifetime of mid-infrared fluorescence at 3.8 μm have been observed after crystallization. Element mapping evidenced that enhancement in the mid-infrared emission intensity was related to the formation of Ge-rich region in the glass-ceramics, consistent with spectroscopic results from glasses with different levels of GeS 2 content and β-GeS 2 precipitation. © 2012 American Institute of Physics.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CSA-SA | Phase: INCO.2012-2.1 | Award Amount: 1.80M | Year: 2012

Peoples Republic of China, has the largest population in the world and occupies a position of geo-strategic importance in the Asian continent as well as in the Pacific sphere. The Chinese S&T and innovation system is developing extremely fast and dynamically and China has become a major new actor in the global system for the production of knowledge, while the total amount of Chinas R&D expenditure in 2009 was 58,021m, (a record high in history). The EC-China S&T Cooperation Agreement was first signed in 1998 and today, the Sino-European cooperation shows growing dynamism as is demonstrated, for instance, by the growing numbers of participations of Chinese partners in cooperative research projects funded by FP5, FP6 & FP7. However, there is still work to be done in terms of the reciprocity in the bilateral cooperation, in dealing with specific societal challenges and by establishing broader research collaboration beyond the framework programs. Taking into account the global significance of China in the financial world and its rapidly increasing role in the global research environment, Dragon-STAR will support the Sino-European collaboration at 4 levels: -Enhancing the quality of the Chinese participation in the Framework Programs and especially reinforcing participation from less developed areas. -Supporting the reciprocity originating from the signed EU-China Scientific Cooperation Agreement -Supporting the bilateral cooperation in the broader field of innovation and especially the technological cooperation between industrial players. -Supporting the ongoing bilateral Scientific Cooperation dialogue with studies and reports. -Support the research cooperation and dialogue on key priority areas (SFIC)


Li X.,Xiamen University | Ding C.,Xiamen University | Zhu Q.,Ningbo University
Journal of the Franklin Institute | Year: 2010

In this paper, we study the synchronization problem of a class of chaotic neural networks with time-varying delays and unbounded distributed delays under stochastic perturbations. By using LyapunovKrasovskii functional, drive-response concept, output coupling with delay feedback and linear matrix inequality (LMI) approach, we obtain some sufficient conditions in terms of LMIs ensuring the exponential synchronization of the addressed neural networks. The feedback controllers can be easily obtained by solving the derived LMIs. Moreover, the main results are generalizations of some recent results reported in the literature. A numerical example is also provided to demonstrate the effectiveness and applicability of the obtained results. © 2010 The Franklin Institute. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Zhou Q.-C.,Ningbo University | Wang Y.-L.,Guangdong Ocean University | Wang H.-L.,Guangdong Evergreen Group Corporation | Tan B.-P.,Guangdong Ocean University
Aquaculture | Year: 2013

An 8-week feeding trial was conducted to determine the dietary threonine requirement of juvenile Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei. Six isonitrogenous and isolipidic practical diets (43% crude protein and 7.5% crude lipid) were formulated to contain graded dietary threonine levels ranging from 1.07% to 2.30% (dry weight). In all of the diets, the nitrogen content of the amino acids was kept the same by replacing threonine with a non-essential amino acid mixture. Each diet was randomly assigned to triplicate groups of 40 juvenile shrimp (approximately 0.53. g) that were fed 4 times daily to apparent satiation. The results indicated that significant difference was observed in the weight gain among all treatments. Maximum weight gain was obtained at 1.67% dietary threonine; however, weight gain did not significantly increase with further dietary threonine increases. The survival of the shrimps showed no significant differences among all treatments. Feed efficiency, protein efficiency ratio and protein productive value were also significantly influenced by the dietary threonine levels, and the trends were similar to those of growth performance. There were no significant differences among dry matter, crude protein, crude lipid or ash content in the whole body and muscle composition. Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and phenoloxidase (PO) activities in hemolymph were significantly affected by dietary threonine levels. Shrimp fed the diet containing 2.30% threonine had higher AST and ALT values than those fed the other diets; however, the highest SOD and PO activities were observed at 2.05% dietary threonine. The optimal dietary threonine requirement, estimated by a broken-line model based on SGR, was 1.51% of the dry diet (corresponding to 3.53% of dietary protein on a dry-weight basis). Considering the threonine leaching loss in seawater within 30. min (duration of feeding each time), the threonine requirement for L. vannamei is 1.18% of dry diet (2.81% of the dietary protein). © 2013 Elsevier B.V.


Zhang J.-L.,Hunan Normal University | Zhang J.-L.,CAS Institute of Theoretical Physics | Cai R.-G.,Hunan Normal University | Cai R.-G.,CAS Institute of Theoretical Physics | And 2 more authors.
Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology | Year: 2015

We study the thermodynamics and thermodynamic geometry of a five-dimensional Reissner-Nordström-AdS black hole in the extended phase space by treating the cosmological constant as being related to the number of colors in the boundary gauge theory and its conjugate quantity as the associated chemical potential. We find that the contribution of the charge of the black hole to the chemical potential is always positive, and the existence of charge makes the chemical potential become positive more easily. We calculate the scalar curvatures of the thermodynamical Weinhold metric, Ruppeiner metric, and Quevedo metric, respectively, in the fixed N2 case and the fixed q case. We find that in the fixed N2 case, the divergence of the scalar curvature is related to the divergence of the specific heat with fixed electric potential in the Weinhold metric and Ruppeiner metric, and the divergence of the scalar curvature in the Quevedo metric corresponds to the divergence of the specific heat with fixed electric charge density. In the fixed q case, however, the divergence of the scalar curvature is related to the divergence of the specific heat with fixed chemical potential in the Weinhold metric and Ruppeiner metric, while in the Quevedo metric, the divergence of the scalar curvature corresponds to the divergence of the specific heat with a fixed number of colors and the vanishing of the specific heat with a fixed chemical potential. © 2015 American Physical Society.


Cai H.,Ningbo University | Yu H.,Ningbo University | Yu H.,Hunan Normal University | Zhou W.,Ningbo University
Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology | Year: 2015

We study the average rate of change of energy for a static atom immersed in a thermal bath of electromagnetic radiation in the cosmic string spacetime and separately calculate the contributions of thermal fluctuations and radiation reaction. We find that the transition rates are crucially dependent on the atom-string distance and polarization of the atom and they in general oscillate as the atom-string distance varies. Moreover, the atomic transition rates in the cosmic string spacetime can be larger or smaller than those in Minkowski spacetime contingent upon the atomic polarization and position. In particular, when located on the string, ground-state atoms can make a transition to excited states only if they are polarizable parallel to the string, whereas ground-state atoms polarizable only perpendicular to the string are stable as if they were in a vacuum, even if they are immersed in a thermal bath. Our results suggest that the influence of a cosmic string is very similar to that of a reflecting boundary in Minkowski spacetime. © 2015 American Physical Society.


Qu C.,Ningbo University | Zhang Y.,Tianshui Normal University | Liu X.,Northwest University, China | Liu Y.,University of Texas at Arlington
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis | Year: 2014

In this paper, we study the orbital stability of the periodic peaked solitons of the generalized μ-Camassa-Holm equation with nonlocal cubic and quadratic nonlinearities. The equation is a μ-version of a linear combination of the Camassa-Holm equation and the modified Camassa-Holm equation. It is also integrable with the Lax-pair and bi-Hamiltonian structure and admits the single peakons and multi-peakons. By constructing an inequality related to the maximum and minimum of solutions with the conservation laws, we prove that, even in the case that the Camassa-Holm energy counteracts in part the modified Camassa-Holm energy, the shapes of periodic peakons are still orbitally stable under small perturbations in the energy space. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Shao F.,Ningbo University | Jiang G.,Ningbo University | Lin W.,Nanyang Technological University | Yu M.,Ningbo University | Dai Q.,Tsinghua University
IEEE Transactions on Multimedia | Year: 2013

In three-dimensional (3D) video coding, distortion in texture video and depth maps can all affect the quality of the synthesized virtual views. Therefore, under the total bitrate constraint, effective bit allocation between texture and depth information is very important for 3D video coding. In this paper, the major technical contribution is to formulate view synthesis quality for optimal resource allocation in 3D video coding, since such quality is what that matters most to the ultimate user (i.e., the viewer) of the system; to be more specific, a new joint bit allocation and rate control method for multi-view video plus depth (MVD) based 3D video coding is proposed accordingly. We firstly derive a view synthesis distortion model to characterize the effect of coding distortion of texture video and depth maps on the synthesized virtual views. Based on this model, we derive a rate-distortion model to characterize the relationship between the bitrate and the view synthesis distortion, and the optimal bitrate ratio between texture and depth is established adaptively by solving the associated optimization problem. Finally, the rate control algorithm is performed on view level, texture/depth level and frame level. Experimental results show that compared with other methods, the proposed bit allocation method obtains higher performance of view synthesis. Moreover, the proposed rate control method can accurately control the bitrate to satisfy the total bitrate constraint. © 1999-2013 IEEE.


Li Q.,Hunan Normal University | Yu H.,Hunan Normal University | Yu H.,Ningbo University | Zhou W.,Ningbo University
Annals of Physics | Year: 2014

We study the response of a uniformly accelerated detector modeled by a two-level atom nonlinearly coupled to vacuum massless Rarita-Schwinger fields. We first generalize the formalism developed by Dalibard, Dupont-Roc, and Cohen-Tannoudji in the linear coupling case, and we then calculate the mean rate of change of the atomic energy of the accelerated atom. Our result shows that a uniformly accelerated atom in its ground state interacting with vacuum Rarita-Schwinger field fluctuations would spontaneously transition to an excited state and the unique feature in contrast to the case of the atom coupled to the scalar, electromagnetic and Dirac fields is the appearance of terms in the excitation rate which are proportional to the sixth and eighth powers of acceleration. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.


Jin Y.,Hunan Normal University | Hu J.,Hunan Normal University | Yu H.,Hunan Normal University | Yu H.,Ningbo University
Annals of Physics | Year: 2014

We study, using the formalism proposed by Dalibard, Dupont-Roc and Cohen-Tannoudji, the contributions of the vacuum fluctuation and radiation reaction to the rate of change of the mean atomic energy for a circularly accelerated multilevel atom coupled to vacuum electromagnetic fields in the ultrarelativistic limit. We find that the balance between vacuum fluctuation and radiation reaction is broken, which causes spontaneous excitations of accelerated ground state atoms in vacuum. Unlike for a circularly accelerated atom coupled to vacuum scalar fields, the contribution of radiation reaction is also affected by acceleration, and this term takes the same form as that of a linearly accelerated atom coupled to vacuum electromagnetic fields. For the contribution of vacuum fluctuations, we find that in contrast to the linear acceleration case, terms proportional to the Planckian factor are replaced by those proportional to a non-Planck exponential term, and this indicates that the radiation perceived by a circularly orbiting observer is no longer thermal as is in the linear acceleration case. However, for an ensemble of two-level atoms, an effective temperature can be defined in terms of the atomic transition rates, which is found to be dependent on the transition frequency of the atom. Specifically, we calculate the effective temperature as a function of the transition frequency and find that in contrast to the case of circularly accelerated atoms coupled to the scalar field, the effective temperature in the current case is always larger than the Unruh temperature. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.


Zhang X.,Shanghai Maritime University | Zhou B.,University of Regina | Li P.,Ningbo University
Information Sciences | Year: 2012

Intuitionistic fuzzy rough sets are investigated in a general framework which includes generalizations of many related results in early literatures. A new definition of intuitionistic fuzzy rough sets is given with the analysis of its basic properties based on the notion of two universes, general binary relations, and a pair (T, I) of intuitionistic fuzzy t-norm T and intuitionistic fuzzy implicator I. For t-representable intuitionistic fuzzy t-norms and its residual implicators, intuitionistic fuzzy rough approximation operators are defined by axioms, and its connections with special intuitionistic fuzzy relations are investigated. © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


Zhang X.,Shanghai Maritime University | Zhou H.,Ningbo University | Mao X.,Ningbo University
Journal of Intelligent and Fuzzy Systems | Year: 2014

Fuzzy logic has become a useful tool for computer science to deal with uncertain information, and various kinds of residuated lattices play an important role in modern fuzzy logic theory because they provide the algebraic frameworks to related fuzzy logic formal systems. The aim of this paper is to investigate the filter theory of residuated lattices. The notions of IMTL-filters (NM-filters, MV-filters) of residuated lattices are introduced, and the characterizations of IMTL-algebras (NM-algebras, MV-algebras) in residuated lattices are presented by these filters. Moreover, fuzzy IMTL(NM, MV)-filters and intuitionistic fuzzy IMTL(NM, MV)-filters are investigated. © 2014 - IOS Press and the authors. All rights reserved.


Wang Y.,Ningbo University | Qi M.,Wuhan University of Technology | He H.,China Academy of Engineering Physics | Wang L.,Ningbo University
Mechanics of Materials | Year: 2014

The effects of microstructure on the spall failure were studied for four aluminum materials by a series of plate-impact spall experiments, including the real-time measurements of the free surface velocity profiles and the microscopic postimpact examination of the soft-recovered samples. Spall strength values are calculated by using the free surface velocity measurements. The high density high purity aluminum (Al HP) exhibits a higher spall strength than the low-porosity pure aluminum. The metallographic examination revealed that it could be attributed to the less impurity in the grain boundaries in the Al HP samples, having a better resistance for void nucleation. The 2024-T4 aluminum alloy exhibits a stronger spall failure resistance than the 7075-T6 aluminum alloy, which is associated with the stronger plastic strain hardening behavior. Comparison among the Al HP, 2024-T4 and 7075-T6 alloys indicates that the differences observed in the rise rate of pull-back are linked with the different active mechanism and growth rate of damage evolution. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Luo B.F.,Zhejiang University | Du S.T.,Zhejiang GongShang University | Lu K.X.,Ningbo University | Liu W.J.,Zhejiang University | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Experimental Botany | Year: 2012

Nitrogen (N) management is a promising agronomic strategy to minimize cadmium (Cd) contamination in crops. However, it is unclear how N affects Cd uptake by plants. Wild-type and iron uptake-inefficient tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) mutant (T3238fer) plants were grown in pH-buffered hydroponic culture to investigate the direct effect of N-form on Cd uptake. Wild-type plants fed NO3- accumulated more Cd than plants fed NH4+. Iron uptake and LeIRT1 expression in roots were also greater in plants fed NO3-. However, in mutant T3238fer which loses FER function, LeIRT1 expression in roots was almost completely terminated, and the difference between NO3- and NH4+ treatments vanished. As a result, the N-form had no effect on Cd uptake in this mutant. Furthermore, suppression of LeIRT1 expression by NO synthesis inhibition with either tungstate or L-NAME, also substantially inhibited Cd uptake in roots, and the difference between N-form treatments was diminished. Considering all of these findings, it was concluded that the up-regulation of the Fe uptake system was responsible for NO3--facilitated Cd accumulation in plants. © 2012 The Author.


Sun G.-Y.,Xiamen University | Zhu Y.-J.,Ningbo University
Journal of Electronic Materials | Year: 2013

By applying the nonequilibrium Green function method, we have theoretically investigated the quantum transport properties of armchair and zigzag graphene nanoribbons (GNRs), with defects (vacancies) appearing at the edges or in the inner part. Effects of the defects on the electronic conductance and local density of states are comprehensively studied. It is found that both edge and inner defects reduce the electronic conductance in general, while in detail they have different effects on the transport properties for different combinations of defect location and GNR edge type. Under the same theoretical framework, we have also studied the effects of dephasing scattering processes in the GNRs, employing two specific choices of self-energy that provide momentum-conserving or momentum-relaxing dephasing processes. The momentum-relaxing dephasing processes not only relax momentum but also add an additional resistance to the channel, while the momentum- conserving dephasing processes only break the phase and have much less effect on the resistance. It is found that the transport properties of metallic zigzag GNRs are much more strongly modified by the dephasing scattering processes than are those of semiconducting armchair GNRs. © 2012 TMS.


Guo B.,Hunan Normal University | Chen B.,Hunan Normal University | Liu A.,Ningbo University | Zhu W.,Hunan Normal University | Yao S.,Hunan Normal University
Current Drug Metabolism | Year: 2012

Recent advances in analytical methodologies have made it possible to bring metabolomic profiling into quantitative metabolomics that permits precise measurements of comprehensive small-molecule profiles. Modern liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) with multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode serves as the foundation for accurate simultaneous multi-analyte quantitation across large sample sets to provide high-quality information on target molecular profiles in complex systems. Despite the intrinsic multiplexing potential of the LC-MRM-MS technique, the key bottleneck in current LC-MRM-based assays is generally the limited analyte coverage and throughput capacity. Nowadays, the MRM-based approach has emerged as an attractive strategy for quantitative proteomic analysis and high-throughput biomarker discovery. So far, the full potential of the contemporary LC-MRM methodology unleashed for quantitative metabolite profiling and metabolomic measurements of non-peptidic small molecules is rarely discussed. In this review we attempt to provide an overview on the major recent developments in LC-MRM-based strategies for quantitative profiling of multi - and non-target small molecules in biological samples. This article highlights the utility and power of the LC-MRM-based targeted approaches as valuable bioanalytical tools for low-cost, multiplexed quantitation on a large scale, with special emphasis on the promise of combining various strategies for expanding coverage and throughput of the LC-MRM-based assays to cover the gap between a widely targeted profiling and large-scale unknown screening towards comparative or quantitative metabolomics. General issues raised in metabolite profiling, such as basic aspects of bioanalysis, methodological dilemmas and challenges in quantitative metabolomics are addressed, and different strategies to circumvent the existing bottleneck and potential pitfalls of the current LC-MRM-MS techniques are outlined. In addition, the rudiments of LC-MRM-MS and its recent applications in combination with such strategies for biomarker quantitation and verification is also described. © 2012 Bentham Science Publishers.


Chiu Y.-J.,Ningbo University | Chen D.-Z.,National Taiwan University
International Journal of Mechanical Sciences | Year: 2011

The influence on coupling vibrations among shaft-torsion and blade-bending coupling vibrations of a multi-disk rotor system was investigated analytically. The natural frequencies and the mode shapes of the system were solved for one- to three-disk cases as examples. First, numerical results showed how the natural frequencies varied with blades in a disk unit. The diagrams of the coupling mode shapes were drawn. From the results, it was found that the inter-blade (BB) modes were of repeated frequencies of (Nb-1) multiplicity for number blades. At multi-disk unit, the shaftblade (SB) modes added to Nd modes for number disks. The BB modes were of repeated frequencies of [N d×(Nb1)] multiplicity for number disks. Numerical calculations also revealed that the natural frequencies were affected by disk distance. In the rotation effect, the times of instability will due to the number of disk. And, the more disk rotor causes instability earlier than the less disk case. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Hu J.,Hunan Normal University | Yu H.,Hunan Normal University | Yu H.,Ningbo University
Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology | Year: 2013

We study, in the framework of open quantum systems, the entanglement generation between two mutually independent static two-level atoms in de Sitter spacetime. We treat the two-atom system as an open system in interaction with a bath of fluctuating conformally coupled massless scalar fields in the de Sitter invariant vacuum and derive the master equation that governs its evolution. With the help of the partial transposition criterion, we analyze entanglement generation between the two initially separable atoms and find that static atoms in de Sitter spacetime exhibit distinct characteristics from those in a thermal bath in flat spacetime in terms of entanglement generation. So, in principle, one can tell whether he is in a thermal bath or in de Sitter space by checking the entanglement creation between two initially separable static atoms in certain circumstances. © 2013 American Physical Society.


