Singh S.,NIMS University
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine | Year: 2012
Objective: To characterize thermal property of natural gums obtained from the seeds of Diospyros melonoxylon (D. melonoxylon) Roxb, Buchanania lanzan (B. lanzan) spreng and Manilkara zapota (M. zapota) (Linn.) P. Royen syn. Methods: Natural gums were thermally characterized using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), differential thermal analysis (DTA) and thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA) under nitrogen atmosphere. Major thermal transitions as well as activation energies of the major decomposition stages were determined. Elemental analysis was performed in order to determine the composition of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen and sulfur. Results: DSC traces indicated a major intense exothermic transition (around 200 °C) followed by weaker exotherm(s). Thermogravimetric analysis showed two phase of weight loss. The first phase has minor weight loss in samples is attributed to the loss of adsorbed and structural water of biopolymers or due to desorption of moisture as hydrogen bound water to the saccharide structure. The second weight loss event may be attributed to the polysaccharide decomposition. The initial decomposition temperature (IDT) was calculated from thermograms obtained of TGA, seed Polysaccharide of D. melonoxylon (IDT 221.21 °C), B. lanzan (IPDT 170.4 °C) and M. zapota (IPDT 178.6 °C) were obtained. According to the integral procedural decomposition temperature (IPDT) values calculated based on the TGA thermograms; D. melonoxylon (IPDT 563.3 °C), B. lanzan (IPDT 598.1 °C) and M. zapota (IPDT 600.6 °C) were obtained respectively. The elemental analysis study shows that the isolated natural Polysaccharides consist of certain percentage of carbon, nitrogen, sulphur and hydrogen in all the gums. Conclusions: The results of the present investigation reveal that the natural gums are thermally stable and these gums can be used as release modifiers in various dosage forms. © 2012 Asian Pacific Tropical Biomedical Magazine.
Azam F.,NIMS University |
Amer A.M.,Misurata University |
Rabulifa A.,Misurata University |
Elzwawi M.M.,Misurata University
Drug Design, Development and Therapy | Year: 2014
Ginger (Zingiber officinale), despite being a common dietary adjunct that contributes to the taste and flavor of foods, is well known to contain a number of potentially bioactive phytochemicals having valuable medicinal properties. Although recent studies have emphasized their benefits in Alzheimer’s disease, limited information is available on the possible mechanism by which it renders anti-Alzheimer activity. Therefore, the present study seeks to employ molecular docking studies to investigate the binding interactions between active ginger components and various anti-Alzheimer drug targets. Lamarckian genetic algorithm methodology was employed for docking of 12 ligands with 13 different target proteins using AutoDock 4.2 program. Docking protocol was validated by re-docking of all native co-crystallized ligands into their original binding cavities exhibiting a strong correlation coefficient value (r2=0.931) between experimentally reported and docking predicted activities. This value suggests that the approach could be a promising computational tool to aid optimization of lead compounds obtained from ginger. Analysis of binding energy, predicted inhibition constant, and hydrophobic/hydrophilic interactions of ligands with target receptors revealed acetylcholinesterase as most promising, while c-Jun N-terminal kinase was recognized as the least favorable anti-Alzheimer’s drug target. Common structural requirements include hydrogen bond donor/acceptor area, hydrophobic domain, carbon spacer, and distal hydrophobic domain flanked by hydrogen bond donor/acceptor moieties. In addition, drug-likeness score and molecular properties responsible for a good pharmacokinetic profile were calculated by Osiris property explorer and Molinspiration online toolkit, respectively. None of the compounds violated Lipinski’s rule of five, making them potentially promising drug candidates for the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease. © 2014 Azam et al.
