Ningbo Technology Extension Center for Forestry and Specialty Forest Products

Ningbo, China

Ningbo Technology Extension Center for Forestry and Specialty Forest Products

Ningbo, China
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Yang T.H.,East China Normal University | Yang T.H.,Ningbo Academy of Agricultural Science | Song K.,East China Normal University | Da L.J.,East China Normal University | And 2 more authors.
Science China Life Sciences | Year: 2010

The biomass and productivity of Schima superba-Castanopsis carlesii forests in Tiantong, Zhejiang Province, were determined using overlapping quadrants and stem analyses. The total community biomass was (225.3±30.1) t hm-2, of which the aboveground parts accounted for 72.0% and the underground parts accounted for 28.0%. About 87.2% of biomass existed in the tree layer. The resprouting biomass was small, of which over 95.0% occurred in the shrub layer. The productivity of the aboveground parts of the community was (386.8±98.9) g m-2a-1, in which more than 96.0% was present at the tree level. The trunk's contribution to productivity was the greatest, while that of leaves was the smallest. In China, the community biomass of subtropical evergreen broadleaved forests differs significantly with the age of the forest. The community biomass of the 52-year-old S. superba-C. carlesii forests in this study was lower than the average biomass of subtropical evergreen broadleaved forests in China, and was lower than the biomass of other subtropical evergreen broadleaved forests elsewhere in the world. Moreover, its productivity was lower than the model estimate, indicating that without disturbance, this community has great developmental potential in terms of community biomass and productivity. © 2010 Science China Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Li X.P.,Ningbo Technology Extension Center for Forestry and Specialty Forest Products | Yang X.D.,East China Normal University | Yang X.D.,Chinese National Ecosystem Observation and Research Network | Yu S.Q.,Zhejiang Agriculture And forestry University | And 3 more authors.
Shengtai Xuebao/ Acta Ecologica Sinica | Year: 2013

Functional trait-based approach is convenient for evaluating plant fireprofing capability, and is also vital for selecting fireprofing plant speices. In the present study, five plant functional traits, including specific leaf area (SLA), leaf dry matter content (LDMC), current year leaf water content (CYLWC), branch dry matter content (BDMC) and bark thickness (BT), and seven indices of fireproofing capability in fresh leaf materials were measured for 29 evergreen broad- leaved plants in Ningbo. Seven indices of fireproofing capability were grouped into two factors involving burning resistence (fa) (including burning resistence factor f1 and burning velocity factor f2) and combustibility (fb), and then related to each of five plant functional traits. Finally, the fireproofing capability was assessed. The results showed: 1) burning resistence factor f1 was significantly correlated with SLA and BT, burning velocity factor f2 was significantly correlated with BDMC, BT and CYLWC, burning resistence factor fa was significantly correlated with SLA, and combustibility factor fb was significantly correlated with LDMC, SLA and CYLWC. 2) SLA and LDMC were effective indices indicating fa and fb, as functional traits being simplified by partial correlation. 3) Similarity index was 0.8 for plants' fireprofing rank between trait\ based and burning experiment \ based assessments. In conclusion, easily measurable plant functional traits are useful approach to surrogate and to assess plant fireprofing and combustibility.

Chesters D.,CAS Institute of Zoology | Wang Y.,CAS Institute of Zoology | Wang Y.,Northeast Forestry University | Yu F.,CAS Institute of Zoology | And 6 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

Integrated taxonomy uses evidence from a number of different character types to delimit species and other natural groupings. While this approach has been advocated recently, and should be of particular utility in the case of diminutive insect parasitoids, there are relatively few examples of its application in these taxa. Here, we use an integrated framework to delimit independent lineages in Encyrtus sasakii (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea: Encyrtidae), a parasitoid morphospecies previously considered a host generalist. Sequence variation at the DNA barcode (cytochrome c oxidase I, COI) and nuclear 28S rDNA loci were compared to morphometric recordings and mating compatibility tests, among samples of this species complex collected from its four scale insect hosts, covering a broad geographic range of northern and central China. Our results reveal that Encyrtus sasakii comprises three lineages that, while sharing a similar morphology, are highly divergent at the molecular level. At the barcode locus, the median K2P molecular distance between individuals from three primary populations was found to be 11.3%, well outside the divergence usually observed between Chalcidoidea conspecifics (0.5%). Corroborative evidence that the genetic lineages represent independent species was found from mating tests, where compatibility was observed only within populations, and morphometric analysis, which found that despite apparent morphological homogeneity, populations clustered according to forewing shape. The independent lineages defined by the integrated analysis correspond to the three scale insect hosts, suggesting the presence of host specific cryptic species. The finding of hidden host specificity in this species complex demonstrates the critical role that DNA barcoding will increasingly play in revealing hidden biodiversity in taxa that present difficulties for traditional taxonomic approaches. © 2012 Chesters et al.