Zhang K.,Hunan Normal University | Wu P.,Ningbo University | Yu H.,Hunan Normal University | Yu H.,Ningbo University
Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology | Year: 2013

Massive gravity is a modified theory of general relativity. In this paper, we study, using a method in which the scale factor changes as a particle in a "potential," all possible cosmic evolutions in a ghost-free massive gravity. We find that there exists, in certain circumstances, an oscillating universe or a bouncing one. If the universe starts at the oscillating region, it may undergo a number of oscillations before it quantum mechanically tunnels to the bounce point and then expands forever. But going back to the singularity from the oscillating region is physically not allowed. So, the big bang singularity can be successfully resolved. At the same time, we also find that there exists a stable Einstein static state in some cases. However, the universe cannot stay at this stable state past eternally since it is allowed to quantum mechanically tunnel to a big-bang-to-big-crunch region and end with a big crunch. Thus, a stable Einstein static state universe cannot be used to avoid the big bang singularity in massive gravity. © 2013 American Physical Society.


Zhou W.,Hunan Normal University | Yu H.,Hunan Normal University | Yu H.,Ningbo University
Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics | Year: 2012

We study the spontaneous excitation of a uniformly accelerated two-level atom nonlinearly coupled to vacuum Dirac field fluctuations using the formalism proposed by Dalibard, Dupont-Roc, and Cohen-Tannoudji and generalized by us to the present case in the current paper. We find that a cross term involving both vacuum fluctuations and radiation reaction appears, which is absent in the linear coupling cases such as an atom interacting with vacuum scalar or electromagnetic fluctuations. Furthermore, the contribution of this term actually dominates over that of radiation reaction. Thus, the mean rate of change of the atomic energy can no longer be distinctively separated into only the contributions of vacuum fluctuations and radiation reaction as in the scalar and electromagnetic cases where the coupling is linear. Our result shows that a uniformly accelerated atom interacting with vacuum Dirac fluctuations would spontaneously excite and a unique feature in sharp contrast to the scalar and electromagnetic cases is the appearance of a term in the excitation rate, which is proportional to the quartic acceleration. © 2012 American Physical Society.


Yu H.,Ningbo University | Yu H.,Hunan Normal University | Hu J.,Hunan Normal University
Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics | Year: 2012

We study the geometric phase acquired by an inertial atom whose trajectories are parallel to a reflecting boundary due its coupling to vacuum fluctuations of electromagnetic fields, by treating the atom as an open quantum system in a bath of the fluctuating vacuum fields, and show that the phase is position dependent as a result of the presence of the boundary which modifies the field quantum fluctuations. Our result therefore suggests a possible way of detecting vacuum fluctuations in experiments involving geometric phase. © 2012 American Physical Society.


Hu J.,Hunan Normal University | Yu H.,Hunan Normal University | Yu H.,Ningbo University
Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics | Year: 2012

We study, in the framework of open quantum systems, the geometric phase acquired by a uniformly accelerated two-level atom undergoing nonunitary evolution due to its coupling to a bath of fluctuating vacuum electromagnetic fields in the multipolar scheme. We find that the phase variation due to the acceleration can be in principle observed via atomic interferometry between the accelerated atom and the inertial one, thus providing an evidence of the Unruh effect. © 2012 American Physical Society.


Zhang K.,Hunan Normal University | Wu P.,Ningbo University | Yu H.,Hunan Normal University | Yu H.,Ningbo University
Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology | Year: 2012

With a method in which the Friedmann equation is written in a form such that evolution of the scale factor can be treated as that of a particle in a potential, we classify all possible cosmic evolutions in the DGP braneworld scenario with the dark radiation term retained. By assuming that the energy component is pressureless matter, radiation or vacuum energy, respectively, we find that in the matter or vacuum energy dominated case, the scale factor has a minimum value a 0. In the matter dominated case, the big bang singularity can be avoided in some special circumstances, and there may exist an oscillating universe or a bouncing one. If the cosmic scale factor is in the oscillating region initially, the universe may undergo an oscillation. After a number of oscillations, it may evolve to the bounce point through quantum tunneling and then expand. However, if the universe contracts initially from an infinite scale, it can turn around and then expand forever. In the vacuum energy dominated case, there exists a stable Einstein static state to avoid the big bang singularity. However, in certain circumstances in the matter or vacuum energy dominated case, a new kind of singularity may occur at a 0 as a result of the discontinuity of the scale factor. In the radiation dominated case, the universe may originate from the big bang singularity, but a bouncing universe which avoids this singularity is also possible. © 2012 American Physical Society.


Chen W.,Xiamen University | Liang H.,Xiamen University | Ren W.,Xiamen University | Shao L.,Ningbo University | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Alloys and Compounds | Year: 2014

In this work, complex spinel titanates Li2MTi3O 8 (M = Zn, Cu, Zn0.5Cu0.5) have been synthesized by a simple solid state reaction route. Their crystal structures are described and verified by Rietveld refinement. Electrochemical results exhibit that Li2CuTi3O8 has a highest lithium storage capacity of 242 mA h g-1 and Li2ZnTi3O 8 displays the lowest initial charge capacity of 190 mA h g -1 among all the three samples. However, both Li2CuTi 3O8 and Li2ZnTi3O8 show poor capacity retention and low reversible capacity after 50 cycles. Li 2Zn0.5Cu0.5Ti3O8 shows higher structural and cycling stability than that of Li2ZnTi 3O8 and Li2CuTi3O8. As a result, Li2Zn0.5Cu0.5Ti3O 8 can deliver a reversible capacity of 162 mA h g-1 after 50 cycles with capacity retention of 74%. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Jiang T.,Ningbo University | Qin W.,Jilin University | Zhou J.,Ningbo University
Journal of Alloys and Compounds | Year: 2014

The synthesis of YbF3 and NaYbF4 crystals was successfully fulfilled by a facial hydrothermal method. The phase and morphology of the products were adjusted by changing the surfactant additive and fluorine source and tuning the pH value of the initial solution. The products with various morphologies range from octahedral nanoparticles, corn-like nanobundles, nanospheres, microrods, and hollow microprisms were prepared at different conditions. The growth mechanism of these products has been systematically studied. Impressively, relatively enhanced high order ultraviolet (UV) upconversion (UC) luminescence was observed in Tm3+ (Er3+) ions doped YbF3 nanocrystals (NCs) compared with NaYbF4 microcrystals under the excitation of 980 nm infrared laser. The investigation results reveal that the crystal symmetry of matrix has significant effect on the spectra and lifetimes of the doping lanthanide ions. The simply synthesized water soluble YbF3 NCs with efficient UV UC luminescence may find potential application in biochemistry. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Ruan M.,Ningbo University | Li L.,Louisiana State University
Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology | Year: 2010

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a horizontal approach run and drop height on the activation of lower extremity muscles during drop jumps. Ten participants performed drop jumps from drop heights of 15, 30, 45 and 60. cm with zero (standing), one, two, and three approach run steps. The EMG activities of the Gluteus Maximus (GM), Rectus Femoris (RF), Biceps Femoris (BF), Vastus Lateralis (VL), Tibialis Anterior (TA), Gastrocnemius (GA) and Soleus (SO) were recorded, full-wave rectified, and averaged (aEMG) during the preactivation (50. ms before touchdown), downward, and push-off phases. Increasing drop height did not enhance the muscle activation level of any examined muscles except GA. During the preactivation phase, the aEMG of all muscles except TA increased with the number of approach run steps. The aEMG of RF, BF, VL, and SO also increased with the number of approach run steps during the downward phase, while no aEMG changes were observed during the push-off phase. These results suggest that a horizontal approach run preceding the drop jump is an effective strategy for increasing the muscle preactivation level, which contributes to a higher level of muscle activity during the eccentric contraction phase and could potentially contribute to the reported higher power output during the concentric contraction phase. © 2009.


Li Z.,Hunan Normal University | Wu P.,Ningbo University | Wu P.,CAS Institute of Theoretical Physics | Yu H.,Hunan Normal University | And 2 more authors.
Astrophysical Journal | Year: 2012

We investigate the implications for some nonstandard cosmological models using data from the first three years of the Supernova Legacy Survey (SNLS3), assuming a spatially flat universe. A comparison between the constraints from the SNLS3 and those from other SN Ia samples, such as the ESSENCE, Union2, SDSS-II, and Constitution samples, is given and the effects of different light-curve fitters are considered. We find that analyzing SNe Ia with SALT2 or SALT or SiFTO can give consistent results and the tensions between different data sets and different light-curve fitters are obvious for fewer-free- parameters models. At the same time, we also study the constraints from SNLS3 along with data from the cosmic microwave background and the baryonic acoustic oscillations (CMB/BAO), and the latest Hubble parameter versus redshift (H(z)). Using model selection criteria such as χ2/dof, goodness of fit, Akaike information criterion, and Bayesian information criterion, we find that, among all the cosmological models considered here (ΛCDM, constant w, varying w, Dvali-Gabadadze-Porrati (DGP), modified polytropic Cardassian, and the generalized Chaplygin gas), the flat DGP is favored by SNLS3 alone. However, when additional CMB/BAO or H(z) constraints are included, this is no longer the case, and the flat ΛCDM becomes preferred. © 2012 The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.


Youssef Z.,IRSTEA | Delahaye A.,IRSTEA | Huang L.,Ningbo University | Trinquet F.,IRSTEA | And 3 more authors.
Energy Conversion and Management | Year: 2013

The interest in using phase change slurry (PCS) media as thermal storage and heat transfer fluids is increasing and thus leading to an enhancement in the number of articles on the subject. In air-conditioning and refrigeration applications, PCS systems represent a pure benefit resulting in the increase of thermal energy storage capacity, high heat transfer characteristics and positive phase change temperatures which can occur under low pressures. Hence, they allow the increase of energy efficiency and reduce the quantity of thermal fluids. This review describes the formation, thermo-physical, rheological, heat transfer properties and applications of four PCS systems: Clathrate hydrate slurry (CHS), Microencapsulated Phase Change Materials Slurry (MPCMS), shape-stabilized PCM slurries (SPCMSs) and Phase Change Material Emulsions (PCMEs). It regroups a bibliographic summary of important information that can be very helpful when such systems are used. It also gives interesting and valuable insights on the choice of the most suitable PCS media for laboratory and industrial applications. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Li Y.,University of Leipzig | Cao C.,Tsinghua University | Chen X.,Ningbo University
Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research | Year: 2013

Reebok Core Boards (RCB) used as a platform in training provide an unstable environment for resistance training. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of unstable surface on muscle electromyographic (EMG) activities during a deep squat task. Thirteen male subjects participated in the study. Electromyographic activities of soleus (SO), vastus lateralis (VL), vastus medialis (VM), rectus femoris (RF), biceps femoris (BF), gluteus maximus (GMa), gluteus medius (GMe), and upper lumbar erector spinae (ULES) muscles were collected when subjects were performing a deep squat task on a RCB and ground with different weight loads (body weight, 30%RM (repetition maximum) and 60%RM). No significant difference was observed for all muscle EMG between unstable and stable surface during all weight load conditions (p > 0.05). Muscle EMG significantly increased when the weight load increased (p < 0.05). Similar muscle activities were observed when subjects performed a deep squat task on a stable and unstable surface. Simply applying unstable surface might not provide extra stimulation to the superficial muscles during squatting in resistance-trained students. © 2013 National Strength and Conditioning Association.


Zhou W.,Hunan Normal University | Yu H.,Hunan Normal University | Yu H.,Ningbo University
Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology | Year: 2010

We study, by separately calculating the contributions of vacuum fluctuations and radiation reaction to the atomic energy level shift, the Lamb shift of a static two-level atom interacting with real massless scalar fields in the Boulware, Unruh, and Hartle-Hawking vacuums outside a Schwarzschild black hole. We find that in the Boulware vacuum, the Lamb shift gets a correction arising as a result of the backscattering of vacuum field modes off the space-time curvature, which is reminiscent of the correction to the Lamb shift induced by the presence of cavities. However, when the Unruh and Hartle-Hawking vacua are concerned, our results show that the Lamb shift behaves as if the atom were irradiated by a thermal radiation or immersed in a thermal bath at the Hawking temperature, depending on whether the scalar field is in the Unruh or the Hartle-Hawking vacuum. Remarkably, the thermal radiation is always backscattered by the space-time geometry. © 2010 The American Physical Society.


Zhou W.,Hunan Normal University | Yu H.,Hunan Normal University | Yu H.,Ningbo University
Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology | Year: 2010

We study the Lamb shift of both freely falling and static two-level atoms in interaction with quantized conformally coupled massless scalar fields in the de Sitter-invariant vacuum. We find that the Lamb shifts of both freely falling and static atoms are in structural similarity to that of an inertial atom immersed in a thermal bath in a Minkowski spacetime. For the freely falling atom, the Lamb shift gets a correction as if it was immersed in a thermal bath at the Gibbons-Hawking temperature, thus revealing clearly the intrinsic thermal nature of de Sitter spacetime. For the static atom, the Lamb shift is affected by a combination of the effect of the intrinsic thermal nature of de Sitter spacetime and the Unruh effect associated with the inherent acceleration of the atom. © 2010 The American Physical Society.


Chow D.H.C.,Ningbo University | Li Z.,Ningbo Housing Building Energy Efficiency Scientific Technology Co. | Darkwa J.,Ningbo University
Energy and Buildings | Year: 2013

This paper aims to investigate the effects of retrofitting existing public buildings in the "Hot Summer Cold Winter" climate region of China, using simulation and a case study, to see how retrofitted public buildings perform in the face of climate change in the region. This area of China is one of the most challenging regions for providing occupant comfort in buildings, with high demands for heating as well as cooling, together with high humidity levels. The simulation results suggest that energy reduction of up to 40% with improvements to the building enclosure is possible by retrofitting current existing public buildings to the new Chinese National Standard for the Zhejiang Province. Requirements for combating possible increase in energy consumption from heating and cooling demands due to future climate change was also investigated, and it was found that by simply improving U-Values of the building envelope to the new national standards set for the Zhejiang Province, the effects of future climate change can be nullified up to the 2080s. Further improvements to having similar standards as developed countries such as England and Wales will have less significance and cannot nullify the effects of climate change from the newly retrofitted public buildings. However, this can be achieved by involving other energy-saving strategies and installing suitable energy-saving technologies for the region. Copyright © 2012 Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Wu P.,Ningbo University | Wu P.,Hunan Normal University | Yu H.,Ningbo University | Yu H.,Hunan Normal University
Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology | Year: 2010

We study the stability of the Einstein static universe in the Hořava-Lifshitz (HL) gravity and a generalized version of it formulated by Sotiriou, Visser, and Weifurtner. We find that, for the HL cosmology, there exists a stable Einstein static state if the cosmological constant Λ is negative. The universe can stay at this stable state eternally and thus the big bang singularity can be avoided. However, in this case, the Universe can not exit to an inflationary era. For the Sotiriou, Visser, and Weifurtner HL cosmology, if the cosmic scale factor satisfies certain conditions initially, the Universe can stay at the stable state past eternally and may undergo a series of infinite, nonsingular oscillations. Once the parameter of the equation of state w approaches a critical value, the stable critical point coincides with the unstable one, and the Universe enters an inflationary era. Therefore, the big bang singularity can be avoided and a subsequent inflation can occur naturally. © 2010 The American Physical Society.


Zhu Z.,Hunan Normal University | Zhu Z.,Changsha University of Science and Technology | Yu H.,Hunan Normal University | Yu H.,Ningbo University
Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics | Year: 2010

We consider a uniformly accelerated atom interacting with a vacuum electromagnetic field in the presence of an infinite conducting plane boundary and calculate separately the contributions of vacuum fluctuations and radiation reaction to the atomic energy-level shift. We analyze in detail the behavior of the total energy shift in three different regimes of the distance in both the low-acceleration and high-acceleration limits. Our results show that, in general, an accelerated atom does not behave as if immersed in a thermal bath at the Unruh temperature in terms of the atomic energy-level shifts, and the effect of the acceleration on the atomic energy-level shifts may in principle become appreciable in certain circumstances, although it may not be realistic for actual experimental measurements. We also examine the effects of the acceleration on the level shifts when the acceleration is of the order of the transition frequency of the atom and we find some features which differ from what was obtained in the existing literature. © 2010 The American Physical Society.


Chen J.,Hunan Normal University | Hu J.,Ningbo University | Yu H.,Hunan Normal University | Yu H.,Ningbo University
Annals of Physics | Year: 2015

We study the spontaneous excitation of a circularly accelerated atom coupled with vacuum Dirac field fluctuations by separately calculating the contribution to the excitation rate of vacuum fluctuations and a cross term which involves both vacuum fluctuations and radiation reaction, and demonstrate that although the spontaneous excitation for the atom in its ground state would occur in vacuum, such atoms in circular motion do not perceive a pure thermal radiation as their counterparts in linear acceleration do since the transition rates of the atom do not contain the Planckian factor characterizing a thermal bath. We also find that the contribution of the cross term that plays the same role as that of radiation reaction in the scalar and electromagnetic fields cases differs for atoms in circular motion from those in linear acceleration. This suggests that the conclusion drawn for atoms coupled with the scalar and electromagnetic fields that the contribution of radiation reaction to the mean rate of change of atomic energy does not vary as the trajectory of the atom changes from linear acceleration to circular motion is not a general trait that applies to the Dirac field where the role of radiation reaction is played by the cross term. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.


