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Bangalore, India

Finsterer J.,Krankenanstalt Rudolfstiftung | Kothari S.,NIMHANS
International Journal of Cardiology | Year: 2014

Objectives One of the most frequently affected organs in mitochondrial disorders (MIDs), defined as hereditary diseases due to affection of the mitochondrial energy metabolism, is the heart. Cardiac involvement (CI) in MIDs has therapeutic and prognostic implications. This review aims at summarizing and discussing the various cardiac manifestations in MIDs.Methods Data for this review were identified by searches of MEDLINE, Current Contents, and PubMed using appropriate search terms.Results CI in MIDs may be classified according to various different criteria. In the present review cardiac abnormalities in MIDs are discussed according to their frequency with which they occur. CI in MIDs includes cardiomyopathy, arrhythmias, heart failure, pulmonary hypertension, dilation of the aortic root, pericardial effusion, coronary heart disease, autonomous nervous system dysfunction, congenital heart defects, or sudden cardiac death. The most frequent among the cardiomyopathies is hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, followed by dilated cardiomyopathy, and noncompaction.Conclusions CI in MID is more variable and prevalent than previously thought. All tissues of the heart may be variably affected. The most frequently affected tissue is the myocardium. MIDs should be included in the differential diagnoses of cardiac disease. © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

Sunagar R.,Gulbarga University | Patil S.A.,NIMHANS | Chandrakanth R.K.,Gulbarga University
Research in Microbiology | Year: 2010

The protective effect of bacteriophage was assessed against experimental Staphylococcus aureus lethal bacteremia in streptozotocin (STZ) induced-diabetic and non-diabetic mice. Intraperitoneal administrations of S. aureus (RCS21) of 2 × 108 CFU caused lethal bacteremia in both diabetic and non-diabetic mice. A single administration of a newly isolated lytic phage strain (GRCS) significantly protected diabetic and non-diabetic mice from lethal bacteremia (survival rate 90% and 100% for diabetic and non-diabetic bacteremic groups versus 0% for saline-treated groups). Comparison of phage therapy to oxacillin treatment showed a significant decrease in RCS21 of 5 and 3 log units in diabetic and non-diabetic bacteremic mice, respectively. The same protection efficiency of phage GRCS was attained even when the treatment was delayed up to 4 h in both diabetic and non-diabetic bacteremic mice. Inoculation of mice with a high dose (1010 PFU) of phage GRCS alone produced no adverse effects attributable to the phage per se. These results suggest that phages could constitute valuable prophylaxis against S. aureus infections, especially in immunocompromised patients. © 2010 Institut Pasteur.

Venkataramana N.K.,Advanced Neuro Science Institute | Mukundan C.R.,NIMHANS
Journal of Pediatric Neurosciences | Year: 2011

Aim: The long term outcomes of congenital hydrocephalus are still not clearly known despite it being a common clinical condition. Several clinical, radiological factors were correlated to predict the functional outcomes. This study aimed to correlate the clinical, radiological parameters with the regional functional outcomes of the brain. Materials and Methods: Children with congenital hydrocephalus were divided into Group A with hydrocephalus alone and Group B hydrocephalus with spina bifida. Ventriculoperitoneal shunt surgery was performed by the same surgeon. CT scans and neuropsychological assessments were performed before and serially after the shunt. The clinical and the radiological findings were correlated with the developmental levels during the follow-up. Results: There were 25 children in Group A and 15 children in Group B; 72% in Group A and 93% in Group B were less than 6 months of age at the time of treatment. Forty percent in Group A and 92% in Group B had the signs of hydrocephalus at admission. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) diversion results in the reduction in ventricular dilatation and corresponding increase in the cortical mantle thickness. The ventricular size and the cortical mantle thickness were measured serially and correlated with the development in the neuropsychological function. In this study, 80% in Group B reached near normal development in comparison to 33% in Group A. We have noticed a significant correlation in the increase in the regional cortical mantle thickness with corresponding improvement in the functional development. This clearly ratifies the improvement in the frontal and parietal areas having their distinctive effect on the functional development of the child. Conclusion: Early CSF diversion and timely intervention seems to benefit functional recovery. It is interesting to note that reconstitution of cortical mantle in different areas of the brain showing corresponding improvement in their respective areas. Large ventricles (head circumference more than 50 cm) recurrent subdural collections and repeated shunt obstructions have a bad influence on the long-term outcome. Unlike the previous belief the children with myelomeningocele can have equal benefit in terms of neuropsychological development after the shunt surgery.

Panda S.,Interventional Radiology | Prashantha D.K.,Interventional Radiology | Ravi Shankar S.,NIMHANS | Nagaraja D.,Interventional Radiology
European Journal of Neurology | Year: 2010

Background: The diagnosis of cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) requires a high index of suspicion owing to the wide spectrum of clinical manifestations. Amongst the different presentations, radiological evidence of subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) often leads to diagnostic errors. Methods: Between March 2005 and December 2007, 233 patients with CVST were reviewed at our centre, and this report summarizes 10 cases that presented with SAH. The early clinico-radiological pointers towards a diagnosis of CVST are highlighted and previously published reports are reviewed. Results: The mean age at presentation was 33 years (range 25-50), and the median duration from onset of symptoms to admission was 5 days (range 2-15). In all cases, there was radiological evidence of SAH with or without associated parenchymal bleeding or other signs of CVST. SAH was usually localized, involving the sulci of the cerebral convexity and sparing the basal cisterns. Aetiologically, there were two cases with both hyperhomocysteinaemia and polycythaemia and one case each of antiphospholipid antibody (APLA) syndrome, post-partum state, oral contraceptive use and dehydration because of diarrhoea. Eight patients improved with anticoagulant therapy despite the presence of SAH. Conclusions: Localized SAH (whether focal, unilateral or bilateral), especially when confined to the parasagittal or dorsolateral convexity of the brain and without involvement of the basal cisterns, may provide an early pointer towards an underlying CVST. The presence of predisposing factors for CVST accords a further diagnostic hint. © 2010 EFNS.

Sathish Kumar S.V.,NIMHANS
Indian Journal of Public Health Research and Development | Year: 2016

Since the initiation of deinstitutionalization of patients suffering from mental illness, provision of easy access to health care facilities, community participation and rehabilitation of such patients has become practical challenge. Still now patients suffering from long term psychiatric illness lacks adequate care and opportunities which preventing them to become the part of mainstream of the society. Either they spend their life in long term psychiatric hospitals, rehabilitation centres or their life expectancy become shorter due to various adversities which they encounter. It is the high time to address difficulties in rehabilitation of long stay patients at various closed wards of psychiatry hospitals. © 2016, Indian Journal of Public Health Research and Development. All rights reserved.

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