Aher V.,NIMS University |
Wahi A.,Gyani Inder Singh Institute of Professional Studies
Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research | Year: 2011
Purpose: To investigate the immunomodulatory activity of the alcohol extract of Terminalia chebula Retz (Combretaceae) dried ripe fruits at the cellular level. Methods: For antioxidant study, the liver mitochondria were separated and used for the estimation of enzymes catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) - as well as lipid peroxidation (LPO) and reduced glutathione (GSH); Melatonin secretion was characterized using sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) while spleen lymphocyte proliferation assay was performed by measuring optical density at 570 nm using ELISA reader. The cytokines, namely, IL-2, IL-10 and TNF-α expression in spleen cells, were determined by real time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) Results: Terminalia chebula extract (100 mg/kg/p.o.) increased the level of liver mitochondrial enzymes CAT and SO) as well as GSH but decreased the level of LPO in the liver when compared to the vehicle, sheep red blood cells (SRBC) and cyclophosphamide-treated groups. Secretion of melatonin by pineal gland was enhanced by T. chebula treatment. The extract also increased spleen lymphocyte proliferation. Based on RT-PCR analysis, the expression of cytokines, viz, IL-2, IL-10 and TNF-α, was more in T. chebula-treated than in vehicle- and cyclophosphamide-treated groups. Conclusion: This study confirms the immunomodulatory activity of ripe T. chebula fruits as evidenced by increase in the concentration of antioxidant enzymes, GSH, T and B cells, the proliferation of which play important roles in immunity. This phenomenon also enhances the concentration of melatonin in pineal gland as well as the levels of cytokines, such as IL-2,IL-10 and TNF-α, which play important roles in immunity. © Pharmacotherapy Group.
Bansal V.K.,NIMS University |
Goel R.K.,Punjabi University
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine | Year: 2012
Objective: To systematically evaluate antiulcer potential of Acacia nilotica in different ulcer models in rats. Methods: Different extracts [ethanolic, 50% hydroethanolic (50:50), 70% hydroethanolic (70:30) and aqueous] of young seedless pods were examined in pylorus ligation induced gastric ulcers in rats. Various parameters like, volume of gastric acid secretion, pH, free acidity, total acidity, ulcer index, mucin content and antioxidant studies were determined and were compared between extract treated, standard and vehicle control following ulcer induction. The most active extract was also evaluated in swimming stress induced and NSAID induced gastric ulceration. Results: Among different extracts of young seedless pods only hydroethanolic extracts showed significant antiulcer activity in pyloric ligation induced ulceration. Even more the 70% hydroethanolic extract showed better protection as compared to 50% hydroethanolic extract. Further 70 % hydroethanolic extract also showed significant mucoprotection in swimming stress induced and nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs induced gastric ulceration. Conclusion: The results of present study concluded that the hydroethanolic extract of young seedless pods of Acacia nilotica has antiulcer activity in pylorus ligation, swimming stress and NSAID induced rat ulcer models. The extract containing more amount of phenolic components show high antiulcer activity, indicating the phenolic component of the extract to be responsible for the activity of the extracts. © 2012 Hainan Medical College.
Tomar B.S.,NIMS University
Indian Journal of Pediatrics | Year: 2014
Intolerance to foods which contain lactose can cause a range of intestinal and systemic symptoms. These symptoms are caused by Lactase deficiency which is encoded by a single gene (LCT) of ≈ 50 kb located on chromosome 2q21. In some food items, lactose has been missed because of "hidden" lactose due to inadequately labeled, confusing diagnosis of lactose intolerance based on dietary restriction of dairy foods. Two polymorphisms, C/T13910 and G/A22018, linked to hypolactasia, correlate with breath hydrogen and symptoms after lactose. The key in the management of lactose intolerance is the dietary removal of lactose. Patients diagnosed as lactose intolerant must be advised of "risk" foods, inadequately labeled, including processed meats, bread, cake mixes, soft drinks, and lagers. This review highlights the types, symptoms and management of lactose intolerance and also highlights differences from milk allergy which closely mimics the symptoms of lactose intolerance. © 2014 Dr. K C Chaudhuri Foundation.
Khanna R.,NIMS University
Indian Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine | Year: 2013
Background: Stress is one of the most common problems; one manifestation of stress is burnout. Burnout and other stress-related illnesses among medical professionals are receiving increased attention and have been described in many branches of medical practice including dentists, nurses, etc., The purpose of this study was to measure the prevalence of stress and burnout in medical professionals in Rajasthan. Materials and Methods: The Maslach Burnout Inventory-Human Service Survey (MBI-HSS) and a demographic questionnaire of our own design were sent to 1,735 medical professional of various branches and different location throughout the state of Rajasthan. In response to that, 627 (36%) surveys were returned, of which 576 (92%) were found complete for analysis so later group constitute as sample for analysis. Result: 29.16% of medical professional showed high level of emotional exhaustion (EE), 20% showed high level of depersonalization (DP), and 17.9% showed low personal accomplishment (PA). Young professionals showed more sensitivity towards burnout (r =-0.122, P < 0.003). Females were more prone to burnout (40%) as compared to males (27%). Conclusion: Burnout is an important problem in medical professionals in Rajasthan. Difference in approach to work and perceived environment at workplace, unrewarding career, unsupported behavior of peer group, balance between work and family needs appear to be important factors in burnout.