Zhang X.,University of Jinan | Zhang X.,Liaocheng University | Fan L.,University of Jinan | Fan L.,Liaocheng University | And 5 more authors.
Crystal Growth and Design | Year: 2013

Hydrothermal reactions of aromatic 3,3′,5,5′- biphenyltetracarboxylic acid (H4bpt) and the transitional metal cations in the presence of rigid or flexible N-donor ancillary ligands afford nine novel coordination polymers, namely, [M(H2bpt)(Hpptp)] n (M = Mn (1), Fe (2), Co (3), and Zn (4)), [Mn2(bpt) (Hpptp)2]n (5), {[Zn3(Hbpt)(bpt)(H 2O)2][(4,4′-H2bmib)0.5] ·H2O}n (6), {[Cu(bpt)0.5(4,4′- bimbp)]·H2O}n (7), {[Co(H2bpt)(2,7-dfo)] ·H2O}n (8), and {[Ni2(bpt)(4,4′- bibp)2.5(H2O)]·3(H2O)}n (9) (Hpptp = 2-(3-(4-(pyridin-4-yl)phenyl)-1H-1,2,4-triazol-5-yl)pyridine; 4,4′-bmib = 4,4′-bis(2-methylimidazol-1-yl)benzene; 4,4′-bimbp = 4,4′-bis(imidazol-1-ylmethyl)biphenyl; 2,7-dfo = 2,7-di(imidazo-1-ly)- 9H-fluoren-9-one; 4,4′-bibp = 4,4′-bis(imidazol)biphenyl). Their structures have been determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analyses, elemental analyses, IR spectra, powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), and thermogravimetric (TG) analyses. Complexes 1-4 are isomorphism and feature a similar 2-fold interpenetrating 2D helical double layer, which is further extended via the interlayer π⋯π interactions into a 3D supramolecular structure. Complex 5 displays a pillared-layer 3D porous network with a (62.8)2(62.82.102) topology. Compound 6 shows an unprecedented 3D host-framework consisting of Zn6 clusters and exhibits a novel 3D (5,5,5,6,9)-connected topological net with the Schläfli symbol of (410.6 5)(419.616.8)(46.6 4)(47.63)2. The topology of 7 is an unprecedented binodal (4,4)-connected 3D network with the Schläfli symbol of (62.84)(42.82)2. Complex 8 exhibits a 3D (66) structure with left- and right-handed helical chains arranged alternately. Complex 9 is a novel trinodal (4,4,5)-connected 3D framework with the Schläfli symbol of (6 4.82)(65.8)(68.82). To the best of our knowledge, the 3D frameworks with (5,5,5,6,9)-connected net for 6, binodal (4,4)-connected for 7, and trinodal (4,4,5)-connected for 9 have never been documented to date. Moreover, the luminescent properties of 4 and 6 have been investigated. © 2012 American Chemical Society.


Zhou W.,Ningbo University | Yu H.,Ningbo University | Yu H.,Hunan Normal University
Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics | Year: 2015

We demonstrate that the Casimir-Polder force for a molecule near the surface of a real dielectric substrate out of thermal equilibrium displays distinctive behaviors as compared to that at thermal equilibrium. In particular, when the molecule-substrate separation is much less than the molecular transition wavelength, the CP force in the high-temperature limit can be dramatically manipulated by varying the relative magnitude of the temperatures of the substrate and the environment so that the attractive-to-repulsive transition can occur beyond a certain threshold temperature of either the substrate or the environment depending on which one is higher for molecules both in the ground and excited states. More remarkably, when the separation is comparable to the wavelength, such transitions which are impossible at thermal equilibrium may happen for longitudinally polarizable molecules with a small permittivity, while for isotropically polarizable ones the transitions can even occur at room temperature for some dielectric substrates such as sapphire and graphite which is much lower than the temperature for the transition to take place in the thermal equilibrium case, thus making the experimental demonstration of such force transitions easier. © 2015 American Physical Society.


Yu H.,Ningbo University | Yu H.,Hunan Normal University
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2011

We analyze, in the paradigm of open quantum systems, the reduced dynamics of a freely falling two-level detector in de Sitter space-time in weak interaction with a reservoir of fluctuating quantized conformal scalar fields in the de Sitter-invariant vacuum. We find that the detector is asymptotically driven to a thermal state at the Gibbons-Hawking temperature, regardless of its initial state. Our discussion, therefore, shows that the Gibbons-Hawking effect of de Sitter space-time can be understood as a manifestation of thermalization phenomena that involves decoherence and dissipation in open quantum systems. © 2011 American Physical Society.


Zhang H.,Ningbo University | Chen L.,Sanming University | Zhang J.,Ningbo University | Chen J.,Xiamen University
Energy | Year: 2014

The model of a packed bed anode DCFC (direct carbon fuel cell) with molten carbonate as an electrolyte and graphite as a fuel is established to globally evaluate its performance. Thermodynamic-electrochemical analyses on the performance of the DCFC are implemented, in which the activation overpotential, ohmic overpotential, and concentration overpotential are taken as the main sources of voltage losses. The analytical expressions for the cell voltage, power output, efficiency, and entropy production rate are derived, from which the general performance characteristics are discussed in detail. At the anode, the ohmic overpotential in each slab resulting from the carbon phase is found to be about three orders of magnitude larger than that resulting from the electrolyte phase. The radius of the real contact area between two neighboring graphite particles decreases at an accelerating rate as one goes up in the bed, and the corresponding constriction resistance will increase at an accelerating rate. The decrease in the operating current density and anode dimension and the increase in the operating temperature will lessen the overall ohmic overpotential. The effects of the operating current density, operating temperature and anode dimension on the performance are discussed, and the optimum criteria for some important performance parameters are determined. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


Li Z.,Hunan Normal University | Wu P.,Ningbo University | Yu H.,Hunan Normal University | Yu H.,Ningbo University
Physics Letters, Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and High-Energy Physics | Year: 2011

In this Letter, by reconstructing the Om diagnostic and the deceleration parameter q from the latest Union2 Type Ia Supernova sample with and without the systematic error along with the baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) and the cosmic microwave background (CMB), we study the cosmic expanding history, using the Chevallier-Polarski-Linder (CPL) parametrization. We obtain that Union2+BAO favor an expansion with a decreasing of the acceleration at z<0.3. However, once the CMB data is added in the analysis, the cosmic acceleration is found to be still increasing, indicating a tension between low redshift data and high redshift. In order to reduce this tension significantly, two different methods are considered and thus two different subsamples of Union2 are selected. We then find that two different subsamples+BAO+CMB give completely different results on the cosmic expanding history when the systematic error is ignored, with one suggesting a decreasing cosmic acceleration, the other just the opposite, although both of them alone with BAO support that the cosmic acceleration is slowing down. However, once the systematic error is considered, two different subsamples of Union2 along with BAO and CMB all favor an increasing of the present cosmic acceleration. Therefore a clear-cut answer on whether the cosmic acceleration is slowing down calls for more consistent data and more reliable methods to analyze them. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.


Chen W.,Xiamen University | Liang H.,Xiamen University | Shao L.,Ningbo University | Shu J.,Ningbo University | Wang Z.,Xiamen University
Electrochimica Acta | Year: 2015

In this work, spinel Li2MnTi3O8 is successfully prepared by using a simple sol-gel route and evaluated as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries. Charge-discharge tests exhibits than spinel Li2MnTi3O8 can deliver an initial discharge capacity of 273.5 mAh g-1 and the reversible capacity is kept at 206.1 mAh g-1 after 50 cycles, corresponding to 94.5% of the initial charge capacity. The electrochemical reaction mechanism between Li2MnTi3O8 and lithium is investigated based on the results of various in-situ and ex-situ observations. The result indicates that the (Li0.505Mn0.495)tet(Li0.495Mn0.005)octTi1.5 octO4 has multiple interstitials to accommodate lithium ions during the lithiation process, in which the octahedral sites (4a) would be occupied by lithium ions at high working potential and the tetrahedral sites (8c) would be occupied by lithium ions at low working potential. As a result, two two-phase transitions between three end-number phases Li2MnTi3O8, Li3MnTi3O8 and Li5MnTi3O8 can be observed during the reversible electrochemical reaction between Li2MnTi3O8 and lithium. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Fan L.,University of Jinan | Zhang X.,University of Jinan | Zhang X.,Shandong University | Sun Z.,University of Jinan | And 6 more authors.
Crystal Growth and Design | Year: 2013

A series of novel multidimensional transition metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), [Cu(Hbcpb)2]n (1), [Co(bcpb)]n (2), [Co(Hbcpb)2(1,4-bib)]n (3), {[M(bcpb)(1,4-bimb)]·xH 2O}n (M = Co (4), Cu (5), Ni (6), x = 1 for 5, 2 for 4 and 6), [Co(bcpb)(4,4′-bibp)]n (7), {[Co(bcpb)(4,4′-bibp)] ·2H2O}n (8), and [Ni2(bcpb) 2(4,4′-bimbp)2]n (9), were synthesized under hydrothermal conditions in the presence of N-donor ancillary ligands [H2bcpb = 3,5-bis(3-carboxyphenyl)pyridine, 1,4-bib = 1,4-bis(1H-imidazol-4-yl)benzene, 1,4-bimb = 1,4-bis(imidazol-1-ylmethyl) benzene, 4,4′-bibp = 4,4′-bis(imidazol-1-yl)biphenyl, 4,4′-bimbp = 4,4′-bis(imidazol-1-ylmethyl)biphenyl]. Their structures have been determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analyses and further characterized by elemental analyses, IR spectra, powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), and thermogravimetric (TG) analyses. By adjusting the reaction pH, the H2bcpb ligand is partially deprotonated to give the Hbcpb- form in 1 and 3, and completely deprotonated to afford the bcpb2- form in 2 and 4-9. Complex 1 exhibits a two-dimensional (2D) (3,6)-connected kgd topology with the Schläfli symbol of (4 3)2(46·66·8 3). The three-dimensional (3D) framework of 2 is defined as a (4,4)-connected pts topology with the Schläfli symbol of (4 2·84). Complex 3 displays a (4,6)-connected pcu topology with the Schläfli symbol of (412·63) built from 44 2D nets with the help of 1,4-bib. Complexes 4-6 are isomorphism and show a 3D (3,5)-connected mbm framework with the Point Schläfli symbol of (4·62)(4·66· 83). The supramolecular isomers of 7 and 8, resulted from the different pH in the reaction, exhibit (3,5)-connected (42· 67·8)(42·6) 3,5-L2 and (4,6)-connected (44·610·8)(44·6 2) fsc topology, respectively. Complex 9 can be regard as an unprecedented (3,5)-connected 3D 3,5-T1 frameworks with the point Schläfli symbol of (42·65·83)(4 2·6). The results revealed that the crystal architectures and the coordination modes of H2bcpb are attributed to the factors, including metal cations, pH, and the N-donor ancillary ligands. © 2013 American Chemical Society.


Yang J.,Jilin University | Jiang G.,Ningbo University
Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies | Year: 2014

Route choice models have important theoretical value and practical significance for the systematic analysis of urban transportation. The method utilized to determine the reference point of travel time by considering the restrictions on reserved travel time of travelers is improved in this study. On this basis, a route choice model based on cumulative prospect theory (CPT) is proposed. A stochastic user equilibrium model based on CPT that integrates the Wardrop equilibrium principle is also developed. The data analysis results indicate that CPT provides a better description of risk attitudes than expected utility theory (EUT). The improved reference point of travel time can capture the demand of reliable travel time from different travelers. Furthermore, the numerical results of the stochastic user equilibrium model based on CPT are in agreement with the route choice behavior observed in an actual road network. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


Zhang H.,Ningbo University | Chen J.,Xiamen University | Zhang J.,Ningbo University
International Journal of Hydrogen Energy | Year: 2013

A theoretical model of the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) fueled by carbon monoxide is adopted and validated, in which the activation overpotential, concentration overpotential, and ohmic overpotential are regarded as the main sources of voltage losses. Based on the thermodynamic-electrochemical analysis, mathematical expressions of some performance parameters such as the cell potential, power output, efficiency, and entropy production rate are derived. The effects of microstructure parameters such as the electrode porosity, tortuosity, pore size, grain size, etc. on the electrochemical performance characteristics of the SOFC are revealed. Moreover, the effects of some operation conditions such as the current density, anode inlet gas molar fraction, operating temperature, and operating pressure on some important performance parameters of the SOFC are also discussed. It is found that there exist some optimal values of microstructure parameters and operating conditions at which the better performance can be expected. The results obtained in the paper may provide some theoretical guidance for the design and operation of practical SOFCs fueled by coal-derived gases. © 2013, Hydrogen Energy Publications, LLC. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights.


Zhang H.,Ningbo University | Wang J.,Xiamen University | Su S.,Xiamen University | Chen J.,Xiamen University
International Journal of Hydrogen Energy | Year: 2013

An analytical model is developed to study the electrochemical characteristics of a solid oxide electrolysis cell (SOEC) for carbon dioxide reduction, in which the activation overpotential, concentration overpotential, and ohmic overpotential are considered as the main sources of voltage losses. The Bulter-Volmer equation, DGM model, and Ohm's law are employed to characterize the three overpotentials, respectively. The theoretical model is validated by comparing the simulation results with the experimental data from the literature. The anode-supported configuration SOEC is found to be the most favorable design. The effects of the cathode inlet gas molar fraction on the cathode overpotential and the cell potential are discussed in detail. It is found that there exists an optimum molar fraction for the cathode inlet gas at which the cathode concentration overpotential attains its minimum for given operation conditions. Moreover, the effects of some importantly operating parameters such as the current density, temperature and pressure on the cell potential are discussed. Thermal-electrochemical analysis shows that the Joule heat generated from the irreversibilities in the SOEC may be larger than, equal to, or smaller than the thermal energy needed for the carbon dioxide reduction reaction, and consequently, a system layout with five different design strategies to implement the carbon dioxide electrolysis is put forward. Copyright © 2013, Hydrogen Energy Publications, LLC. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Jiang T.,Ningbo University | Qin W.,Jilin University | Zhou J.,Ningbo University
Journal of Fluorine Chemistry | Year: 2013

The selective synthesis of cubic and hexagonal NaYF4 crystals was successfully performed by a facile citric acid assisted hydrothermal method. The crystal phase conversion was observed through tuning the added amount of fluoride. A possible growth mechanism was proposed for the formation of hexagonal NaYF4 microcrystals (MCs). Under 980 nm excitation, intense ultraviolet (UV), blue, and weak violet upconversion (UC) emissions were obtained in the hexagonal NaYF4:20%Yb3+, 0.5%Tm 3+ MCs. The 5-photon UC emissions from the 1I6 level of Tm3+ ions were much stronger than the 4-photon UC emissions from the 1D2 level and the 3-photon UC emissions from the 1G4 level. The enhancement of UV UC emissions was attributed to higher crystallization degree and less luminescence quenching centers. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Hu J.,Hunan Normal University | Yu H.,Hunan Normal University | Yu H.,Ningbo University
Journal of High Energy Physics | Year: 2012

We study the Hawking effect in terms of the geometric phase acquired by a two-level atom as a result of coupling to vacuum fluctuations outside a Schwarzschild black hole in a gedanken experiment. We treat the atom in interaction with a bath of fluctuating quantized massless scalar fields as an open quantum system, whose dynamics is governed by a master equation obtained by tracing over the field degrees of freedom. The nonunitary effects of this system are examined by analyzing the geometric phase for the Boulware, Unruh and Hartle-Hawking vacua respectively. We find, for all the three cases, that the geometric phase of the atom turns out to be affected by the space-time curvature which backscatters the vacuum field modes. In both the Unruh and Hartle-Hawking vacua, the geometric phase exhibits similar behaviors as if there were thermal radiation at the Hawking temperature from the black hole. So, a measurement of the change of the geometric phase as opposed to that in a flat space-time can in principle reveal the existence of the Hawking radiation. © SISSA 2012.


Zhou W.,Hunan Normal University | Yu H.,Hunan Normal University | Yu H.,Ningbo University
Journal of High Energy Physics | Year: 2012

The Lamb shift results from the coupling of an atom to vacuum fluctuations of quantum fields, so corrections are expected to arise when the spacetime is curved since the vacuum fluctuations are modified by the presence of spacetime curvature. Here, we calculate the curvature-induced correction to the Lamb shift outside a spherically symmetric object and demonstrate that this correction can be remarkably significant outside a compact massive astrophysical body. For instance, for a neutron star or a stellar mass black hole, the correction is ∼ 25% at a radial distance of 4GM/c 2, ∼ 16% at 10GM/c 2 and as large as ∼ 1.6% even at 100GM/c 2, where M is the mass of the object, G the Newtonian constant, and c the speed of light. In principle, we can look at the spectra from a distant compact super-massive body to find such corrections. Therefore, our results suggest a possible way of detecting fundamental quantum effects in astronomical observations. © 2012 SISSA.


Zhou W.,Hunan Normal University | Yu H.,Hunan Normal University | Yu H.,Ningbo University
Classical and Quantum Gravity | Year: 2012

We study the spontaneous excitation of a radially polarized static multilevel atom outside a spherically symmetric black hole in multipolar interaction with quantum electromagnetic fluctuations in the Boulware, Unruh and HartleHawking vacuum states. We find that spontaneous excitation does not occur in the Boulware vacuum, and, in contrast to the scalar field case, the spontaneous emission rate is not well behaved at the event horizon as a result of the blow-up of the proper acceleration of the static atom. However, spontaneous excitation can take place both in the Unruh and the HartleHawking vacua as if there were thermal radiation from the black hole. Distinctive features in contrast to the scalar field case are the existence of a term proportional to the proper acceleration squared in the rate of change of the mean atomic energy in the Unruh and the Hartle-Hawking vacua and the structural similarity in the spontaneous excitation rate between the static atoms outside a black hole and uniformly accelerated ones in a flat space with a reflecting boundary, which is particularly dramatic at the event horizon where a complete equivalence exists. © 2012 IOP Publishing Ltd.


Li M.-F.,Ningbo University | Li M.-F.,CAS Qingdao Institute of Oceanology | Zhang M.,CAS Qingdao Institute of Oceanology | Wang C.-L.,Ningbo University | Sun L.,CAS Qingdao Institute of Oceanology
Fish and Shellfish Immunology | Year: 2012

Peptidoglycan recognition proteins (PGRPs) are a family of innate immune molecules that recognize bacterial peptidoglycan. PGRPs are highly conserved in invertebrates and vertebrates including fish. However, the biological function of teleost PGRP remains largely uninvestigated. In this study, we identified a PGRP homologue, SoPGLYRP-2, from red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) and analyzed its activity and potential function. The deduced amino acid sequence of SoPGLYRP-2 is composed of 482 residues and shares 46-94% overall identities with known fish PGRPs. SoPGLYRP-2 contains at the C-terminus a single zinc amidase domain with conserved residues that form the catalytic site. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis detected SoPGLYRP-2 expression in multiple tissues, with the highest expression occurring in liver and the lowest expression occurring in brain. Experimental bacterial infection upregulated SoPGLYRP-2 expression in kidney, spleen, and liver in time-dependent manners. To examine the biological activity of SoPGLYRP-2, purified recombinant proteins representing the intact SoPGLYRP-2 (rSoPGLYRP-2) and the amidase domain (rSoPGLYRP-AD) were prepared from Escherichia coli. Subsequent analysis showed that rSoPGLYRP-2 and rSoPGLYRP-AD (i) exhibited comparable Zn 2+-dependent peptidoglycan-lytic activity and were able to recognize and bind to live bacterial cells, (ii) possessed bactericidal effect against Gram-positive bacteria and slight bacteriostatic effect against Gram-negative bacteria, (iii) were able to block bacterial infection into host cells. These results indicate that SoPGLYRP-2 is a zinc-dependent amidase and a bactericide that targets preferentially at Gram-positive bacteria, and that SoPGLYRP-2 is likely to play a role in host innate immune defense during bacterial infection. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.