Deng J.,Beijing Forestry University | Deng J.,CAS Institute of Zoology | Yu F.,CAS Institute of Zoology | Zhang T.-X.,Ningbo Technology Extension Center for Forestry and Specialty Forest Products | And 4 more authors.
Molecular Ecology Resources | Year: 2012

Ceroplastes Gray (wax scales) is one of the genera of Coccidae, most species of which are considered to be serious economic pests. However, identification of Ceroplastes species is always difficult owing to the shortage of easily distinguishable morphological characters. Mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) sequences (or DNA barcodes) and the D2 expansion segments of the large subunit ribosomal RNA gene 28S were used for accurate identification of six Ceroplastes species (C. floridensis Comstock, C. japonicus Green, C. ceriferus (Fabricius), C. pseudoceriferus Green, C. rubens Maskell and C. kunmingensis Tang et Xie) from 20 different locations in China. For COI data, low G·C content was found in all species, averaging about 20.4%. Sequence divergences (K2P) between congeneric species averaged 12.19%, while intra-specific divergences averaged 0.42%. All 112 samples fell into six reciprocally monophyletic clades in the COI neighbour-joining (NJ) tree. The NJ tree inferred from 28S showed almost same results, but samples of two closely related species, C. ceriferus and C. pseudoceriferus, were clustered together. This research indicates that the standard barcode region of COI can efficiently identify similar Ceroplastes species. This study provides an example of the usefulness of barcoding for Ceroplastes identification. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Zhang Y.-Z.,CAS Institute of Zoology | Si S.-L.,Chinese Academy of Sciences | Zheng J.-T.,Ningbo Technology Extension Center for Forestry and Specialty Forest Products | Li H.-L.,Chinese Academy of Sciences | And 4 more authors.
Biological Control | Year: 2011

The genus Anicetus includes economically important biocontrol agents that are introduced for control of soft and wax scale insect agricultural pests (Ceroplastes spp.). Understanding of host-parasitoid associations is critical to the successful outcome of their utilization in biological control projects. However, identification of these parasitoids is often difficult because of their small size and generally similar morphological features, and hence, studies on the host-parasitoid associations. Here, nucleotide sequence data were generated from the mitochondrial COI gene and the D2 region of 28S rRNA to assess genetic variation within and between species of Anicetus occurring in China. The results of this study support the use of the COI and the D2 region of 28S rRNA gene as useful markers in separating species of Anicetus, even in cases where morphological differences are subtle. On the other hand, the COI gene is also useful in recognizing species with much variation in morphology. DNA barcoding reveals high levels of host specificity of endoparasitoids wasps in the genus Anicetus. Our results indicate that each Anicetus species is adapted to a limited set of host species, or even are monospecific in their host choice. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.

Cao F.,Zhejiang University | Wu D.,Zhejiang University | Zheng J.-T.,Ningbo Technology Extension Center for Forestry and Specialty Forest Products | Bao Y.-D.,Zhejiang University | And 2 more authors.
Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi/Spectroscopy and Spectral Analysis | Year: 2011

A new approach to detect the injury degree and time of pear based on visible-near infrared spectroscopy and multispectral image has been proposed. Firstly, visible-near infrared spectroscopy combined with partial least squares (PLS) and least squares-support vector machine (LS-SVM) was used for pear injury degree and time prediction. The result indicated that these two methods both have good performances in predicting pear injury degree in the late period. The LS-SVM method is more accurate in predicting the injury time of light pear injury, but its overall result of injury time prediction is not as good as that for the PLS method. Then, the multispectral image was used to predict the time of pear injury. The result shows that for different degrees of pear injury, the prediction models based on LS-SVM have a better performance with correlation coefficients around 0.85. The result of this study can be used to detect the injury degree and time of pear rapidly and non-destructively, and provide a new approach to pear classification.

Hu H.-Y.,Anhui Normal University | Chen Z.-Z.,Anhui Normal University | Duan B.-S.,Anhui Normal University | Zheng J.-T.,Ningbo Technology Extension Center for Forestry and Specialty Forest Products | Zhang T.-X.,Ningbo Technology Extension Center for Forestry and Specialty Forest Products
Revista Brasileira de Entomologia | Year: 2012

Theories predict that females of parasitoid wasps would adjust the offspring sex ratio to environmental conditions in the oviposition patch, but the diet and age of females would also affect the sex ratio adjustment. Our focus was to test the effects of female diet and age on offspring sex ratio of the solitary parasitoid wasp, Pachycrepoideus vindemmiae (Rondani, 1875). Our results showed that females fed with honey had significantly less female biased offspring sex ratio than those fed only with water. Offspring sex ratio (male percentage) decreased with female age or female longevity at the beginning of oviposition but increased at the end. There should be a sperm limitation in P. vindemmiae females at the end of oviposition, and a higher frequency of unfertilized eggs were laid then. Females also laid more unfertilized eggs at the beginning of oviposition, which would be necessary to insure the mating among offspring. Male offspring developed faster and emerged earlier, which would also reduce the risk of virginity in offspring with female-biased sex ratio.

Liu M.H.,Zhejiang Agriculture And forestry University | Yi L.T.,Zhejiang Agriculture And forestry University | Yu S.Q.,Zhejiang Agriculture And forestry University | Zhou G.M.,Zhejiang Agriculture And forestry University | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Tropical Forest Science | Year: 2013

In subtropical evergreen forest in East China, forest fres cause huge economic losses. Flammability of fresh leaves can play an important role in determining fre spread. Therefore, a study on the infuence of fre on evergreen trees is of great importance to investigate the ecological properties of forest fre and protection of tree species. The combustibility of fresh leaves of 26 dominant evergreen plant species in East China were compared and suitable species for use as fre-resistant tree species were recommended. Using the cone calorimeter, variations of 12 burning parameters through time were described. The principal components affecting combustibility of fresh leaves were smoke, heat and time. Most burning characteristics were correlated with heat. Based on thermal-calorimetry analysis and smoke spread test data, 17 species were slow combustible species, with relatively longer ignition delay time, lower heat release rates and peak of heat release rate, longer time to peak of heat release rate, less total heat release and higher smoke production. All results indicate that species which have higher release of total smoke will have lower heat release rate. Thus, less fammable species are recommended to be used as fre-resistant tree species and in the construction of renewed forest.

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