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Yin R.,Southern Medical University | Lu C.,Liuzhou Traditional Chinese Medicine Hospital | Chen Q.,Ningbo Beilun People Hospital | Fan J.,Southern Medical University | Lu J.,First Affiliated Hospital of General Hospital of PLA
International Journal of Medical Sciences

Objective: To investigate whether microvascular damage is involved in the pathogenesis of heroin induced spongiform leukoencephalopathy (HSLE). Methods: The brain tissues were collected from 4 HSLE patients and 5 controls and then fixed in 4% paraformaldehyde. The frontal lobe, corpus callosum and cerebellum were separated. The expressions of myelin base protein (MBP) and CD34 were detected by immunohistochemistry. TUNEL staining was applied to detect cell apoptosis. The correlation between microvascular changes and pathological vacuoles was evaluated. Results: No obvious abnormalities were found in the brain of controls. Immunohistochemistry for MBP showed the collapse and fracture of myelin sheath and vacuole formation in the subcortical white matter, corpus callosum, and cerebellar white matter of HSLE patients. TUNEL staining showed the number of apoptotic cells in the cerebellar white matter and corpus callosum of HSLE patients was significantly higher than that in controls (F=389.451, P<0.001). Masson's trichrome staining revealed vacuolar degeneration in the cerebral white matter of HSLE patients, and the vacuoles were distributed around the microvessels. Immunohistochemistry revealed CD34 positive cells were seldom found besides the vessels in the cerebellar white matter and corpus callosum of HSLE patients, but a variety of CD34 positive cells was found in the vascular wall of controls (F=838.500, P<0.001). Conclusion: Apoptosis of oligodendrocytes may be related to the HSLE. Cerebral vascular injury and microcirculation dysfunction are involved in the pathogenesis of HSLE. The interrelation between apoptosis of oligodendrocytes and the microvascular damage are required to be studied in future investigations. © Ivyspring International Publisher. Source

Guo J.,Ningbo Beilun People Hospital | Li Y.,Central Laboratory | He Z.,Ningbo Beilun People Hospital | Zhang B.,Ningbo Beilun People Hospital | And 7 more authors.
International Journal of Molecular Medicine

After spinal cord injury (SCI), the disruption of blood-spinal cord barrier by activation of the endothelin (ET) system is a critical event leading to leukocyte infiltration, inflammatory response and oxidative stress, contributing to neurological disability. In the present study, we showed that blockade of ET receptor A (ETAR) and/or ET receptor B (ETBR) prevented early inflammatory responses directly via the inhibition of neutrophil and monocyte diapedesis and inflammatory mediator production following traumatic SCI in mice. Long-term neurological improvement, based on a series of tests of locomotor performance, occurred only in the spinal cord-injured mice following blockade of ETAR and ETBR. We also examined the post-traumatic changes of the microenvironment within the injured spinal cord of mice following blockade of ET receptors. Oxidative stress reflects an imbalance between malondialdehyde and superoxide dismutase in spinal cord-injured mice treated with vehicle, whereas blockade of ETAR and ETBR reversed the oxidation state imbalance. In addition, hemeoxygenase-1, a protective protease involved in early SCI, was increased in spinal cord-injured mice following the blockade of ETAR and ETBR, or only ETBR. Matrix metalloproteinase-9, a tissue-destructive protease involved in early damage, was decreased in the injured spinal cord of mice following blockade of ETAR, ETBR or a combination thereof. The findings of the present study therefore suggested an association between ETAR and ETBR in regulating early pathogenesis of SCI and determining the outcomes of long-term neurological recovery. Source

Guo J.,Ningbo Beilun People Hospital | Li Y.,Central Laboratory | Chen Z.,Ningbo Beilun People Hospital | Chen Z.,Zhejiang University | And 6 more authors.
Molecular Medicine Reports

Following spinal cord trauma, mitochondrial dysfunction associated with increased oxidative stress is a critical event leading to leukocyte inflammatory responses, neuronal cell death and demyelination, contributing to permanent locomotor and neurological disability. The present study demonstrated that the mitochondrial enhancer N-acetylcysteine (NAC) may restore redox balance via enhancement of mitochondrial respiratory activity following traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI). In addition, NAC ameliorates oxidative stress-induced neuronal loss, demyelination, leukocyte infiltration and inflammatory mediator expression and improves long-term locomotor function. Furthermore, neuronal survival and neurological recovery are significantly correlated with increased mitochondrial bioenergetics in SCI following treatment with NAC. Therefore, NAC may represent a potential therapeutic agent for preserving mitochondrial dynamics and integrity following traumatic SCI. Source

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