Panchal S.L.,NIMS University
International Journal of Pharma and Bio Sciences | Year: 2011
600 patients of pulmonary TB were studied using Beck depressive inventory. Depression was observed in 82% in females. It was observed more among elderly age group (45-55) person and females, business class patients, Middle (Education), Married and those who have low income. No difference was observed with martial and religion. The severity of depression was related to the duration of illness, severity of disease and response to chemotherapy. Depression was present in 82% in females and 52.6% in male of freshly diagnosed patients. It decreased to 69.8% in those who responded favorably to, chemotherapy but those with persistently positive sputum had a significantly high percentage 64%.
Gupta P.R.,NIMS University
Lung India | Year: 2014
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a debilitating lung disease of unknown etiology. Its pathogenesis remains poorly elucidated but aberrant wound healing is central to its pathology. It has a median survival time of 3 to 5 years. None of the treatment modality or drugs tried in its management has so far changed the overall outcome. Recent in vitro and experimental studies have shown that ambroxol hydrochloride exerts several newer actions, namely the surfactant stimulatory, anti-imflammatory and anti-oxidant actions, in addition to its being a secrrtolytic and mucokinetic agent. The anti inflammatory and anti-fibrotic properties of the drug are due to its ability to block the release of oxidant stress markers, cytokines, leukotrienes, MPO activity, hydroxyproline content, nitic oxide and/or collagen I & III mRNA in the local milieu while preserving the SOD and GSH-PX activities. In human studies also, the agent was able to block the expression of TGF-beta and TNF-alpha in plasma and preserving the carbon monoxide diffusion capacity of the lungs in lung cancer patients on radiation therapy. Thus, ambroxol may have the potential to check the dysregulated healing process that is typical of IPF. This, coupled with its safety profile for human use, warrants clinical trials of the drug in the management of IPF.
Kumar K.,NIMS University |
Rai A.K.,Pranveer Singh Institute of Technology
Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research | Year: 2011
Purpose: To develop a proniosomal carrier system of curcumin for transdermal delivery. Methods: Proniosomes of curcumin were prepared by encapsulation of the drug in a mixture of Span 80, cholesterol and diethyl ether by ether injection method, and then investigated as a transdermal drug delivery system (TDDS). The formulated systems were characterized for size, drug entrapment, angle of repose, hydration rate and vesicular stability under various storage conditions. In vitro release studies were performed using albino rat skin. Results: The method used for preparing proniosome resulted in an encapsulation yield of 82.3 - 86.8%. Scanning electron microscopy analysis showed that the surface of the particles was smooth. Stability data following storage under different conditions showed that the drug content of the proniosomes varied from 99.5% under refrigerated condition to 99.2 and 93% at room and elevated temperatures, respectively. One of the formulations (PG1) showed prolonged in vitro drug release of 61.8% over a period of 24 h. Conclusion: It is evident from this study that proniosomes are very stable and promising prolonged delivery system for curcumin. © Pharmacotherapy Group.
Doni B.R.,NIMS University
Oral health and dental management | Year: 2013
To estimate the salivary immunoglobulin A (IgA) levels in tobacco chewers, tobacco smokers and normal subjects and to compare the salivary IgA levels among tobacco chewers and tobacco smokers. The study group consisted of 80 subjects (tobacco users), 40 tobacco chewers and 40 tobacco smokers. Unstimulated whole saliva was collected from all tobacco users and 40 healthy age- and gender-matched non-tobacco users as control group. The study and control groups were divided into four subgroups based on age range. Salivary IgA levels were estimated by single radial immunodiffusion assay (SRID). All data were analysed using statistical software and to compare the results in three groups, single-factor analysis of variance was applied. The mean salivary IgA level in control group was 16.76 ± 1.37 mg/dl (SD); in tobacco chewers it was 7.89 ± 0.61 mg/dl (SD) and in tobacco smokers it was 6.55 ± 0.99 mg/dl (SD). The salivary IgA levels were decreased in tobacco chewers and tobacco smokers compared with the controls. Among the tobacco users, tobacco smokers had much reduced salivary IgA levels compared to tobacco chewers. All of these results were highly significant (P<0.001). The present study showed that tobacco chewers and tobacco smokers had decreased salivary IgA levels and among tobacco users, tobacco smokers had much reduced salivary IgA levels compared to tobacco chewers in unstimulated whole saliva.