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News Article | February 22, 2017
Site: www.prweb.com

Donis Flagello, President, CEO, and COO of Nikon Research Corporation of America (NRCA), will be presented with the 2017 Frits Zernike Award for Microlithography on Monday 27 February during SPIE Advanced Lithography in San Jose, California. The award, presented annually for outstanding accomplishments in microlithography technology, recognizes Flagello’s driving role in the understanding and improvement of image formation in optical lithography for semiconductor manufacturing. A prominent member of the microlithography community since the early 1980s and a longtime SPIE Fellow, Flagello has primarily focused on the rigorous application of physics to lithography modeling and problem solving. His work improved understanding of the lithographic process through development of methods that took into account previously unaccounted-for physical effects, thereby enabling the printing of smaller geometries. Early in his career, while at IBM T.J. Watson Research Center, he developed the first practical test for measuring flare in optical lithography tools and made major contributions to high numerical aperture (NA) modeling of imaging tools, including vector and polarization effects, and radiometric correction. Later, at ASML in The Netherlands, he helped create a culture to complement data collection for characterizing and specifying lithographic tools. As director of ASML’s Advanced Technology Development Center in Arizona, his leadership resulted in advances in lithography capabilities for ASML tools, and played an important role in providing analysis of aberrations for new systems and high NA imaging effects due to polarization. Flagello’s contributions to the microlithography industry stand out as one of the key aspects of his career, said Timothy Brunner of GlobalFoundries, Inc. “His unusual career trajectory has made a large impact on the technical and the business success of the worldwide microlithography industry.” Another notable aspect of his career, Flagello’s presentations at lithography conferences and papers in various journals have inspired a better understanding of optics and resist behavior and helped drive optical lithography forward, colleagues said. “His presentations are known for their combination of humor with a deep understanding of the complex interactions between physical optics and lithographic process technology,” said David Williamson, an NRCA Fellow. “His combined theoretical and practical production experience and knowledge are rare in this field.” Both Brunner and Williamson are previous Frits Zernike Award winners as well as Fellows of SPIE. SPIE is the international society for optics and photonics, an educational not-for-profit organization founded in 1955 to advance light-based science, engineering, and technology. The Society serves nearly 264,000 constituents from approximately 166 countries, offering conferences and their published proceedings, continuing education, books, journals, and the SPIE Digital Library. In 2016, SPIE provided more than $4 million in support of education and outreach programs. http://www.spie.org


Sakamoto J.A.,University of Arizona | Sakamoto J.A.,Nikon Research Corporation of America | Barrett H.H.,University of Arizona
Optics Express | Year: 2012

A method for determining the pupil phase distribution of an optical system is demonstrated. Coefficients in a wavefront expansion were estimated using likelihood methods, where the data consisted of multiple irradiance patterns near focus. Proof-of-principle results were obtained in both simulation and experiment. Large-Aberration wavefronts were handled in the numerical study. Experimentally, we discuss the handling of nuisance parameters. Fisher information matrices, Crameér-Rao bounds, and likelihood surfaces are examined. ML estimates were obtained by simulated annealing to deal with numerous local extrema in the likelihood function. Rapid processing techniques were employed to reduce the computational time. © 2012 Optical Society of America.


Binnard M.,Nikon Research Corporation of America
Proceedings - ASPE 2016 Spring Topical Meeting: Precision Mechatronic System Design and Control | Year: 2016

Linear motors with exceptional performance are required to meet the demanding requirements of modern semiconductor lithography machines. This paper describes the design, analysis, simulation, and experimental verification of a novel linear motor capable of creating controlled forces in two orthogonal directions. Force ripple, coupling, and linearity are improved by applying compensation for motor imperfections caused by manufacturing variations and assembly tolerances.


Smith D.G.,Nikon Research Corporation of America
Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering | Year: 2012

Typical focus sensors in conventional integrated circuit lithographic equipment have long been known to exhibit errors due to the nature of patterns printed on the wafer1. One such error can be characterized as being derived from thin film effects where the derivative of the phase on reflection by the wafer introduces a shift in the beam that is basically identical to a shift that would be generated by a change in wafer height. In this paper we present a theoretical investigation into the nature and magnitude of the focus offset produced by this wafer effect under current typical process parameters. © 2012 SPIE.


Flagello D.G.,Nikon Research Corporation of America | Smith D.G.,Nikon Research Corporation of America
Advanced Optical Technologies | Year: 2012

Beginning with the seminal Dill papers of 1975, the aerial image has been essential for understanding the process of microlithography. From the aerial image, we can predict the performance of a given lithographic process in terms of depth of focus, exposure latitude, etc. As lithographic technologies improved, reaching smaller and smaller printed features, the sophistication of aerial image calculations has had to increase from simple incoherent imaging theory, to partial coherence, polarization effects, thin film effects at the resist, thick mask effects, and so on. This tutorial provides an overview and semihistorical development of the aerial image calculation and then provides a review of some of the various ways in which the aerial image is typically used to estimate the performance of the lithographic process. © 2012 THOSS Media & De Gruyter.


