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Sati A.,L V Prasad Eye Institute | Sangwan V.S.,L V Prasad Eye Institute | Basu S.,L V Prasad Eye Institute | Kalaiselvan P.,NIMS
BMJ Case Reports

A 56-year-old man, presented with bilateral chronic visual loss associated with generalised skin lesions. He had undergone multiple penetrating keratoplasties in his right eye for recurrent corneal infections and perforations. On ocular examination, his left eye was phthisical and his right eye had light perception vision owing to a failed and vascularised corneal graft. Dermatological evaluation revealed multiple hyperpigmented and hypopigmented lesions along with thickening of skin on nose, scalp and dorsum of hands. Skin biopsy showed focal areas of deposition of faint periodic acid Schiff-positive diastase-resistant perivascular material. The high-performance liquid chromatography assessment revealed increased presence of porphyrins in blood and urine, thus confirming a diagnosis of porphyria cutanea tarda. The patient's vision in the right eye improved after undergoing Boston type 1 keratoprosthesis along with general photoprotective measures for the exposed parts of the body. Copyright 2013 BMJ Publishing Group. All rights reserved. Source

Ravindran V.,MES Medical College | Narsimulu G.,NIMS
Indian Journal of Rheumatology

The quality of published research is highly variable and it is critically important for the busy clinicians to be able to appraise published papers and make up their own mind about the evidence that is presented in the papers read. To be able to do this reader does not necessarily need to be an expert in research methodology or a statistician. We in this article present some basic information and a list of questions which when asked systematically would help the readers appraise a scientific paper. Copyright © 2012, Indian Rheumatology Association. All rights reserved. Source

Matsumoto R.,Tokyo Polytechnic University | Nakajima M.,Tokyo Polytechnic University | Takano Y.,NIMS | Mizuguchi Y.,Tokyo Metroplitan University | Akuzawa N.,Tokyo National College of Technology
Solid State Communications

The host graphite material of choice for most CaC 6 studies is highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG), which can affect the resulting properties of prepared graphite intercalation compounds (GICs). In order to gain a better understanding of the superconductivity of CaC 6, we examined CaC 6 prepared from Grafoil and PGS. To confirm their superconductivity, the dependences of the magnetic moment on temperature under a constant magnetic field were measured over 2-20 K. The resulting CaC 6 transitioned to a superconducting state at around 11 K, independent of purity and homogeneity, while slight differences that depended on the host materials were observed. The transition to a superconducting state at 11.5 K occurred provided that a small amount of CaC 6 was present. The co-existence of LiC 6 and other GICs, and the residualLi atomsin the CaC 6 had little effect on the transition temperature. The transition temperature of the CaC 6 prepared from PGS was slightly lower than that of the CaC 6 prepared from HOPG and Grafoil. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Sharma M.K.,Jhalawar Medical College | Sharma H.,Jhalawar Medical College | Bapna N.,NIMS
Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research

Objectives: In India, especially in Rajasthan, people drink water which contains high level of nitrates and the possibility of finding concentrations of up to 500 mg of nitrate ions per litre of water is not unusual. Excessive use of nitrate fertilisers and herbicides results in accumulation of nitrate in plants and methemoglobinaemia in cattle as consequences of nitrate poisoning. The ingested nitrate is converted to nitrite in the digestive system and it is absorbed in blood, thus causing methemoglobinaemia. Methaemoglobinaemia is not restricted to infants alone, but it is prevalent in higher age groups also. Methods: Therefore, an experimental study was conducted on 10 rabbits which were between three and a half months to four months of age, which had weights which ranged from 1.310 kg to 1.720 kg. Five groups A, B, C,D and E were formed, with two rabbits in each group. The control Group A was given water orally, which had 45 mg/litres of nitrate. Groups B to E (experimental groups) were administered water orally, which had concentrations of 100mg/litre, 200mg/litre, 400mg/litre and 500mg/litre of nitrate respectively, for 120 days. During experimental period, the differences in general behaviour of rabbits were noted. After this, rabbits were anaesthetised and sacrificed according to guidelines of ICMR and their livers were removed and processed for making paraffin sections,. Hematoxyllin and eosin staining was done for microscopic observations. Results: During experimental period, the animals were found to be lethargic on 75th day. Quantity of intake of food and water was not altered in the rabbits which were undergoing experiments in different groups. Rabbits of all groups i.e. A to E showed a continuous increase in heart rate (up to 218/minute in Group E) and respiration rate (up to 84/minute in Group E) respectively. The microscopic study showed mild necrosis of hepatocytes, with infiltration of inflammatory cells in between hepatocytes. In higher groups, the liver showed bridging necrosis and portal triditis. Dilatations of central vein with eosinophilic degeneration were observed in Group E only. Source

Kumar A.,P.A. College | Kapoor S.,P.A. College | Gupta R.C.,NIMS
Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research

Background: Proteinuria has been recognized as one of the earliest signs of renal function deterioration in Diabetes mellitus. Proteinuria occurs due to alterations in the glomerular permeability and later, due to a failure in the reabsorption of filtered protein by the tubular cells. Normally, most of the healthy adults excrete 20-150 mg of protein in urine over 24 hours. Objectives: To find out the normal urinary Protein Creatinine Index (PCI) in healthy subjects, to compare the urinary PCI of diabetic patients with that of healthy subjects and to compare the urinary PCI with dipsticks for the detection of microproteinuria. Material and Methods: This study was conducted on 28 type 2 Diabetes mellitus patients and 40 age and sex matched healthy controls. Freshly collected urine samples were tested qualitatively for the presence of proteinuria by Heller's test, the sulfosalicylic acid test, heat-coagulation tests and urine dipsticks. Later on, the results were compared by performing a quantitative analysis of the protein in the spot urine samples by the sulfosalicylic acid method. A quantitative analysis of creatinine was done by the modified Jaffe's test. The PCI was calculated for each of the participant in the study. The Mean and Standard Deviation (SD) of the PCI was calculated and it was compared between the two groups. Results: The normal range of the PCI which was established in this study was 60 to 220. Significantly higher amount of proteins were found to be excreted in urine in diabetic patients (25.37 ± 12.51 mg/dl) as compared to those in normal subjects (8.93 ± 3.54 mg/dl). On comparison of the PCI between the controls and the diabetic subjects, it was found to be significantly elevated in the Diabetes mellitus patients (controls = 114.65 ±47.97 and in the diabetic patients =373.04 ± 98.53) (p < 0.001). Conclusion: The PCI of a random urine sample can provide a very useful, simple and convenient method for the quantitative assessment of proteinuria, to judge the extent of kidney damage and for avoiding the drawbacks of the 24 - hr urine collections. Source

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