Elghawi U.M.,Academy of Graduate Studies | Mayouf A.M.,Ningbo University
Fuel | Year: 2014

The analysis of carbonyl species of a gasoline fuelled Spark-Ignition and Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (SI/HCCI) engine operating modes was performed upstream and downstream of a three way catalyst (TWC) converter. All data were obtained during steady-state, fully warmed-up operation at different engine conditions, using a winter grade commercial gasoline containing 2% w/w ethanol (C2H5OH). Qualitative and quantitative analysis of carbonyl compounds in exhaust gases were performed using 2,4- dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH)-high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The major carbonyl compounds detected in the collected samples were acetaldehyde, acrolein, benzaldehyde and m-tolualdehyde. Depending on the engine operation conditions, the percentage contribution of the carbonyl compounds to the total hydrocarbons emission in this study lies between 2.7% and 5.2%. Formation of low molecular weight carbonyl compounds was more prominent when the engine operated at low load HCCI mode (low combustion temperature), while aromatic aldehydes were more significant in the case of SI mode operation, in which the combustion temperature is relatively high compared to the temperature from low load HCCI mode. Even though, the catalyst reduced the hydrocarbons emission effectively, including the carbonyls, there is no significant effect on the emission of acetaldehyde and acrolein emissions. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Li Z.,Hunan Normal University | Wu P.,Ningbo University | Yu H.,Hunan Normal University | Yu H.,Ningbo University
Astrophysical Journal Letters | Year: 2011

We perform a cosmological-model-independent test for the distance-duality (DD) relation η(z) = DL (z)(1 + z)-2/DA (z), where DL and DA are the luminosity distance and angular diameter distance, respectively, with a combination of observational data for DL taken from the latest Union2 SNe Ia and that for D A provided by two galaxy cluster samples compiled by De Filippis etal. and Bonamente etal. Two parameterizations for η(z), i.e., η(z) = 1 + η0 z and η(z) = 1 + η0 z/(1 + z), are used. We find that the DD relation can be accommodated at 1σ confidence level (CL) for the De Filippis etal. sample and at 3σ CL for the Bonamente etal. sample. We also examine the DD relation by postulating two more general parameterizations: η(z) = η0 + η1 z and η(z) = η0 + η1 z/(1 + z), and find that the DD relation is compatible with the results from the De Filippis etal. and the Bonamente etal. samples at 1σ and 2σ CLs, respectively. Thus, we conclude that the DD relation is compatible with present observations. © 2011. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.


Fu X.,Hunan University of Science and Technology | Wu P.,Ningbo University | Yu H.,Hunan Normal University
International Journal of Modern Physics D | Year: 2011

In this paper, we study the growth index of matter density perturbations for the power law model in f(T) gravity. Using the parametrization γ(z) = γ0 + γ1(z/1 + z) for the growth index, which approximates the real evolution of γ(z) very well, and the observational data of the growth factor, we find that, at the 1σ confidence level, the power law model in f(T) gravity is consistent with the observations, since the obtained theoretical values of γ0 and γ1 are in the allowed region. © 2011 World Scientific Publishing Company.


Li M.-F.,CAS Qingdao Institute of Oceanology | Li M.-F.,Ningbo University | Wang C.-L.,Ningbo University | Sun L.,CAS Qingdao Institute of Oceanology
Aquaculture | Year: 2011

Vibrio harveyi is an important aquaculture pathogen that can infect a large number of marine animals. In this study, we examined three V. harveyi strains (VJ1, VJ2, and VJ3) isolated in the years of 2008, 2009, and 2010 respectively from diseased Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) in a fish farm in China that had been inflicted with disease outbreaks. VJ1, VJ2, and VJ3 exhibited comparable virulence in a flounder model and induced symptoms in experimentally infected fish that are indistinguishable from those of naturally diseased fish. 16S rDNA and multilocus sequence analysis indicated that VJ1, VJ2, and VJ3 share 98-100% sequence identities with known V. harveyi isolates in 16S rDNA and four housekeeping genes. VJ1, VJ2, and VJ3 have distinct and identical AFLP banding patterns, which differ profoundly from those of two environmental V. harveyi isolates. VJ1, VJ2, and VJ3 exhibited comparable growth profiles and hemolytic activities and possess the vhh hemolysin gene. Compared to an environmental isolate, VJ1, VJ2, and VJ3 showed comparable and significantly stronger resistances against the bactericidal effect of host serum and induced higher levels of respiratory burst activity in head kidney macrophages. However, VJ1, VJ2, and VJ3 were unable to proliferate in macrophages. When incubated with a cultured cell line of flounder, VJ1, VJ2, and VJ3 induced apoptosis characterized by the occurrence of DNA fragmentation, apoptotic bodies, and elevated caspase 3 activity. Taken together, these results indicate that VJ1, VJ2, and VJ3 are probably clones of the same V. harveyi lineage that has persisted during the examined three-year time frame and likely caused recurrent disease outbreaks via a virulence mechanism involving serum resistance and triggering apoptosis in host cells. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.


Zhang J.,Hunan Normal University | Yu H.,Hunan Normal University | Yu H.,Ningbo University
Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics | Year: 2011

We calculate, in the framework of open quantum systems, the ground state energy-level shift for a static two-level atom outside a spherically symmetric black hole in interaction with fluctuating massless scalar fields in the Boulware and Unruh vacuums. We find that the energy-level shift is position dependent and thus gives rise to a force on the atom besides the classical gravitational force. For the case of the Boulware vacuum that represents a star which has not collapsed through its event horizon, this force is attractive near the horizon and is repulsive far away from the black hole with a behavior of r-3. For the case of the Unruh vacuum which represents a radiating black hole, we find that the contribution to the Casimir-Polder-like force due to the presence of Hawking radiation is always attractive and, remarkably, this attractive force diverges at the event horizon. © 2011 American Physical Society.


Lin Q.,Sun Yat Sen University | Li M.,Ningbo University | Fang D.,Sun Yat Sen University | Fang J.,Sun Yat Sen University | Su S.B.,Sun Yat Sen University
International Immunopharmacology | Year: 2011

Toll-like receptors (TLRs) form a family of pattern recognition receptors with at least 11 members in human and 13 in mouse. TLRs recognize a wide variety of putative host-derived agonists that have emerged as key mediators of innate immunity. TLR signaling also plays an important role in the activation of the adaptive immune system by inducing pro-inflammatory cytokines and upregulating costimulatory molecules of antigen presenting cells. Inappropriate activation of TLRs by self-components generated by damaged tissues may result in sterile inflammation. This review discusses the contribution of TLR signaling to the initiation and progression of non-infectious inflammatory processes, such as ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) injury, tissue repair and regeneration and autoimmune diseases. The involvement of TLR signaling in the pathogenesis of sterile inflammation-related diseases may provide novel targets for the development of therapeutics. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Zhou Q.,Ningbo University | Wang L.,Guangdong Ocean University | Wang H.,Guangdong Evergreen Feed Industry Co. | Xie F.,Ningbo University | Wang T.,Guangdong Evergreen Feed Industry Co.
Fish and Shellfish Immunology | Year: 2012

This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary vitamin C on growth performance, hematologic parameters and innate immune responses in juvenile cobia, Rachycentron canadum. Seven practical diets were formulated to contain 0.0 (as the basal diet), 13.6, 27.2, 54.4, 96.6, 193.4 and 386.5 mg ascorbic acid equivalent kg -1 diet. Each diet was fed to triplicate groups of juvenile cobia with initial body weight of 5.5 g in 500-L cylindrical fiberglass tank. The results of 8 weeks feeding trial showed that typical vitamin C-deficient signs such as spinal deformation and body nigrescence were observed in the fish fed the basal diet. Fish fed the basal diet had significantly lower weight gain, specific growth rate (SGR), protein efficiency ratio (PER) and feed efficiency (FE) than those fed the diets supplemented with vitamin C, but no significant differences were observed among diets supplemented with vitamin C. However, survival rate was significantly affected by the dietary vitamin C levels, fish fed the basal diet had lower survival rate than those fed the diets supplemented with vitamin C. The ascorbic acid concentration in liver was correlated positively with the dietary vitamin C levels, however, the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) concentrations in liver was not significantly affected by the dietary vitamin C levels, although, fish fed the basal diet had the highest TBARS values among all treatments. The activities of serum lysozyme, superoxide dismutase (SOD), alkaline phophatase (AKP) and total immunoglobulin (Ig) were significantly influenced by the dietary vitamin C levels, fish fed the basal diet had lower lysozyme, SOD, AKP and total Ig than those fed diets supplemented with vitamin C. The serum glucose and triglyceride concentrations were significantly affected by the dietary vitamin C levels. Fish fed the basal diet had lower red blood cell and hemoglobin values than those fed the vitamin C supplemented diets. The challenge experiment with Vibrio harveyi showed that lower cumulative survival was in fish fed the unsupplemented diet, the cumulative survival were significantly increased with increase of the dietary ascorbic acid levels from 13.6 to 96.6 mg kg -1, while the cumulative survival reached plateau when dietary ascorbic acid levels increased from 96.6 to 386.5 mg kg -1. These results indicated that dietary vitamin C did significantly influence on growth performance and immune response of juvenile cobia. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


Ni F.,Ningbo University | Luo L.,Ningbo University | Pan X.,Ningbo University | Li W.,Ningbo University | Zhu J.-Q.,Jilin University
Journal of Alloys and Compounds | Year: 2012

In order to create A-site vacancy in lead-free piezoelectric ceramics Bi 0.5(Na 0.82K 0.18) 0.5TiO 3, non-stoichiometric ceramics Bi 0.5+x(Na 0.82K 0.18) 0.5-3xTiO 3 and Bi 0.5+y(Na 0.82K 0.18) 0.5TiO 3 were synthesized by a conventional solid state reaction method. The effects of A-site vacancies on the piezoelectric and ferroelectric performances of the ceramics were investigated and discussed. This investigation reveals that moderate A-site vacancies in the prepared ceramics enhance the piezoelectric performance of the ceramics. Bi 0.505(Na 0.82K 0.18) 0.485TiO 3 ceramic possesses the highest piezoelectric properties and strongest ferroelectricity: piezoelectric coefficient d 33 = 151 pC/N; electromechanical coupling factor k p = 29.8%; mechanical quality factor Q m = 124; remnant polarization P r = 29.5 μC/cm 2; coercive field E c = 33.9 kV/cm. The depolarization of the BNT-based ceramics might be caused by phase transition from long-range ferroelectric to ergodic relaxor near T d. © 2012 Published by Elsevier B.V.


Hu J.,Hunan Normal University | Yu H.,Hunan Normal University | Yu H.,Ningbo University
Journal of High Energy Physics | Year: 2011

We examine the Hawking effect by studying the asymptotic entanglement of two mutually independent two-level atoms placed at a fixed radial distance outside a Schwarzschild black hole in the framework of open quantum systems. We treat the two-atom system as an open quantum system in a bath of fluctuating quantized massless scalar fields in vacuum and calculate the concurrence, a measurement of entanglement, of the equilibrium state of the system at large times, for the Unruh, Hartle-Hawking and Boulware vacua respectively. We find, for all three vacuum cases, that the atoms turn out to be entangled even if they are initially in a separable state as long as the system is not placed right at the even horizon. Remarkably, only in the Unruh vacuum, will the asymptotic entanglement be affected by the backscattering of the thermal radiation off the space-time curvature. The effect of the back scatterings on the asymptotic entanglement cancels in the Hartle-Hawking vacuum case. © 2011 SISSA.


Luo W.,Ningbo University | Ji M.,Zhejiang GongShang University
Information Processing Letters | Year: 2015

We investigate a single machinescheduling problem in which the processing time of a job is a linear function of its starting time and a variable maintenance on the machine must be performed prior to a given deadline. The goals are to minimize the make span and the total completion time. We prove that both problems are NP-hard. Furthermore, we show that there exists a fully polynomial time approximation scheme for the make span minimization problem. For the total completion time minimization problem we point out that there exists a fully polynomial time approximation scheme for a special case. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. Allrightsreserved.


Wu P.,Ningbo University | Wu P.,Hunan Normal University | Yu H.,Ningbo University | Yu H.,Hunan Normal University
Physics Letters, Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and High-Energy Physics | Year: 2010

Recently, a new model obtained from generalizing teleparallel gravity, named f(T) theory, is proposed to explain the present cosmic accelerating expansion with no need of dark energy. In this Letter, we analyze the dynamical property of this theory. For a concrete power law model, we obtain that the dynamical system has a stable de Sitter phase along with an unstable radiation dominated phase and an unstable matter dominated one. We show that the Universe can evolve from a radiation dominated era to a matter dominated one, and finally enter an exponential expansion phase. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.


Wu P.,Ningbo University | Wu P.,Hunan Normal University | Yu H.,Ningbo University | Yu H.,Hunan Normal University
Physics Letters, Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and High-Energy Physics | Year: 2010

The f(T) theory, which is an extension of teleparallel, or torsion scalar T, gravity, is recently proposed to explain the present cosmic accelerating expansion with no need of dark energy. In this Letter, we first perform the statefinder analysis and Om(z) diagnostic to two concrete f(T) models, i.e., f(T)=α(-T)n and f(T)=-αT(1-epT0/T), and find that a crossing of phantom divide line is impossible for both models. This is contrary to an existing result where a crossing is claimed for the second model. We, then, study the constraints on them from the latest Union 2 Type Ia Supernova (Sne Ia) set, the baryonic acoustic oscillation (BAO), and the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation. Our results show that at the 95% confidence level Ωm0=0.272-0.032+0.036, n=0.04-0.33+0.22 for Model 1 and Ωm0=0.272-0.034+0.036, p=-0.02-0.20+0.31 for Model 2. A comparison of these two models with the ΛCDM by the ΧMin2/dof (dof: degree of freedom) criterion indicates that ΛCDM is still favored by observations. We also study the evolution of the equation of state for the effective dark energy in the theory and find that Sne Ia favors a phantom-like dark energy, while Sne Ia. +. BAO. +. CMB prefers a quintessence-like one. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.


News Article | April 19, 2016
Site: phys.org

Researchers from the Institute of Physics at the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the Collaborative Innovation Center of Quantum Matter in China have identified two new types of boron sheets that they grew on an Ag(111) surface. The sheets are stable, relatively inert to oxidation, and bind loosely to the silver substrate, making these "borophene" sheets excellent candidates for further research into boron-based electronic devices. This work appears in Nature Chemistry. Using molecular beam epitaxy to deposit boron onto a silver substrate, Baojie Feng, Jin Zhang, Qing Zhong, Wenbin Li, Shuai Li, Hui Li, Peng Cheng, Sheng Meng, Lan Chen, and Kehui Wu report the formation of two structurally different boron sheets. Both are comprised of a triangular boron lattice, but the hexagonal holes are arranged differently in the two sheets. These sheets follow theoretical predictions that B units should have a triangle lattice with a hexagonal hole in the center. The boron sheets were grown on a single-crystal of Ag(111) in high vacuum using direct evaporation of pure boron. Scanning tunneling microscopy studies revealed two different phases that were observed as temperature increased. The first phase, labeled S1, was observed at temperatures above 570K and corresponds to theoretical β sheets. The second phase, labeled S2, was observed at temperatures above 650K and corresponds to theoretical χ sheets. At higher temperatures, most of the S1 phase converts to S2. Both appear as monolayer islands of parallel boronphene stripes with parallel rows or protrusions. Electron charge analysis confirms the locations of boron atoms on the silver surface and boron atomic density studies provided further evidence for the formation of β and χ sheets. The atomic density for the S1 phase was found to be 33.6 +/- 2.0 nm-2, which is very close to theoretical β value of 34.48nm-2. The boron density did not change for the S2 phase indicative of the χ structure, which has a predicted atomic density of 31.3nm-2. Using XPS studies, Feng, et al. found that the boron sheets are relatively stable, particularly within the borophene islands. The edges of the islands tended to oxidize, while the center remained relatively unchanged. This remained the case even after subjecting the sheets to high concentrations of oxygen gas. β and χ sheets were not necessarily the lowest energy borophene sheets that the models had predicted. In an effort to understand why these structures were observed over the predicted energetically minimum state, Feng, et al. conducted energy formation studies and found that interaction with the silver surface makes formation of the β and χ sheets thermodynamically favorable. However, even though the silver surface is important for the formation of the sheets, the interaction between the boron sheet and the Ag(111) surface is not very strong. Several factors, including adhesion energy calculations, the distance between the boron sheet and the substrate, and the small charge transfer between the substrate and boron sheet, indicate that the boron sheets are predominantly bound to the surface via the edges. This means that the borophene sheets could be separated from the silver surface, similar to graphene. Several recent publications have spurned greater interest in these borophene sheets. Theoretical work by researchers from Rice University in Houston and researchers from Ningbo University in China supports the structural models proposed in this research paper, and suggest that these two borophene sheets are likely to be superconducting at temperatures around 10K. These sheets in this study are relatively stable and loosely bound to the silver surface, properties that make them good candidates for eventual practical use for boron-based electronic devices. Explore further: Flat boron by the numbers: Researchers calculate what it would take to make new 2-dimensional material More information: Baojie Feng et al. Experimental realization of two-dimensional boron sheets, Nature Chemistry (2016). DOI: 10.1038/nchem.2491 Abstract A variety of two-dimensional materials have been reported in recent years, yet single-element systems such as graphene and black phosphorus have remained rare. Boron analogues have been predicted, as boron atoms possess a short covalent radius and the flexibility to adopt sp2 hybridization, features that favour the formation of two-dimensional allotropes, and one example of such a borophene material has been reported recently. Here, we present a parallel experimental work showing that two-dimensional boron sheets can be grown epitaxially on a Ag(111) substrate. Two types of boron sheet, a β12 sheet and a χ3 sheet, both exhibiting a triangular lattice but with different arrangements of periodic holes, are observed by scanning tunnelling microscopy. Density functional theory simulations agree well with experiments, and indicate that both sheets are planar without obvious vertical undulations. The boron sheets are quite inert to oxidization and interact only weakly with their substrate. We envisage that such boron sheets may find applications in electronic devices in the future.