Smith D.G.,Nikon Research Corporation of America
Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering | Year: 2014

Illumination has been a critical factor to producing good imaging in microlithography since the beginning. Early lithographers used very simple illumination schemes, but as they improved their understanding of how the illumination influences image fidelity and resolution they moved into more complex partially coherent illumination conditions. Today, lithographers deploy many tricks with coherence and polarization that are tightly coupled with the patterns being imaged to help achieve seemingly impossible resolutions well below the classical definition. In this talk we review the progress of illumination engineering in microlithography up to the present. © 2014 SPIE.


Renwick S.P.,Nikon Research Corporation of America
Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering | Year: 2014

Directed self-assembly (DSA) of various polymers is a potential next-generation lithography component. Lithographers can use an ArF scanner to print guide structures with pitches accessible with current technology. The DSA materials, in a non-exposure step, perform pitch multiplication of 1-D and 2-D guide structures. While research has investigated defects inherent to the DSA material, ArF scanner effects have received little attention. This work uses DSA models and scanner models to assess requirements for ArF immersion scanners for DSA complementary lithography. © 2014 SPIE.


Sakamoto J.A.,Nikon Research Corporation of America
Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering | Year: 2015

Compensation of lens-heating effects during the exposure scan in an optical lithographic system requires knowledge of the heating profile in the pupil of the projection lens. A necessary component in the accurate estimation of this profile is the total integrated distribution of light, relying on the squared modulus of the Fourier transform (FT) of the photomask layout for individual process layers. Requiring a layout representation in pixelated image format, the most common approach is to compute the FT numerically via the fast Fourier transform (FFT). However, the file size for a standard 26- mm×33-mm mask with 5-nm pixels is an overwhelming 137 TB in single precision; the data importing process alone, prior to FFT computation, can render this method highly impractical. A more feasible solution is to handle layout data in a highly compact format with vertex locations of mask features (polygons), which correspond to elements in an integrated circuit, as well as pattern symmetries and repetitions (e.g., GDSII format). Provided the polygons can decompose into shapes for which analytical FT expressions are possible, the analytical approach dramatically reduces computation time and alleviates the burden of importing extensive mask data. Algorithms have been developed for importing and interpreting hierarchical layout data and computing the analytical FT on a graphics processing unit (GPU) for rapid parallel processing, not assuming incoherent imaging. Testing was performed on the active layer of a 392- μm×297-μm virtual chip test structure with 43 substructures distributed over six hierarchical levels. The factor of improvement in the analytical versus numerical approach for importing layout data, performing CPU-GPU memory transfers, and executing the FT on a single NVIDIA Tesla K20X GPU was 1.6×104, 4.9×103, and 3.8×103, respectively. Various ideas for algorithm enhancements will be discussed. © 2015 SPIE.


Tyminski J.K.,Nikon Research Corporation of America
Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering | Year: 2015

This report presents a model to predict, analyze, and monitor pattern edge placements errors occurring during integrated circuit manufacture. The edge placement errors are driven by overlay and imaging capabilities of scanners and pattering tools. The model can be used to analyze the impact of various imaging strategies on pattern placement statistics of layers composing ICs. Such analysis is essential to both, IC designers and lithography engineers, striving to successfully fabricate complex designs at economical manufacture yields. The report discusses key contributors to the image edge placement errors and presents examples of edge placement predictions based on scanner records. The edge placement error examples presented in this report are based on scanner overlay and CD uniformity performance for the current generation of integrated circuit designs. © 2015 SPIE.


Williamson D.M.,Nikon Research Corporation of America
Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering | Year: 2015

Zernike polynomial surface and wavefront descriptions have been used in the manufacture of projection optics for microlithography since the 1970’s. This is because the optical tolerances are so small that one cannot rely on trial-Anderror to achieve diffraction-limited wavefront correction. No manufactured optical surface can be considered to be spherical or even rotationally symmetrical; they have to be measured and systematically compensated. Over the last few decades of Moore’s Law there have been continuing decreases in wavefront tolerances and a consequent increase in sophistication of deterministic optical polishing and compensation strategies for residual surface and alignment errors. Optical designs have evolved from all-spherical to the inclusion of rotationally symmetric aspheric surfaces, more recently in the form of Forbes Q-Type polynomials, to Zernike polynomials that include bilaterally symmetric terms. These historical trends and their application to EUV projection optics are reviewed and illustrated with two recent optical designs. © COPYRIGHT SPIE. Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.

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