Chen J.,Ningbo University | Zhou J.,Ningbo University | Jia Z.,Xinjiang University
IEEE Photonics Technology Letters | Year: 2013

A simple, low-cost, and high-sensitivity optical fiber displacement sensor is presented and fabricated by concatenating two core-offset joints (COJs) with a separation length of 13 mm using a commercial fusion splicer. The two COJs construct an in-line Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI). When the MZI is bent to have a bending radius of ∼17 mm, the interference pattern of the MZI depends strongly on the bending radius. According to this character, we scheme the bent MZI as a displacement sensor in two ways providing two different bending types of the bent MZI. The displacement sensitivities obtained are up to 0.835 and 0.227 nm\μm in the large displacement variation ranges of 350 and 1000 μm, respectively. © 1989-2012 IEEE.


Tang Y.-F.,Ningbo University | Li J.-H.,Ningbo University | Sun B.,China Academy of Building Research
Gongcheng Lixue/Engineering Mechanics | Year: 2014

The numerical simulating analysis for the sectional temperature field and residual load bearing capacity of steel reinforced concrete columns after exposure to fire is carried out by using element analysis software MSC.MARC. The simulating results are verified to be correct by test results. Then, the influence of parameters, such as concrete strength, slenderness, steel ratio, load eccentricity and temperature elevating time on residual load bearing capacity of steel reinforced concrete columns after exposure to ISO834 standard fire is studied by using MSC.MARC. Numerical simulating results show that the ultimate strength of steel reinforced concrete columns after exposure to ISO834 standard fire decrease remarkably, compared with that at normal room temperature. The decreasing degree is ranged from 8.5% to 45.3% in the parameters designed. The ratio of residual strength after exposure to fire to ultimate strength at normal room temperature of steel reinforced concrete columns is defined as residual-load-bearing-capacity influence coefficient k. Results from numerical simulation show that concrete strength, steel ratio, and temperature elevating time have remarkable influence on k, while slenderness and load eccentricity have little effect on k. The simplified calculating formula for k is put forward by a regression method in the base of numerical simulation results, and the calculating results from formula show that there is a well agreement between the analyzing results and numerical simulation results.


Li X.,Ningbo University | Zhao X.,Ningbo University | Zhang J.,Xiangtan University | Zhao Y.,Ningbo University
Chemical Communications | Year: 2013

A multilayer film (Pd2+/1)n was prepared with Pd(ii) ions and platinum compound trans-[Pt(PPh3)2(CCPy) 2] (1) using the layer-by-layer self-assembly method. The film loaded on the quartz slide could be capable of discharging high catalytic active Pd species to promote the C-C coupling reaction, with extraordinarily low Pd-loading (6.6 × 10-6 mol%) and high catalytic efficiency in H2O-EtOH solution. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.


Wang L.-L.,Ningbo University | Lai H.-W.,Zhejiang Water Conservancy and Hydropower College | Wang Z.-J.,Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology | Yang L.-M.,Ningbo University
International Journal of Impact Engineering | Year: 2013

Based on the ZWT nonlinear visco-elastic constitutive model, the governing equations for nonlinear visco-elastic spherical waves are formulated. By use of characteristics method, the problem of solving those five partial differential equations is reduced to solve five ordinary differential equations along 3 sets of characteristics. Numerical results are given, illustrating the non-ignored viscosity effects and nonlinear effects. The attenuation law for visco-elastic spherical shock wave is analytically derived. A new inversion method is proposed, by which the high-strain-rate visco-elastic parameters could be inversely determined from a series of particle velocity profiles measured in a spherical wave experiment. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Pan S.,Ningbo University | Mao Q.,Xi'an University of Science and Technology
Journal of Software | Year: 2013

Rapid development of the Internet and increasing number of available Web services has generated a need for tools and environments facilitating automated composition of atomic Web services into more complex Web processes. However, reasoning optimization and utilization in such AI related solutions is still an open problem. In this paper, we proposed a novel multi-agent based semantic web service composition model(SWSCPA) which exploits the relationships among different service consumers and providers, together with the corresponding optimization approach to strengthen the effectiveness of Web service composition. We argue that agents and web services are distinct. In our work, agents provide a distinctive additional capability in mediating user goals to determine service invocations. Through the model, an optimization method was proposed based on the substitute relationship and the dependency relationship. The case study and experimental analysis demonstrates the capability of the proposed approach. © 2013 ACADEMY PUBLISHER.


Li M.,Ningbo University | Guo L.,Central China Normal University | Dong J.,Ningbo University | Yang H.,Central China Normal University
Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics | Year: 2014

An ultra-thin chiral metamaterial absorber (CMMA) is constructed from twisted 'L-shaped' folded metallic wires. In particular, it has high selectivity for left-handed and right-handed circular polarized (LCP and RCP) incident waves, which is impossible in traditional metamaterial absorbers. The thickness of the CMMA is only 0.8.© 2014 IOP Publishing Ltd.


Yi T.-F.,Anhui University of Technology | Shu J.,Ningbo University | Zhu Y.-R.,Anhui University of Technology | Zhu X.-D.,Harbin Institute of Technology | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Power Sources | Year: 2010

Li4Ti4.95V0.05O12 and Li4Ti5O12 powders were successfully prepared by a solid-state method. XRD reveals that both samples have high phase purity. Raman spectroscopy indicates that the Ti-O vibration have a blue shift. SEM shows that Li4Ti4.95V0.05O12 has a slightly smaller particle size and a more regular morphological structure with narrow size distribution than those of Li4Ti5O12. Galvanostatic charge-discharge testing indicates both samples have nearly equal initial capacities at different discharge voltage ranges (0-2 and 0.5-2 V), but Li4Ti4.95V0.05O12 has a higher cycling performance than that of Li4Ti5O12. CV suggests that Li4Ti4.95V0.05O12 has lower electrode polarization and high lithium ion diffusivity in solid-state body of sample, implying that the vanadium doping is beneficial to the reversible intercalation and de-intercalation of Li+. The novel Li4Ti4.95V0.05O12 materials may find promising applications in lithium ion batteries and electrochemical cells due to the excellent electrochemical performace and simple synthesis route. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Wang Q.,University of East Anglia | Bao Y.,University of East Anglia | Zhang X.,Ningbo University | Coxon P.R.,University of East Anglia | And 2 more authors.
Advanced Healthcare Materials | Year: 2012

Poly-acrylic acid (PAAc) terminated silicon nanoparticles (SiNPs) have been synthes zed and employed as a synchronous fluorescent signal indicator in a series of cultured m mmalian cells: HHL5, HepG2 and 3T3-L1. Their biological effects on cell growth and proliferation in both human and mouse cell lines have been studied. There was no evidence of i vitro cytotoxity in the cells exposed to PAAc terminated SiNPS when assessed by cell mor hology, cell proliferation and viability, and DNA damage assays. The uptake of the nanoc ystals by both HepG2 and 3T3-L1 cells was investigated by confocal microscopy and flow c tometry, which showed a clear time-dependence at higher concentrations. Reconstructed 3- confocal microscope images exhibited that the PAAc-SiNPs were evenly distributed through ut the cytosol rather than attached to outer membrane. This study provides fundamental e idence for the safe application and further modification of silicon nanoparticles, which could broaden their application as cell markers in living systems and in micelle encapsu ated drug delivery systems. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co.


Lin C.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena | Lin C.,Ningbo University | Bocker C.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena | Russel C.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena
Nano Letters | Year: 2015

Transparent bulk glass-ceramics containing ZnF2, K2SiF6, and KZnF3 nanocrystals are successfully obtained from xKF-xZnF2-(100 - 2x)SiO2 oxyfluoride glasses for the first time to the best of our knowledge. The glass transition temperatures of heat-treated samples increase with time and approach values that resemble the temperatures chosen for thermal treatment. During nucleation and crystal growth, the residual glass around the crystals is depleted in fluoride which as glass component usually leads to a decrease in viscosity. The crystallization behavior notably depends on the glass composition and changes within a small range from x = 20 to 22.5 mol %. The occurrence of liquid/liquid phase separation in dependence of the composition is responsible for the physicochemical changes. Two different microstructures of droplet and interpenetrating phase separation and their compositional evolution are observed by replica transmission electron microscopy technique in the multicomponent glassy system. This study suggests that the size and crystal phase of precipitated crystallites can be controlled by the initial phase separation. © 2015 American Chemical Society.


Chen J.-K.,Ningbo University | Li L.-Y.,University of Birmingham
International Journal of Structural Stability and Dynamics | Year: 2010

This paper presents an investigation on the influence of stress gradient on the elastic critical stress of distortional buckling of cold-formed steel sections supporting wall sheeting or roof cladding in buildings. The critical stress of distortional buckling of cold-formed steel section beams subjected to a uniformly distributed transverse loading is calculated using the model proposed recently by Li and Chen. The sections investigated in the paper include channel, zed, and sigma sections. Numerical examples are provided that highlight the influence of stress gradient, section dimensions, and sheeting lateral restraints on the critical stress of distortional buckling. © 2010 World Scientific Publishing Company.


Zhang H.,Xinjiang University | Jia Z.,Xinjiang University | Lv X.,Xinjiang University | Zhou J.,Ningbo University | And 3 more authors.
Biosensors and Bioelectronics | Year: 2013

Silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafer is one of the most appealing platforms for optical integrated circuit with the potential to realize high performance Ultra Large Scale Integration (ULSI) and device miniaturization. In this work, based on simulations to obtain appropriate optical properties of a porous silicon microcavity (PSM), we successfully fabricated a highly efficient PSM on SOI wafer by electrochemical etching for DNA detection at optical wavelength 1555.0. nm. The narrow resonance peak with a full width at half maximum about 26.0. nm in the reflectance spectrum gives a high Q factor which causes high sensitivity for sensing performance. The sensitivity of this sensor is investigated through 19-base pair DNA hybridization in the PSM by surface modification using a standard cross link chemistry method. The red shift of the reflectance spectra shows a good linear relationship with complementary DNA concentration, ranging from 0.625 to 12.500 μM, and the detection limit is 43.9. nM. This optical PSM on SOI is highly sensitive, fast responsive, easy to fabricate and low-costly, that will broadly benefit to develop a new optical label-free biosensor on SOI wafer and has a great potential for biochips based on integrated optical devices. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.


Liu H.,Ningbo University | Liu H.,Creighton University | Pecka J.L.,Creighton University | Zhang Q.,Creighton University | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Neuroscience | Year: 2014

Inner hair cells (IHCs) and outer hair cells (OHCs) are the two types of sensory receptor cells that are critical for hearing in the mammalian cochlea. IHCs and OHCs have different morphology and function. The genetic mechanisms that define their morphological and functional specializations are essentially unknown. The transcriptome reflects the genes that are being actively expressed in a cell and holds the key to understanding the molecular mechanisms of the biological properties of the cell. Using DNA microarray, we examined the transcriptome of 2000 individually collected IHCs and OHCs from adult mouse cochleae. We show that 16,647 and 17,711 transcripts are expressed in IHCs and OHCs, respectively. Of those genes, ~73% are known genes, 22% are uncharacterized sequences, and 5.0% are noncoding RNAs in both populations. A total of 16,117 transcripts are expressed in both populations. Uniquely and differentially expressed genes account for 15% of all genes in either cell type. The top 10 differentially expressed genes include Slc17a8, Dnajc5b, Slc1a3, Atp2a3, Osbpl6, Slc7a14, Bcl2, Bin1, Prkd1, and Map4k4 in IHCs and Slc26a5, C1ql1, Strc, Dnm3, Plbd1, Lbh, Olfm1, Plce1, Tectb, and Ankrd22 in OHCs. We analyzed commonly and differentially expressed genes with the focus on genes related to hair cell specializations in the apical, basolateral, and synaptic membranes. Eighty-three percent of the known deafness-related genes are expressed in hair cells. We also analyzed genes involved in cell-cycle regulation. Our dataset holds an extraordinary trove of information about the molecular mechanisms underlying hair cell morphology, function, pathology, and cell-cycle control. © 2014 the authors.


Zhang D.L.,Jimei University | Han F.,Jimei University | Yu D.H.,CAS South China Sea Fisheries Research Institute | Xiao S.J.,Jimei University | And 3 more authors.
Gene | Year: 2015

Neuregulin receptor degradation protein-1 (Nrdp1) was recently identified in humans as an important immune factor responding to the challenge of virus, LPS or cytokine. Its role in fish immune defense and whether it is involved in anti-parasite immunity have not been proven yet. In this report, the full-length cDNA sequence and genomic structure of Nrdp1 in the large yellow croaker Larimichthys crocea (LcNrdp1) were identified and characterized. The full-length cDNA of LcNrdp1 was 1248bp, including a 5' untranslated region (UTR) of 32bp, a 3' UTR of 259bp and an open reading frame (ORF) of 937bp, encoding a polypeptide of 318 amino acid residues. The full-length genomic DNA sequence of LcNrdp1 was composed of 2635 nucleotides, including four exons and three introns. The putative LcNrdp1 protein had no signal peptide sequence and contained a characteristic Nrdp1 consensus motif C3HC3D ring finger and a Coiled-coil domain. Phylogenetic analysis showed that Nrdp1 in fish was closer with that in other vertebrates (79%-90% amino acid identity) than in invertebrates and bacteria (27%-65%). In fishes, Nrdp1 in large yellow croaker was closer with that in Takifugu rubripes. The expression profile showed that LcNrdp1 was constitutively expressed in all tested tissues, especially highly expressed in brain, muscle and kidney. Post-infection (PI) with Cryptocaryon irritans, an increased expression of LcNrdp1 was induced in infection sites (skin and gill), whereas in immune organs, the expression of LcNrdp1 was up-regulated in spleen (except the 1st d and 10th d PI) but suppressed in head kidney. These results suggested that LcNrdp1 might play an important immune role in the finfish L. crocea in the defense against the parasite C. irritans. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.


Zhu H.-P.,Lishui University | Zhu H.-P.,Ningbo University
Communications in Theoretical Physics | Year: 2012

We construct analytical self-similar solutions for the generalized (3+1)-dimensional nonlinear Schrödinger equation with polynomial nonlinearity of arbitrary order. As an example, we list self-similar solutions of quintic nonlinear Schrödinger equation with distributed dispersion and distributed linear gain, including bright similariton solution, fractional and combined Jacobian elliptic function solutions. Moreover, we discuss self-similar evolutional dynamic behaviors of these solutions in the dispersion decreasing fiber and the periodic distributed amplification system. © 2012 Chinese Physical Society and IOP Publishing Ltd.


Zhu H.-P.,Lishui University | Zhu H.-P.,Ningbo University
Nonlinear Dynamics | Year: 2014

The (3+1)-dimensional nonlinear Schrödinger equation with different distributed transverse diffraction and dispersion is studied based on the similarity transformation, and exact bright soliton solution on cnoidal wave backgrounds is derived. Moreover, three kinds of dynamical behaviors of these soliton solutions in three different dispersion/diffraction decreasing media with the Gaussian, hyperbolic, and Logarithmic profiles are discussed. Solitons interact with cnws and/or the change of characteristics of solitons by an addition of cnws are studied. Result of comparison with three media indicates that for the same parameters, the bright soliton in the Gaussian profile is compressed to the utmost degree. These results are potentially useful for future experiments in the optical communications, long-haul telecommunication networks, and Bose-Einstein condensations. © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.


Wang J.,Ningbo University | Luo L.,Ningbo University | Huang Y.,Ningbo University | Li W.,Ningbo University | Wang F.,Shanghai Normal University
Applied Physics Letters | Year: 2015

Er3+ and Yb3+ co-doped (1 - x)K0.5Na0.5NbO3-xLiNbO3 (KNN-xLN:Er/Yb, x = 0.04-0.09) ceramics were prepared to investigate their phase structures and piezoelectric, ferroelectric, and up-conversion photoluminescence properties. With increasing LN content, x, KNN-xLN:Er/Yb ceramics at room temperature evolve from the orthorhombic phase to the polymorphic phase and finally to the tetragonal phase. All the ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties and the Ir/Ig ratio of integrated intensities of red and green emission bands reach maximum values within the polymorphic phase transition of the KNN-0.06LN:Er/Yb ceramic. In this work, we find a close correlation between the electrical properties, up-conversion photoluminescence, and phase structure of KNN-xLN:Er/Yb ceramics. This correlation is discussed based on the Judd-Ofelt and crystallographic symmetry theories. © 2015 AIP Publishing LLC.


Yao Y.,Ningbo University | Luo L.,Ningbo University | Li W.,Ningbo University | Zhou J.,Ningbo University | Wang F.,Shanghai Normal University
Applied Physics Letters | Year: 2015

(0.97-x)Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-xPbTiO3-0.03Pb(Er1/2Nb1/2)O3 (PMN-xPT:Er) ceramics with different PT contents are prepared. The dielectric, piezoelectric, ferroelectric, and upconversion (UC) photoluminescence properties of the ceramics are investigated. The crystal structure of PMN-xPT:Er evolves from rhombohedral to the morphotropic phase boundary (MPB), and then to the tetragonal phase as the PT content increases. The ratio of red to green emission intensities of UC emission is strongly correlated with the phase structure of the host PMN-xPT:Er ceramic. The origin of this correlation is discussed based on Judd-Ofelt theory. Furthermore, based on the evolution of crystal symmetry of the PMN-xPT:Er ceramics, the crystal structure of the MPB phase of PMN-xPT is suggested. © 2015 AIP Publishing LLC.


Lou J.,Ningbo University | He L.,Ningbo University | Du J.,Ningbo University | Wu H.,Zhejiang University of Technology
Composite Structures | Year: 2016

In this paper, a general nonlinear four-variable refined plate model is developed to investigate the bending and free vibration behavior of a functionally graded (FG) microplate resting on an elastic foundation. In this model, a shape function is defined to describe the effect of the transverse shear deformation, and the size effects of the microplate are captured by using the modified couple stress theory. Firstly, the equations of motion and boundary conditions are derived from the Hamilton's principle. Then the equations of motion are reduced to ordinary differential equations by applying the Galerkin method, and via solving the ordinary differential equations, closed-form solutions for the nonlinear bending deflection and vibration frequency are obtained. It is found that the solutions for the general refined plate model are identical to those for a size-dependent Kirchhoff plate model and a refined first-order plate model respectively when the shape function of the transverse shear deformation is chosen to be certain forms. In addition, numerical studies are carried out to compare a special nonlinear size-dependent refined higher-order plate model with its linear counterpart as well as the nonlinear refined first-order plate model. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.


Ge H.-X.,Ningbo University | Meng X.-P.,Ningbo da Hong Ying College | Zhu H.-B.,Ningbo University | Li Z.-P.,Tongji University
Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications | Year: 2014

In the paper, two-lane traffic flow considering lane changing behaviors has been discussed based on the control theory, and the friction interference which is from the neighbor lane has been taken into account. By using the control method, the stability condition is derived. The feedback signals, which include vehicular information from both lanes, acting on the two-lane traffic system have been introduced into the Full Velocity Difference car-following model. In the end, simulations are conducted to examine the validity and reasonability of the control method. It is proven that lane changing behaviors can aggravate the traffic perturbation. The traffic flow congestion could be suppressed by using the control method and the simulation results are in good agreement with the theoretical analysis. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Zhu H.-P.,Lishui University | Zhu H.-P.,Ningbo University | Chen L.,Lishui University
Communications in Theoretical Physics | Year: 2014

The (3+1)-dimensional variable-coefficient nonlinear Schrödinger equation with linear and parabolic traps is studied, and an exact Kuznetsov-Ma soliton solution in certain parameter conditions is derived. These precise expressions indicate that diffraction and chirp factors influence phase, center and widths, while the gain/loss parameter only affects peaks. By adjusting the relation between the maximum accumulated time Tm and the accumulated time T0 based on maximum amplitude of Kuznetsov-Ma soliton, postpone, maintenance and restraint of superposed Kuznetsov-Ma solitons are investigated. © 2014 Chinese Physical Society and IOP Publishing Ltd.


Xu Q.,East China Normal University | Yang Y.,Ningbo University | Wang P.,Shanghai Normal University | Sun G.,Jinan Military General Hospital | Zhao L.,Jinan Military General Hospital
Brain Topography | Year: 2013

To investigate gender differences in pre-attentive processing of facial expressions we recorded the expression mismatch negativity (EMMN) in the deviant-standard-reverse oddball paradigm. For female participants, sad faces elicited larger EMMN than happy faces, but this difference disappeared in the left hemisphere. For male participants, EMMN was not modulated by facial expressions, regardless of in the left or right hemispheres. While the source analysis indicated that for both genders prefrontal activations were observed for sad EMMN, more sources were involved for male than female participants. For happy EMMN, the current sources were located in the occipital lobe and parietal lobe for females and the temporal lobe and the frontal lobe for males. The present findings emphasized the importance of considering gender as a factor in the study of the pre-attentive processing of facial expressions. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York.


Wang X.,Xi'an Jiaotong University | Xu Z.,Xi'an Jiaotong University | Li Z.,Xi'an Jiaotong University | Chen H.,Ningbo University
Solid State Communications | Year: 2010

The bulk single crystals Pb(In1/2Nb1/2)O 3-Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO 3(PIN-PMN-PT) were grown spontaneously using the Bridgman method. The properties of as-grown PIN-PMN-PT single crystals along the growth direction were measured: along the crystal length, its structure was transformed from the mixed phase to tetragonal phase; the piezoelectric constants d33 of (001) and (110) samples decreased from 1900 to 1100 pC/N, and from 1200 to 500 pC/N respectively; the Curie temperature Tc increased from 206.0 to 223.4 °C; and the melting as well as crystallizing points all decreased by about 25-30 °C. These phenomena indicated the inhomogeneous properties of the PIN-PMN-PT single crystals. The experiment of elemental analysis verified that gradually increasing the concentration of the cation Ti along the growth direction would result in unstable properties of the crystal. Apparently, such a disadvantage decreased the effective ratio of the PIN-PMN-PT single crystal, and would further limit its applications. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Wang G.,Ningbo University | Chen H.,Southwest Jiaotong University | Li Y.,Ningbo University | Ansari N.,New Jersey Institute of Technology
IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications | Year: 2014

In this paper, we address the time-of-arrival (TOA) based localization problem in an adverse environment, where line-of-sight (LOS) signal propagation between the source and the sensor is not readily available, in which case we have to resort to non-line-of-sight (NLOS) signals. Two convex relaxation methods, i.e., the semidefinite relaxation (SDR) and the second-order cone relaxation (SOCR) methods, are proposed to mitigate the effect of NLOS errors on the localization performance. We consider two separate cases in which the information of the NLOS status is totally unknown and perfectly known, respectively. The proposed methods can be applied without knowing the distribution of NLOS errors. Moreover, we propose a NLOS error mitigation method that is robust to detection errors, which are generated in the process of detecting NLOS paths. Simulation results show that the proposed convex relaxation methods outperform some existing state-of-the-art methods. © 2002-2012 IEEE.


Fan H.-Y.,Ningbo University | Wang S.,Changzhou University | Hu L.-Y.,Jiangxi Normal University
Frontiers of Physics | Year: 2014

Using the way of deriving infinitive sum representation of density operator as a solution to the master equation describing the amplitude dissipative channel by virtue of the entangled state representation, we show manifestly how the initial density operator of a single-mode squeezed vacuum state evolves into a definite mixed state which turns out to be a squeezed chaotic state with decreasing-squeezing and decoherence. We investigate average photon number, photon statistics distributions for this mixed state. © 2014 Higher Education Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Ge H.-X.,Ningbo University | Meng X.-P.,Ningbo University | Ma J.,Southwest Jiaotong University | Lo S.-M.,City University of Hong Kong
Physics Letters, Section A: General, Atomic and Solid State Physics | Year: 2012

In the Letter, a modified car-following model is presented, in which, the effects of vehicles (or non-motor vehicles) on other lanes without isolation belts are taken into account. The stability condition of the model is obtained by using the control theory method. To check the validity of the present theoretical scheme, the numerical simulation is carried out for the new car-following model, and the simulation result is consistent with the theoretical analysis. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.


Rong M.,Ningbo University | Gu Y.,Ningbo University | Ruan G.,Anta Sports Products Ltd
Advanced Materials Research | Year: 2012

This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of diabetic therapeutic footwear design in preventing the foot ulcer. A total of 36 type 2 diabetic patients were investigated. The foot plantar pressure was measured with Novel-Pedar insole pressure measure system. The subjects were measured under common leather shoes and common running shoes. Different regions of plantar surface were analyzed. Comparing with two different conditions, Generally, except other toes region, the peak pressure values in running shoes were lower than the leather shoes. Both midfoot and medial forefoot region were significantly different between two intervene. Running shoes might be useful for preventing the diabetic foot ulcer. Because they could reduce the peak pressure effectively than the leather shoes, and make the distribution of the pressure on the foot sole more reasonably.


Gui G.,Jiangsu University | Gui G.,Chinese University of Hong Kong | Liu Y.,University of Texas at Arlington | Olver P.J.,University of Minnesota | Qu C.,Ningbo University
Communications in Mathematical Physics | Year: 2013

In this paper, we investigate the formation of singularities and the existence of peaked traveling-wave solutions for a modified Camassa-Holm equation with cubic nonlinearity. The equation is known to be integrable, and is shown to admit a single peaked soliton and multi-peakon solutions, of a different character than those of the Camassa-Holm equation. Singularities of the solutions can occur only in the form of wave-breaking, and a new wave-breaking mechanism for solutions with certain initial profiles is described in detail. © 2012 Springer-Verlag.


Zhu Q.,Ningbo University | Song B.,Nanjing Institute of Technology
Nonlinear Analysis: Real World Applications | Year: 2011

This paper is concerned with the problem of exponential stability for a class of impulsive nonlinear stochastic differential equations with mixed time delays. By applying the LyapunovKrasovskii functional, Dynkin formula and Razumikhin technique with a stochastic version as well as the linear matrix inequalities (LMIs) technique, some novel sufficient conditions are derived to ensure the exponential stability of the trivial solution in the mean square. The obtained results generalize and improve some recent results. In particular, our results are expressed in terms of LMIs, and thus they are more easily verified and applied in practice. Finally, a numerical example and its simulation are given to illustrate the theoretical results. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Liu X.,Northwest University, China | Liu Y.,University of Texas at Arlington | Olver P.J.,University of Minnesota | Qu C.,Ningbo University
Nonlinearity | Year: 2014

The orbital stability of the peaked solitary-wave solutions for a generalization of the modified Camassa-Holm equation with both cubic and quadratic nonlinearities is investigated. The equation is a model of asymptotic shallow-water wave approximations to the incompressible Euler equations. It is also formally integrable in the sense of the existence of a Lax formulation and bi-Hamiltonian structure. It is demonstrated that, when the Camassa-Holm energy counteracts the effect of the modified Camassa-Holm energy, the peakon and periodic peakon solutions are orbitally stable under small perturbations in the energy space. © 2014 IOP Publishing Ltd & London Mathematical Society.


Jin R.,Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center | Yang G.,Ningbo University | Li G.,Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center
Journal of Leukocyte Biology | Year: 2010

Inflammation plays an important role in the pathogenesis of ischemic stroke and other forms of ischemic brain injury. Experimentally and clinically, the brain responds to ischemic injury with an acute and prolonged inflammatory process, characterized by rapid activation of resident cells (mainly microglia), production of proinflammatory mediators, and infiltration of various types of inflammatory cells (including neutrophils, different subtypes of T cells, monocyte/macrophages, and other cells) into the ischemic brain tissue. These cellular events collaboratively contribute to ischemic brain injury. Despite intense investigation, there are still numerous controversies concerning the time course of the recruitment of inflammatory cells in the brain and their pathogenic roles in ischemic brain injury. In this review, we provide an overview of the time-dependent recruitment of different inflammatory cells following focal cerebral I/R. We discuss how these cells contribute to ischemic brain injury and highlight certain recent findings and currently unanswered questions about inflammatory cells in the pathophysiology of ischemic stroke. © Society for Leukocyte Biology.


Sun C.,Ningbo University | Chen J.,Ningbo University | Chen J.,State Key Laboratory of Turbulence and Complex Systems | Zhu J.,Ningbo University | And 2 more authors.
Construction and Building Materials | Year: 2013

Sulfate attack is one of the major durability problems in concrete structures. Sulfate ions present in concrete can react with cement hydration products to form gypsum and ettringite, and this may affect the pore structure and cause structural damage. In this paper, an experimental study was performed on the diffusion of sulfate ions in concrete. Based on the experimentally obtained results, a new diffusion model for sulfate ions was developed, taking into account the influence of the evolution of sulfate-induced damage on the diffusion of ions. The evolution of damage with immersion time and concentration of sulfate ions can be determined using ultrasonic tests. A numerical method was utilized to solve the nonlinear parabolic partial differential equation describing diffusion. A comparison between numerical results and experimental data is provided to validate the proposed models. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Chu H.-Y.,Ningbo University | Chen J.-K.,Ningbo University | Chen J.-K.,State Key Laboratory of Turbulence and Complex Systems
Construction and Building Materials | Year: 2013

This paper presents a theoretical and experimental study on the attenuation coefficient of the ultrasonic expansion wave in concrete specimens made of different mixes and suffering from sulfate attack. The relationships between the attenuation coefficient, relaxation time, and the wave velocity of the elastic expansion wave were derived. By using simple ultrasonic techniques, the variation of the attenuation coefficient with time during the process of sulfate attack was determined experimentally. The results showed that the magnitude of the attenuation coefficient of concrete increased with time, reflecting damage evolution in the material caused by sulfate attack. This suggested that the damage caused by sulfate attack in concrete can be determined by using simple ultrasonic testing methods. Also, it was found that the concrete specimens with added fly ash had a better performance (reduced sulfate attack) than those with added fine ground slag. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Xu Y.,State University of New York at Buffalo | Wang C.,Ningbo University | Klabnik J.J.,West Virginia University | O'Donnell J.M.,State University of New York at Buffalo
Current Neuropharmacology | Year: 2014

There is growing evidence that the imbalance between oxidative stress and the antioxidant defense system may be associated with the development neuropsychiatric disorders, such as depression and anxiety. Major depression and anxiety are presently correlated with a lowered total antioxidant state and by an activated oxidative stress (OS) pathway. The classical antidepressants may produce therapeutic effects other than regulation of monoamines by increasing the antioxidant levels and normalizing the damage caused by OS processes. This chapter provides an overview of recent work on oxidative stress markers in the animal models of depression and anxiety, as well as patients with the aforementioned mood disorders. It is well documented that antioxidants can remove the reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) through scavenging radicals and suppressing the OS pathway, which further protect against neuronal damage caused oxidative or nitrosative stress sources in the brain, hopefully resulting in remission of depression or anxiety symptoms. The functional understanding of the relationship between oxidative stress and depression and anxiety may pave the way for discovery of novel targets for treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders. © 2014 Bentham Science Publishers.


Zhou J.,Ningbo University | Jin L.,Ningbo University | Pun E.Y.-B.,University of Hong Kong
Optics Letters | Year: 2012

A tunable multichannel nonreciprocal perfect absorber with the asymmetric metal-photonic crystal hetero-structure is theoretically proposed. By using the transfer matrix method, the linear and nonlinear properties of the absorber are investigated.Anultra-narrow perfect absorption channel is realized in the linear case due to the impedance matching, and the channel number can be adjusted by changing the period of the photonic crystal. Bistable absorption and reflection are achieved in the nonlinear case due to the positive feedback between the metal nonlinear permittivity and the inner electric field, while the bistable thresholds can be altered by varying the incident light wavelength. Moreover, the absorber exhibits the intrinsic nonreciprocity in both absorption and reflection, and shows the polarization-independent directional characteristics when the incident angle is less than 40°. © 2012 Optical Society of America.


Jiang X.,CAS Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics | Jiang X.,University of Chinese Academy of Sciences | Xu W.,Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering | Tan R.,Ningbo University | And 2 more authors.
Materials Letters | Year: 2013

Quaternary chalcogenide Cu2FeSnS4 (CFTS) particles, a potential candidate for application as absorber layer in thin film solar cells, were successfully synthesized by using a convenient solvothermal method. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) results revealed that the CFTS particles possessed pure tetragonal structure with high crystallinity. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) results showed that the average size of the CFTS particles was about 200 nm and the composition of products was close to the stoichiometry of CFTS. UV-vis absorption spectrum showed that the CFTS particles had a broad absorption band in the whole visible range with a band gap of 1.28 eV, which are promising for photovoltaic applications. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Byron P.,University of New South Wales | Albury K.,University of New South Wales | Evers C.,Ningbo University
Reproductive Health Matters | Year: 2013

In today's media environment, information is not simply passed from producers to consumers, but is mediated by participants of new media cultures, including information on sexual health. In focus groups held in Sydney and regional Australia in 2011, we asked young people aged 16-22 about the potential for sexual health promotion via Facebook and other social media. Our findings point to the complex ways in which young people use social media, and the unlikelihood of traditional take-home sexual health messages having traction in social media spaces. Five key aspects which emerged were: the participatory culture of social network sites; the stigma of sexual health, especially sexually transmitted infections (STIs); young people's careful presentations of self; privacy concerns; and the importance of humour in sexual health messaging. Fears of bullying and gossip (or 'drama') were also likely to prevent the dissemination of sexual health messages in this environment. However, humorous online videos were noted by participants as a significant way to avoid stigma and enable the sharing of sexual health information. The young people in our study were interested in sexual health information, but did not want to access it at the cost of their own sense of comfort and belonging in their social networks. Any sexual health promotion within these sites must be understood as a site-specific intervention. © 2013 Reproductive Health Matters.


Zhou H.,Ningbo University | Gan N.,Ningbo University | Li T.,Ningbo University | Cao Y.,Ningbo University | And 3 more authors.
Analytica Chimica Acta | Year: 2012

A novel and sensitive sandwich-type electrochemiluminescence (ECL) immunosensor was fabricated on a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) for ultra trace levels of α-fetoprotein (AFP) based on sandwich immunoreaction strategy by enrichment using magnetic capture probes and quantum dots coated with Au shell (CdS-Au) as the signal tag. The capture probe was prepared by immobilizing the primary antibody of AFP (Ab1) on the core/shell Fe3O4-Au nanoparticles, which was first employed to capture AFP antigens to form Fe3O4-Au/Ab1/AFP complex from the serum after incubation. The product can be separated from the background solution through the magnetic separation. Then the CdS-Au labeled secondary antibody (Ab2) as signal tag (CdS-Au/Ab2) was conjugated successfully with Fe3O4-Au/Ab1/AFP complex to form a sandwich-type immunocomplex (Fe3O4-Au/Ab1/AFP/Ab2/CdS-Au), which can be further separated by an external magnetic field and produce ECL signals at a fixed voltage. The signal was proportional to a certain concentration range of AFP for quantification. Thus, an easy-to-use immunosensor with magnetic probes and a quantum dots signal tag was obtained. The immunosensor performed at a level of high sensitivity and a broad concentration range for AFP between 0.0005 and 5.0ngmL-1 with a detection limit of 0.2pgmL-1. The use of magnetic probes was combined with pre-concentration and separation for trace levels of tumor markers in the serum. Due to the amplification of the signal tag, the immunosensor is highly sensitive, which can offer great promise for rapid, simple, selective and cost-effective detection of effective biomonitoring for clinical application. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.


Bai R.,Ningbo University | Burke E.K.,University of Nottingham | Kendall G.,University of Nottingham | Li J.,University of Nottingham | McCollum B.,Queen's University of Belfast
IEEE Transactions on Evolutionary Computation | Year: 2010

Nurse rostering is an important search problem with many constraints. In the literature, a number of approaches have been investigated including penalty function methods to tackle these constraints within genetic algorithm frameworks. In this paper, we investigate an extension of a previously proposed stochastic ranking method, which has demonstrated superior performance to other constraint handling techniques when tested against a set of constrained optimization benchmark problems. An initial experiment on nurse rostering problems demonstrates that the stochastic ranking method is better at finding feasible solutions, but fails to obtain good results with regard to the objective function. To improve the performance of the algorithm, we hybridize it with a recently proposed simulated annealing hyper-heuristic (SAHH) within a local search and genetic algorithm framework. Computational results show that the hybrid algorithm performs better than both the genetic algorithm with stochastic ranking and the SAHH alone. The hybrid algorithm also outperforms the methods in the literature which have the previously best known results. © 2010 IEEE.


Wang D.,Ningbo University | Gan N.,Ningbo University | Zhang H.,Ningbo University | Li T.,Ningbo University | And 4 more authors.
Biosensors and Bioelectronics | Year: 2015

A novel electrochemical multiplexed immunoassay was designed for simultaneous determination of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) using recombinant apoferritin-encoded metallic nanoparticles (rApo-M) as labels and dual-template magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers (MMIPs) as capture probes. The labels were prepared by loading recombinant apoferritin (r-Apo) and separately immobilize primary antibodies (anti-AFP and anti-CEA) via Au nanoparticles of in site growth on graphene (G). The capture probes were synthesized by self-polymerization of dopamine (DA) on the Fe3O4 nanoparticles (Fe3O4 NPs) and using AFP and CEA as the template proteins, which were used to enrich the targets simultaneously. After a sandwich-type immunoreaction, the labels were captured to the surface of MMIPs. The subsequent electrochemical stripping analysis of the metal components from the immunocomplex provide a means for quantification of targets based on the peak currents of Cd and Pb. Experimental results showed the immunoassay enabled the simultaneous determination of AFP and CEA in a single run with wide dynamic ranges of 0.001-5ngmL-1. And the detection limits of AFP and CEA were 0.3 and 0.35pgmL-1 (S/N=3), respectively. These results suggested that the proposed multiplexed immunoassay would be applied for clinical screening of other biomarkers. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.


Chen W.,University of Hong Kong | Zhang X.,University of Hong Kong | Xin S.,Ningbo University | Xia Y.,Dalian University of Technology | And 2 more authors.
ACM Transactions on Graphics | Year: 2016

Filigrees are thin patterns found in jewelry, ornaments and lace fabrics. They are often formed of repeated base elements manually composed into larger, delicate patterns. Digital fabrication simplifies the process of turning a virtual model of a filigree into a physical object. However, designing a virtual model of a filigree remains a time consuming and challenging task. The difficulty lies in tightly packing together the base elements while covering a target surface. In addition, the filigree has to be well connected and sufficiently robust to be fabricated. We propose a novel approach automating this task. Our technique covers a target surface with a set of input base elements, forming a filigree strong enough to be fabricated. We exploit two properties of filigrees to make this possible. First, as filigrees form delicate traceries they are well captured by their skeleton. This affords for a simpler definition of operators such as matching and deformation. Second, instead of seeking for a perfect packing of the base elements we relax the problem by allowing appearance preserving partial overlaps. We optimize a filigree by a stochastic search, further improved by a novel boosting algorithm that records and reuses good configurations discovered during the process. We illustrate our technique on a number of challenging examples reproducing filigrees on large objects, which we manufacture by 3D printing. Our technique affords for several user controls, such as the scale and orientation of the elements. © 2016 Copyright held by the owner/author(s).


Zhou J.,Ningbo University | Gan N.,Ningbo University | Li T.,Ningbo University | Hu F.,Ningbo University | And 3 more authors.
Biosensors and Bioelectronics | Year: 2014

In this report, a rapid and cost-effective sandwich electrochemiluminescence (ECL) immunosensor was constructed for the ultrasensitive detection of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 antibody (anti-HIV-1) using magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers (MMIPs) as capture probes by combining surface and epitope imprinting techniques and antigen conjugated with horseradish peroxidase (HRP-HIV-1) as labels. First, 3-aminobenzeneboronic acid (APBA) was used as the functional monomer and cross-linking reagent, which was polymerized on the surface of silicate-coated magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (Fe3O4@SiO2 NPs) in the presence of human immunoglobulin G (HIgG), as the template exhibiting the same Fc region but different Fab region to anti-HIV-1 after the addition of the initiator, ammonium persulfate. This process resulted in grafting a hydrophilic molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) film on the Fe3O4@SiO2 NPs. Thus, MMIPs, which could be reused after eluting the template, were used to recognize and enrich ultra-trace levels of anti-HIV-1. Subsequently, a novel sandwich ECL immunosensor was formed through the immunoreaction between MMIPs conjugated with varied concentrations of anti-HIV-1 and HRP-HIV-1. By the catalysis of HRP immobilized onto HRP-HIV-1 on the ECL system of Luminol-H2O2, a linear response range of the anti-HIV-1 dilution ratio (standard positive serum) was achieved from 1:20,000 to 1:50, with a detection limit of 1:60,000 (S/N=3). The developed method provides a low-cost, simple, and sensitive way for the early diagnosis of HIV infected patients. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.


Zhang X.-D.,China Merchants Chongqing Communications Research and Design Institute Co. | Ding Y.,Ningbo University | Ren X.-C.,University of Iowa
Gongcheng Lixue/Engineering Mechanics | Year: 2013

The extended finite element method (XFEM) provides an effective way for the numerical simulation of the crack propagation process of structures. The implementation method for the numerical simulation of the crack propagation process of concrete structures with the extended finite element method is introduced. The fictitious crack model is adopted to simulate the concrete nonlinear fracture behaviour. The detailed formulations of a two-dimensional quadrilateral element for the finite element analysis are derived. Three schemes are employed to solve the nonlinear system of equations and their implementation procedures are analyzed and summarized. The numerical simulation of an edge-cracked uniaxial tensile concrete plate is conducted and the corresponding results are analyzed.


Ni H.,Ningbo University | Luo L.,Ningbo University | Li W.,Ningbo University | Zhu Y.,Ningbo University | Luo H.,CAS Shanghai Institute of Ceramics
Journal of Alloys and Compounds | Year: 2011

Lead-free (1 - x)Bi0.47Na0.47Ba 0.06TiO3-xKNbO3 (BNBT-xKN, x = 0-0.08) ceramics were prepared by ordinary ceramic sintering technique. The piezoelectric, dielectric and ferroelectric properties of the ceramics are investigated and discussed. The results of X-ray diffraction (XRD) indicate that KNbO3 (KN) has diffused into Bi0.47Na0.47Ba 0.06TiO3 (BNBT) lattices to form a solid solution with a pure perovskite structure. Moderate additive of KN (x ≤ 0.02) in BNBT-xKN ceramics enhance their piezoelectric and ferroelectric properties. Three dielectric anomaly peaks are observed in BNBT-0.00KN, BNBT-0.01KN and BNBT-0.02KN ceramics. With the increment of KN in BNBT-xKN ceramics, the dielectric anomaly peaks shift to lower temperature. BNBT-0.01KN ceramic exhibits excellent piezoelectric properties and strong ferroelectricity: piezoelectric coefficient, d33 = 195 pC/N; electromechanical coupling factor, kt = 58.9 and kp = 29.3%; mechanical quality factor, Qm = 113; remnant polarization, Pr = 41.8 μC/cm2; coercive field, Ec = 19.5 kV/cm.


Zheng Z.-W.,Ningbo University | Zheng Z.-W.,Dalian Maritime University
IEEE Transactions on Broadcasting | Year: 2012

As an effective technique for combating multipath fading and for high-bit-rate transmission over wireless channels, orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) is extensively used in modern digital television terrestrial broadcasting (DTTB) systems to support high performance bandwidth-efficient multimedia services. Chinese digital television terrestrial broadcasting standard recommends three kinds of Frame Head mode with PN420/PN595/PN945 as training sequences for the time domain synchronous OFDM (TDS-OFDM) based Digital Terrestrial Multimedia Broadcasting (DTMB) systems. At the receiver side, Frame Head mode detection and symbol detection should be done before subsequent synchronization and channel estimation. In this paper, a Frame Head mode detection and symbol detection scheme robust to carrier frequency offset is proposed for the TDS-OFDM based DTMB systems. Performance studies under different channel situations are used to verify the efficiency of the proposed scheme. © 2012 IEEE.


Yang H.-C.,Zhejiang University | Liao K.-J.,Zhejiang University | Huang H.,Zhejiang University | Wu Q.-Y.,Ningbo University | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Materials Chemistry A | Year: 2014

The surface structures and properties of a membrane largely determine its in-service performance during a filtration process. Here we report a facile hydrophilization method via co-deposition of mussel-inspired polydopamine (PDA) and polyethyleneimine (PEI) on a polypropylene microfiltration membrane. The deposition time is greatly shortened and the surface hydrophilicity is significantly improved compared to those membranes decorated only by PDA. The dopamine/PEI deposition solution can be reused several times with negligible effect on the surface hydrophilicity of membranes. Moreover, the PDA/PEI coating endows the membranes with ultra-high water permeability, allowing microfiltration separation of oil-in-water emulsions under atmospheric pressure. 2014 This journal is © the Partner Organisations.


Wang B.,CAS Ningbo Institute of Material Technology and Engineering | Li H.,CAS Ningbo Institute of Material Technology and Engineering | Li L.,CAS Ningbo Institute of Material Technology and Engineering | Chen P.,CAS Ningbo Institute of Material Technology and Engineering | And 2 more authors.
Composites Science and Technology | Year: 2013

Electrically conductive ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE)/graphene nanosheets composites with a segregated structure were prepared by electrostatic adsorption method. It was found that UHMWPE powders could generate static electricity after high-speed mechanical friction which was beneficial to adsorb fluffy graphene on the surface of polymer powders. UHMWPE/graphene nanosheets composites with a segregated network produced by hot-pressing exhibited a dramatic enhancement in electrical conductivity with the percolation threshold of 0.1. vol.%. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Wu S.-D.,Ningbo University | Gao L.,Zhejiang University
Surgery Today | Year: 2011

Purpose: Patients undergoing a total thyroidectomy plus neck dissection are at high risk of developing postoperative hypocalcemia. This study prospectively evaluated the possibility to identify factors that predict symptomatic hypocalcemia and the necessity of routine calcium supplements. Methods: Sixty-five consecutive patients who underwent a total thyroidectomy plus neck dissection were included. Intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH), total serum calcium (sCa), serum phosphate (sPhos), and serum magnesium (sMg) levels were monitored and compared between the symptomatic hypocalcemic group ( group A) and the asymptomatic hypocalcemic group (group B). Results: Asymptomatic and self-limiting hypocalcemia developed in 54 patients (81.5%; group B). Symptomatic hypocalcemia developed in 11 patients (18.5%; group A). They required calcium supplements. There were no significant differences in the iPTH and sMg levels between the two groups; the sCa level was significantly lower on postoperative days 1, 2, 3, and 5 in group A than in group B (P < 0.05); the sPhos level was significantly higher on postoperative days 2 and 3 in group A than in group B (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Symptomatic hypocalcemia develops within 3 days after surgery. An sCa level of less than 1.81 mmol/l can predict symptomatic hypocalcemia. Routine calcium supplements will not be necessary if the sCa level is higher than 1.81 mmol/l. © 2011 Springer.


Li Y.-Q.,Ningbo University | Pan X.-Y.,Ningbo University | Li B.,Ningbo University | Sahni V.,Brooklyn College
Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics | Year: 2012

The Gunnarsson-Lundqvist (GL) theorem of density functional theory states that there is a one-to-one relationship between the density of the lowest nondegenerate excited state of a given symmetry and the external potential. As a consequence, knowledge of this excited state density determines the external potential uniquely. [The GL theorem is the equivalent for such excited states of the Hohenberg-Kohn (HK) theorem for nondegenerate ground states.] For other excited states, there is no equivalent of the GL or HK theorem. For these states, there thus exist multiple potentials that generate the excited-state density. We show, by example, the satisfaction that the GL theorem holds and the multiplicity of potentials for excited states. © 2012 American Physical Society.


Sahni V.,Brooklyn College | Pan X.-Y.,Ningbo University
Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics | Year: 2012

The premise of density-functional theory is that knowledge of the ground-state density uniquely determines the Hamiltonian, and thereby, via solution of the corresponding time-independent Schrödinger equation, all the properties of the system. The density therefore constitutes a basic variable of quantum mechanics. There are at present two paths from the density to the Hamiltonian: the Hohenberg and Kohn proof of the bijectivity between the external potential and the basic variable, and the Percus, Levy, and Lieb constrained-search proof. We argue the Hohenberg- and Kohn-type proof to be the more fundamental, and that this is the case in general when both external electrostatic and magnetostatic fields are present, and the basic variables are the ground-state density and physical current density. © 2012 American Physical Society.


Wang P.,Ningbo University | Li H.,Ningbo University
Journal of Semiconductors | Year: 2011

A low power mapping algorithm for technology independent AND/XOR circuits is proposed. In this algorithm, the average power of the static mixed-polarity Reed-Muller (MPRM) circuits is minimized by generating a two-input gates circuit to optimize the switching active of nodes, and the power and area of MPRM circuits are estimated by using gates from a given library. On the basis of obtaining an optimal power MPRM circuit, the best mixed-polarity is found by combining an exhaustive searching method with polarity conversion algorithms. Our experiments over 18 benchmark circuits show that compared to the power optimization for fixed-polarity Reed-Muller circuits and AND/OR circuits, power saving is up to 44.22% and 60.09%, and area saving is up to 14.13% and 32.72%, respectively.


Xu Y.,Ningbo University
Proceedings - 2010 International Conference on Web Information Systems and Mining, WISM 2010 | Year: 2010

In this article, we design a stream cipher based on the the conjugates of quasigroups. According to the analysis given in the article the method is extremely secure. Beside that, the plaintext and its cipher text are of the same length, and the stream cipher needs small storage in memory since one quasigroup can be used as three different quasigroups. © 2010 IEEE.


Yao J.,Ningbo University | Jin X.,Ningbo University
Applied Mechanics and Materials | Year: 2010

In view of the problem that it is difficult to calculate the Fanger's PMV equation due to its complicated iterative process, a backpropagation neural network (BPNN) model was built to predict PMV. Air temperature, relative humidity, mean radiant temperature, air velocity, metabolic rate and clothing index were used as the input of neural network and PMV output as the output of the neural network. The results show that this prediction approach is very effective and has higher accuracy absolute error below 5%. As a conclusion, this study has a real significance, because it gives a new method with reliability and accuracy in the prediction of PMV. © (2010) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.


Bu Z.,Ningbo University | Tang G.,China Merchants Chongqing Communications Research and Design Institute Co.
Zhongguo Tiedao Kexue/China Railway Science | Year: 2011

The model of unbonded prestressing precast segmental bridge piers with energy dissipation bars was set up utilizing fiber beam-column element with the OPENSEES program developed by the Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research Center in the U.S. to investigate the pseudo static test procedure. The parametric analysis about the influence of the prestressing level, axial compression ratio and prestressed tendon or conventional rebar ratio upon the earthquake response of the bridge piers and columns was carried out. The results show that raising prestressing level can increase the yield strength but has little effect on the ultimate lateral strength. A total axial compression ratio of 20 to 30 percent of prestressing and superstructure dead load contributes to higher lateral strength and larger equivalent damping ratio of bridge columns. The column has stable lateral strength and energy dissipation ability as the prestressing tendon ratio is between 0.20 and 0.50 percent. The equivalent damping ratio of the bridge piers will be decreased with the increase of tendon ratio. The yield strength, ultimate lateral strength, energy dissipation and equivalent damping ratio will be increased remarkably with the increase of conventional rebar ratio, but the residual displacement will also be increased. The seismic response analysis reveals that the lateral strength can be raised by adding conventional reinforcement in precast segmental bridge piers. The shear at the damage level of precast segmental bridge piers bottom under history excitation is approximately 70 to 90 percent of pseudo static test results. The ultimate displacement of the pier top is only about 50 percent of that in pseudo static tests.


Gu B.,Ningbo University | He S.,Ningbo University | Yan X.,Ningbo University | Zhang L.,CAS Institute of Microbiology
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology | Year: 2013

Cyclodipeptides and their derivatives, the diketopiperazines (DKPs), constitute a large class of natural products that exhibit various biological properties. Until recently, there are a few characterized DKP biosynthetic pathways. In all these cases, the formation of the cyclodipeptides that harbor the DKP scaffold is catalyzed either by nonribosomal peptide synthetases or by cyclodipeptide synthases. This review focuses on the DKP biosynthetic pathways and their associated molecular mechanisms. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Qian F.Z.,East China Normal University | Jiang J.S.,East China Normal University | Jiang D.M.,East China Normal University | Zhang W.G.,East China Normal University | Liu J.H.,Ningbo University
Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics | Year: 2010

Bi0.8Dy0.2-xLaxFeO3 (BDLFO x) (x = 0, 0.10 and 0.20 respectively) nanoparticles were prepared by the ethylene glycol based sol-gel method. The influence of the average radius and the effective magnetic moment of Bi-site ion on the structure, magnetic and dielectric properties, and the effective magnetic susceptibility of BDLFO x nanoparticles was investigated. All the samples were indexed to the orthorhombic structure based on the results of x-ray diffraction. The grain size of the samples increased with the increase in Bi-site ionic average radius. The magnetization of the samples was found to decrease with the effective magnetic moment of Bi-site ion decreasing. The dielectric constant and loss were improved when the Bi-site ionic average radius decreased and the effective magnetic moment of the Bi-site ions increased. The enhanced magnetization M and the polarization P in nanoparticles made the effective magnetic susceptibility of the samples greatly enhanced, in particular for the sample of x = 0. Therefore we concluded that the small amount of substitution of Bi3+ ions by trivalent rare-earth ions with a smaller ionic radius than Bi 3+ ion and a high magnetic moment in the nano-system was a way to improve the multiferroic properties of BiFeO3. © 2010 IOP Publishing Ltd.


Darkwa J.,Ningbo University | Zhou T.,Ningbo University
Energy Conversion and Management | Year: 2011

This paper summarises studies undertaken towards the development of a laminated composite aluminium/hexadecane phase change material (PCM) drywall based on previous analytical work. The study also covered the selection and testing of various types of adhesive materials and identified Polyvinyl acetate (PVA) material as a suitable bonding material. For the purpose of comparison pure hexadecane and composite aluminium/hexadecane samples were developed and tested. The test results revealed faster thermal response by the aluminium/hexadecane sample regarding the rate of heat flux and also achieved about 10% and 15% heat transfer enhancements during the charging and discharging periods respectively. Its measured effective thermal conductivity also increased remarkably to 1.25 W/mK as compared with 0.15 W/mK for pure hexadecane. However there was about 5% less total cumulative thermal energy discharged at the end of the test which indicates that its effective thermal capacity was reduced by the presence of the aluminium particles. The study has shown that some of the scientific and technical barriers associated with the development of laminated composite PCM drywall systems can be overcome but further investigations of effects of adhesive materials are needed. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Wang W.,Ningbo University | Li W.,Ningbo University | Zhang R.,Ningbo University
Materials Chemistry and Physics | Year: 2010

Different kinds of silver nanostructures have been deposited on the surface of the polypyrrole (PPy) films by silver-mirror reaction. The morphology of silver nanostructures can be controlled by modulating the reaction conditions. The application of the as-prepared PPy-silver composites in surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) was studied using 4-mercaptopyridine (4-Mpy) as probe molecules. The results showed that PPy-silver composites exhibited excellence SERS ability and could be used as SERS-active substrates for detection of trace molecules. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Xu L.,Ningbo University | Xia H.,Ningbo University | Hu M.,Ningbo University of Technology
Guangxue Xuebao/Acta Optica Sinica | Year: 2013

The nano copper sulfide is prepared by ultrasonic atomization with Cu(NO3)2 and Na2S solutions of 0.5% (mole fraction) as raw materials. The pH value of the solution is adjusted to 6-8. The atomized Cu (NO3)2 is gradually added into the solution of Na2S which is strongly stirred. The nano-semiconductor copper sulfides (CuxS, 1≤x≤2) are obtained after aging and filtering. The influence of heated temperatures and ratio of raw materials on chemical composition of copper sulfide are analysed. The phase of copper sulfide and the chemical composition are investigated by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD). The morphological image of the copper sulfide is observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The absorptivity and transmittance of copper sulfide in state of sol from ultraviolet to near infrared wavelength are recorded. The results indicate that the copper sulfides are of high absorbance for near infrared light, which are attributed to the electronic transitions in the energy bands. They also have high transmittance for visible light. The transmittance declines slightly along with Cu2S approaching to CuS.


Deng S.,Yangzhou University | Ye X.,Ningbo University
Procedia Engineering | Year: 2016

In this paper, we takes the parking vehicle out of the off-street parking access in the city as the research object, analyzes the main influence factors of the vehicle in the process of entering in the parking lot, and the crossing time is defined as the cross through the waiting time and travel time. By the way of theoretical analysis and field investigation, we present one calculation model through the waiting time while another through the travel time, and verify the analysis. Based on the measured data about parking entering rate, we conducted a sensitivity analysis the combination conditions of different non-motorized vehicle lane width and flow, the main conclusions are as follow: First of all, compared with the non-motorized vehicle lane width, the impact of non-motorized vehicle flow on crossing time is more obvious; Secondly, in the same flow conditions, changes of crossing time and non-motorized vehicle lane width is inversely proportional to the width of non-motorized vehicle lane; Thirdly, when less than 5 meters, crossing time changed significantly affected by it; finally, when the non-motorized vehicle lane width is greater than 6 meters, crossing time had small changes affected by it. © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.


Pan X.-Y.,Ningbo University | Sahni V.,Brooklyn College
Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics | Year: 2012

The Hohenberg-Kohn theorem is generalized to the case of a finite system of N electrons in external electrostatic E(r)=-v(r) and magnetostatic B(r)=×A(r) fields in which the interaction of the latter with both the orbital and spin angular momentum is considered. For a nondegenerate ground state a bijective relationship is proved between the gauge invariant density ρ(r) and physical current density j(r) and the potentials {v(r),A(r)}. The possible many-to-one relationship between the potentials {v(r),A(r)} and the wave function is explicitly accounted for in the proof. With the knowledge that the basic variables are {ρ(r),j(r)}, and explicitly employing the bijectivity between {ρ(r),j(r)} and {v(r),A(r)}, the further extension to N-representable densities and degenerate states is achieved via a Percus-Levy-Lieb constrained-search proof. A {ρ(r),j(r)}-functional theory is developed. Finally, a Slater determinant of equidensity orbitals which reproduces a given {ρ(r),j(r)} is constructed. © 2012 American Physical Society.


Liang X.-T.,Ningbo University
Chinese Physics Letters | Year: 2012

Two-dimensional three-order nonlinear response functions and the laser spectra of the two-level Frenkel-exciton model, interacting with three short laser pulses in direction -k 1 + k 2 + k 3, are calculated using the numerical path integral. The method is non-Markovian and the results show that the numerical simulation scheme provides a new pathway for theoretically investigating the multidimensional ultrafast laser spectra including the non-Markovian effects. © 2012 Chinese Physical Society and IOP Publishing Ltd.


Yao J.,Ningbo University | Chow D.H.C.,University of Liverpool | Zheng R.-Y.,Ningbo University | Yan C.-W.,Ningbo University
Journal of Building Performance Simulation | Year: 2016

This paper investigates the impact of manually operated solar shades on indoor thermal comfort. A developed stochastic model for manual solar shades was modelled in Building Controls Virtual Test Bed, which was coupled with EnergyPlus for co-simulation. Movable solar shades were compared with two unshaded windows (clear double-pane and low-e double-pane). Two objective indices (room base temperature and transmitted solar radiation) and one subjective index (modified predicted mean vote (PMV) index (PMVrad) that considers solar radiation on the human body) were used to evaluate the indoor thermal performance. Results show that external solar shades achieve the best performance in terms of all three indices, especially for PMVrad, hours of comfortable conditions are higher than unshaded windows by 20.6–37.3%. Despite achieving relatively high performance, solar shades are operated infrequently and for about 30% of work time they are not adjusted appropriately, leading to a decrease in indoor thermal comfort. © 2015 International Building Performance Simulation Association (IBPSA).


Kang J.,Northwest University, China | Qu C.-Z.,Ningbo University
Chinese Physics Letters | Year: 2012

We study the Gauss kernels for a class of (2+1)-dimensional linear Schrödinger equations with potential functions. The relationship between the Lie point symmetries and Gauss kernels for the Schrödinger equations is established. It is shown that a classical integral transformation of the Gauss kernel can be generated by a proper Lie point symmetry admitted by the equation. Then we can recover the Gauss kernels for the Schrödinger equations by performing the inverse integral transformation. © 2012 Chinese Physical Society and IOP Publishing Ltd.


Li H.,Ningbo University | Tang T.,Ningbo University
Applied Mechanics and Materials | Year: 2010

In injection molding processes, while the plastic is injected into the mold cavity, the displaced air leaves the mold through openings which are referred to as the venting slots. With the continuous improvements of manufacturing precision and injecting speed, the design of venting slot is becoming an important problem which influences the quality of products greatly. In this paper, five types of possible location to generate "gas-trap" were summarized based on the research and analysis of mold manufacturing and injection molding. The dimensions of venting slot, eight kinds of venting mode and their corresponding structures were presented. The principle for the design of venting system was proposed. © (2010) Trans Tech Publications.


Tan X.,Ningbo University | Geng Y.,Shenzhen University | Zhou J.,Ningbo University
Optics and Laser Technology | Year: 2011

A novel hole-assistant microstructured optical fiber with a rectangle-like core and four elliptical holes as cladding is proposed. By employing a full-vector finite element method, the modal birefringence and confinement loss are numerically investigated, and the results show that in such a structure, an ultrahigh modal birefringence of 2.91×10-2 and a low confinement loss (<1 dB/km) can be simultaneously obtained at excited wavelength of 1.55 μm. It is significant that such a microstructured optical fiber is easily fabricated with its simple structure and exhibits improved performance. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Zhan H.,Ningbo University
Applied Mechanics and Materials | Year: 2010

Complex network is becoming one of the effective research method for knowledge management. However, the building method for the complex network is the first problem that must be addressed. The e-EPC process case modeling method was adopted in the paper to solve the problem. The building method mentioned in the paper can provide a simple way to construct a knowledge resource complex network which can be used to analyze the innovation ability of an organization, or help to distribute knowledge resources to a business process. The scale-free parameters analysis based on the network, such as average path length, cluster coefficient, provides a helpful digital reference for knowledge management and decision. © (2010) Trans Tech Publications.


Wu Y.,Ningbo University | Shen X.,Ningbo University | Dai S.,Ningbo University | Xu Y.,Ningbo University | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Physical Chemistry C | Year: 2011

Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) of noble metal nanoparticles (NPs) fostered a new area of nanophotonics, especially in the selective photon absorption and scattering. The precipitation of Ag NPs in glass would enhance the emission efficiency. Here, we studied the effects of annealing temperature (resulted in the increased Ag NPs' concentration) or AgCl concentration on the luminescence properties of Er 3+/Yb 3+ codoped bismuth-germanate glasses which were synthesized by a single-step melting-quenching technique. The SPR peak of Ag NPs appears around 600 nm, and the size of precipitated Ag NPs (spherical, hexagonal) ranges from 5 to 15 nm. With the precipitation of the Ag NPs, more intense green (527 nm, 548 nm) and red (661 nm) upconversion (UC) emission bands are observed up to 7.7, 10.1, and 6.5 folds in the glass containing 1 wt % AgCl annealed at 480 °C for 24 h, respectively. The Ag NPs embedded glasses showed significantly local field change that allowed for more bright UC emission by SPR. © 2011 American Chemical Society.


Yao J.,Ningbo University
Advanced Materials Research | Year: 2010

In this study, the main objective is to predict buildings heating and cooling energy consumption benefitting from 18 building envelope performance parameters by using artificial neural network. A backpropagation neural network has been preferred and the data have been presented to network by being normalized. 7 Cases application study was carried out with conventional methods. The building energy simulation software DeST was used for the calculations of energy consumption and ANN toolbox of MATLAB was used for predictions. As a conclusion, when the calculated values compared with the outputs of the network, it is proven that ANN gives satisfactory results successful prediction rate of over 97% and will be helpful for designers in designing period of buildings.


Wang G.,Ningbo University | So A.M.-C.,Chinese University of Hong Kong | Li Y.,Ningbo University
IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing | Year: 2016

In this paper, we develop a novel robust optimization approach to source localization using time-difference-of-arrival (TDOA) measurements that are collected under non-line-of-sight (NLOS) conditions. A key feature of our approach is that it does not require knowledge of the distribution or statistics of the NLOS errors, which are often difficult to obtain in practice. Instead, it only assumes that the NLOS errors have bounded supports. Based on this assumption, we formulate the TDOA-based source localization problem as a robust least squares (RLS) problem, in which a location estimate that is robust against the NLOS errors is sought. Since the RLS problem is non-convex, we propose two efficiently implementable convex relaxation-based approximation methods to tackle it. We then conduct a thorough theoretical analysis of the approximation quality and computational complexity of these two methods. In particular, we establish conditions under which they will yield a unique localization of the source. Simulation results on both synthetic and real data show that the performance of our approach under various NLOS settings is very stable and is significantly better than that of several existing non-robust approaches. © 1991-2012 IEEE.


Pan D.,Ningbo University | Pan D.,Nanjing Normal University | Mei X.,Nanjing Normal University
Carbohydrate Polymers | Year: 2010

A novel exopolysaccharide (EPS) was obtained by ultra-filtration, ion exchange and sizing chromatography from a culture of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis 12. The EPS was mainly composed of fructose and rhamnose with a mean molecular weight of 6.9 × 10 5 Da. The EPS and its antioxidant properties were evaluated in vitro and in vivo. The EPS displayed strong antioxidant effects, exhibited the ability to scavenge hydroxyl and superoxide anion radicals, and significantly decreased the level of malondialdehyde (MDA), even while increasing the activity of catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in mice in a dose-dependent manner. The results suggest that the EPS has direct and potent antioxidant properties. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Han X.-Y.,Ningbo University | Ren Y.-T.,Ningbo University | Zheng Y.-Q.,Ningbo University
Inorganica Chimica Acta | Year: 2010

Two adamantane-1,3-dicarboxylato bridged cobalt(II) phenanthroline complexes [Co 2(H 2O) 2(phen) 2(adc) 2]·(C 2H 7N)·2H 2O (1) and [Co(H 2O)(phen)(adc)]·H 2O (2) were synthesized in a mixed solvent under 45 °C (H 2adc = adamantane-1,3-dicarboxylic acid). Compound 1 consists of dinuclear [Co 2(H 2O) 2(phen) 2(adc) 2] complex molecules, dimethylamine (C 2H 7N) molecules and hydrogen-bonded water molecules. The dinuclear molecules, via intermolecular hydrogen bonds, are interconnected into hydrogen-bonded chains along [1 0 0] and interdigitation of phen ligands due to interchain π⋯π stacking interactions assembles the hydrogen-bonded chains into 2D supramolecular layers parallel to (0 0 1). In compound 2, the Co(II) ions are bridged by adamantane-1,3-dicarboxylate anions to form 1D chains along [0 0 1], and the resulting chains are assembled into double-chains based on interchain π⋯π interactions. The double-chains are further held together via hydrogen bonds into 2D supramolecular layers parallel to (1 0 0). The variable temperature magnetic measurements show an overall weak antiferromagnetic behavior for 1, and an weak ferromagnetic behavior over 300-75 K followed by antiferromagnetic behavior below 75 K for 2. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Guo Y.Q.,Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering | Tan R.Q.,Ningbo University | Li Y.,Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering | Song W.J.,Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering
Applied Surface Science | Year: 2012

SnO 2 crystals with various morphologies were prepared by a facile hydrothermal method in the simple solution systems of SnCl 2 and SnCl 4, respectively. This process was carried out under mild conditions and required no high-temperature heat treatment. The morphological evolution with the preparation conditions was investigated. Various self-assembled hierarchical structures including microspheres assembled with nanoparticles, oriented nanocones, and flower-like, cabbage-like structures consisting of single-crystalline nanosheets were obtained by varying the solvent and the introduction of polyethylene glycol. A possible mechanism for the formation of the spherical hierarchically structures assembled by cone-like nanocrystals was proposed. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Chen M.-Y.,Jiangsu University | Zhou J.,Ningbo University
Optics Express | Year: 2014

A multi-core fiber coupler is proposed to extract one of the modes in a few-mode optical fiber from a light beam, leaving the other modes undisturbed, and allowing a new signal to be retransmitted on that mode. Selective coupling of higher-order modes from a few-mode optical fiber can be realized by increasing the coupling length difference of the modes in the fiber using the multi-core configuration. Low cross-talk and wide bandwidth operation are realized owing to the fact that only one mode can be effectively coupled. © 2014 Optical Society of America.


Cao H.,CAS Ningbo Institute of Material Technology and Engineering | Cao H.,Ningbo University | Zhou X.,CAS Ningbo Institute of Material Technology and Engineering | Qin Z.,CAS Ningbo Institute of Material Technology and Engineering | Liu Z.,CAS Ningbo Institute of Material Technology and Engineering
Carbon | Year: 2013

A simple method to prepare nitrogen-doped graphene (NG) by a pressure-promoted process at relatively low temperatures is demonstrated. The NG with an atomic N content higher than 10% can be obtained by heating graphene oxide and NH4HCO3 in a sealed autoclave at a temperature as low as 150 °C. The product exhibits a specific capacitance of 170 F g-1 at 0.5 A g-1 in 5 M KOH, and a high retention rate of 96.4% of its initial capacitance after 10,000 charge/discharge cycles at a current density of 10 A g-1. Such an easy, cost-effective and low-temperature doping process will be promising for preparing devices based on NG. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Zhou F.,Ningbo University | Luo Q.,Ningbo University | Wang L.,Ningbo University | Han L.,Ningbo University
European Journal of Cardio-thoracic Surgery | Year: 2016

Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) has been identified as one of the most sensitive and specific biomarkers for predicting cardiac surgery-associated acute kidney injury (CSA-AKI); however, variable performance characteristics have been reported. We therefore performed a diagnostic meta-analysis to investigate the diagnostic accuracy of NGAL in early (within 12 h postoperatively) diagnosis of CSA-AKI using established guidelines. The search was carried out electronically with Medline (through PubMed interface), Embase, Cochrane library, ISI Web of Science, Scopus and ClinicalTrials.gov (up to 5 September 2014), and hand-searching was also done. Two reviewers conducted study inclusion, data extractions and quality assessment of the studies independently. The diagnostic capacity of NGAL for CSA-AKI was assessed using pooled sensitivity and specificity, diagnostic odds ratio (DOR), area under the summary receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). Meta-Disc 1.4 and STATA 12.0 were used to investigate the source of heterogeneity and to perform the meta-analysis. Twenty-four studies (33 data sets of 4066 patients) were considered, which were all of good methodological quality. The overall pooled sensitivity of NGAL for the diagnosis of AKI was 0.68 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.65-0.70], and specificity was 0.79 (95% CI, 0.77-0.80). The overall pooled positive likelihood ratio and negative likelihood ratio were 3.98 (95% CI, 3.05-5.20) and 0.33 (95% CI, 0.24-0.45), respectively, with a DOR of 13.05 (95% CI, 7.85-21.70). The receiver operating characteristic analysis showed an AUC [standard error (SE)] of 0.86 (0.02) and with a Q*-value (SE) of 0.79 (0.02). Subgroup analysis showed that NGAL had better predictive ability in neonates/children compared with adults (DOR, 19.37; AUC, 0.89 vs DOR, 8.98; AUC, 0.83), and adults without pre-existing renal insufficiency (PRI) had higher diagnostic value than adults without PRI to predict CSA-AKI (DOR, 15.43; AUC, 0.87 vs DOR, 6.56; AUC, 0.81). Both plasma/serum and urine NGAL had the highly predictive nature for early diagnosis of CSA-AKI (DOR, 13.09; AUC, 0.85 vs DOR, 13.20; AUC, 0.88), while lower DOR and AUC values were shown (DOR, 8.31; AUC, 0.81) when measured using standardized clinical platforms, compared with research-based assays (DOR, 19.22; AUC, 0.89). I2-values showed substantial heterogeneity, which mainly stems from characteristics of patient population (P = 0.037). NGAL diagnostic accuracy in early detection of CSA-AKI is high, especially in neonates/children or adults with normal baseline renal function. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.


Fan H.-Y.,Ningbo University | Wang Z.,Changzhou Institute of Technology
Chinese Physics B | Year: 2014

For directly normalizing the photon non-Gaussian states (e.g., photon added and subtracted squeezed states), we use the method of integration within an ordered product (IWOP) of operators to derive some new bosonic operator-ordering identities. We also derive some new integration transformation formulas about one- and two-variable Hermite polynomials in complex function space. These operator identities and associative integration formulas provide much convenience for constructing non-Gaussian states in quantum engineering. © 2014 Chinese Physical Society and IOP Publishing Ltd.


Zhu R.,Concordia University at Montréal | Zhang X.,Concordia University at Montréal | Zhang X.,Yunnan University | Hraimel B.,Concordia University at Montréal | And 2 more authors.
IEEE Photonics Technology Letters | Year: 2013

A low-cost broadband analog predistortion circuit (PDC) is designed and experimentally verified in a radio over fiber (RoF) system. A miniature hybrid microwave integrated circuit technique is used to reduce the size and parasitics of PDC. Only two zero bias GaAs beam lead detector diodes and capacitors are used in the PDC. The diodes can be biased at {<}{\rm 3}~{\rm mA} due to zero bias characteristic so that power consumption is reduced. No broadband matching network is required because of high series resistance of the zero bias diodes. The linearization performance is evaluated using an RoF system without and with the PDC. It is shown that the PDC improves the input 1-dB compression power by 0.4-2.2 dB from 7 to 18 GHz; and spurious free dynamic ranges are improved by {\sim}{\rm 10}~{\rm dB} from 7 to 14 GHz and {\sim}{\rm 6}~{\rm dB} from 15 to 18 GHz, limited by fifth order nonlinear distortion. © 2013 IEEE.


Geng Y.,Shenzhen University | Li X.,Shenzhen University | Tan X.,Ningbo University | Deng Y.,Shenzhen University | Yu Y.,Shenzhen University
Optics Express | Year: 2011

In this paper, core-cladding modal beating in a short piece of all-solid photonic bandgap fiber (AS-PBF) is observed in longitudinal propagation direction. It is demonstrated that at the stopband range of AS-PBF, the power could transfer back and forth between the fiber core and the first layer of high-index rods. Both experimental results and the theoretical analysis from transverse coupled mode theory confirm that the 3-dB width of the sharp stopband could be significantly narrowed by multicycles of such core-cladding modal couplings, which is of great benefit to the high-resolution sensing applications. Based on such a guiding regime, a high-temperature sensor head is also made and its response to temperature is tested to be of 59.9 pm/°C. © 2011 Optical Society of America.