Takehisa T.,Niigata University of Pharmacy and Applied Life Sciences
Proceedings of the 30th Pacific Asia Conference on Language, Information and Computation, PACLIC 2016 | Year: 2016
It has been observed that the relation of possession contributes to the formation of socalled adversity causatives, whose subject is understood as a possessor of an object referent. This interpretation is reflected at face value in some studies, and it is assumed there that the subject argument is introduced as a possessor in syntax. This paper addresses the question of whether the observed relation should be directly encoded as such and argues that the subject argument is introduced as merely an event participant whose manner is underspecified. Moreover, it argues that the possessor interpretation arises from inference based on both linguistic and extralinguistic contexts, such as the presence of a possessum argument. This view is implemented as an analysis making use of a kind of applicative head (Pylkkanen, 2008) in conjunction with the postsyntactic inferential strategy (Rivero, 2004).
Yamaguchi T.,Niigata University of Pharmacy and Applied Life Sciences |
Hamamoto S.,Tohoku University |
Uozumi N.,Tohoku University
Frontiers in Plant Science | Year: 2013
Since sodium, Na, is a non-essential element for the plant growth, the molecular mechanism of Na+ transport system in plants has remained elusive for the last two decades. The accumulation of Na+ in soil through irrigation for sustainable agricultural crop production, particularly in arid land, and by changes in environmental and climate conditions leads to the buildup of toxic level of salts in the soil. Since the latter half of the twentieth century, extensive molecular research has identified several classes of Na+ transporters that play major roles in the alleviation of ionic stress by excluding toxic Na+ from the cytosol or preventing Na+ transport to the photosynthetic organs, and also in osmotic stress by modulating intra/extracellular osmotic balance. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge of three major Na+ transporters, namely NHX, SOS1, and HKT transporters, including recently revealed characteristics of these transporters. © 2013 Yamaguchi, Hamamoto and Uozumi.
Kaneka Corporation, Niigata University of Pharmacy and Applied Life Sciences | Date: 2016-12-21
Provided are methods for decomposing a polyhydroxyalkanoic acid using an anaerobic microbial community for decomposing a polyhydroxyalkanoic acid efficiently to convert the polyhydroxyalkanoic acid to a biogas including methane as a main component; and a microbial preparation usable as seed sludge for a methane fermentation process. The polyhydroxyalkanoic acid is subjected to decomposing treatment with a microbial community including a methane-producing archaeon in the following (A), and a bacterium in the following (B): (A) a methane-producing archaeon belonging to the genus Methanosarcina, or a single-rod-shaped hydrogen-utilizing methane-producing archaeon; and (B) a bacterium which is classified into any one of the phylum Acidobacteria, the phylum Bacteroidetes, the phylum Chloroflexi, the phylum Firmicutes, the phylum Nitrospirae, the phylum Proteobacteria, the phylum Synergistetes, the phylum Thermotogae and an unclassified phylum, and is capable of decomposing the polyhydroxyalkanoic acid.
Shigematsu T.,Niigata University of Pharmacy and Applied Life Sciences
Sub-Cellular Biochemistry | Year: 2015
Beside intensive studies on inactivation microorganisms by high hydrostatic pressure (HP) for food storage, pressure effects on property of food materials have also been studied based on knowledge in pressure effect on biomolecules. Pressure effects on biological membranes and mass transfer in cellular biological materials and on enzyme activity would give an idea that HP treatment can introduce two types of activations into food materials: improved mass transfer and enzyme activity. Studies focusing on these pressure activations on food materials were then reviewed. Rice flour with an exclusively fine mean particle size and small starch damage was obtained due to improved water absorption properties and/or enzyme activity by HP. HP treatment increased of free amino acids and ”-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in rice and soybeans due to improved proteolysis and amino acid metabolism. Improvement of antioxidant activity and alteration of polyphenolic-compounds composition in food materials were also demonstrated by HP treatment. The HP-induced activations on food materials could contribute towards processing technologies for food quality improvement. © Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2015.
Tamura M.,Hokkaido University |
Sato M.M.,Hokkaido University |
Nashimoto M.,Niigata University of Pharmacy and Applied Life Sciences
International Journal of Biochemistry and Cell Biology | Year: 2011
CXCL12 (stromal cell-derived factor-1, SDF-1), produced by stromal and endothelial cells including cells of the bone marrow, binds to its receptor CXCR4 and this axis regulates hematopoietic cell trafficking. Recently, osteoclast precursor cells were found to express CXCR4 and a potential role for the CXCL12-CXCR4 axis during osteoclast precursor cell recruitment/retention and development was proposed as a regulator of bone resorption. We examined the role of canonical Wnt signaling in regulating the expression of CXCL12 in bone marrow stromal cells. In mouse stromal ST2 cells, CXCL12 mRNA was expressed, while its expression was reduced in Wnt3a over-expressing ST2 (Wnt3a-ST2) cells or by treatment with lithium chloride (LiCl). Wnt3a decreased CXCL12 levels in culture supernatants from mouse bone marrow stromal cells. The culture supernatant from Wnt3a-ST2 cells also reduced migratory activity of bone marrow-derived cells in a Transwell migration assay. Silencing of glycogen synthase kinase-3β decreased CXCL12 expression, suggesting that the canonical Wnt signaling pathway regulates CXCL12 expression. In a transfection assay, LiCl down-regulated the activity of a reporter gene, a 1.8 kb fragment of the 5′-flanking region of the CXCL12 gene. These results show that canonical Wnt signaling regulates CXCL12 gene expression at the transcriptional level, and this is the first study linking chemokine expression to canonical Wnt signaling. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.
Nagano-Ito M.,Niigata University of Pharmacy and Applied Life Sciences |
Ichikawa S.,Niigata University of Pharmacy and Applied Life Sciences
Biochemistry Research International | Year: 2012
Translationally controlled tumor protein (TCTP) is a highly conserved protein found in eukaryotes, across animal and plant kingdoms and even in yeast. Mammalian TCTP is ubiquitously expressed in various tissues and cell types. TCTP is a multifunctional protein which plays important roles in a number of cell physiological events, such as immune responses, cell proliferation, tumorigenicity, and cell death, including apoptosis. Recent identification of TCTP as an antiapoptotic protein has attracted interest of many researchers in the field. The mechanism of antiapoptotic activity, however, has not been solved completely, and TCTP might inhibit other types of cell death. Cell death (including apoptosis) is closely linked to proliferation and tumorigenesis. In this context, we review recent findings regarding the role of TCTP in cell death, proliferation, and tumorigenesis and discuss the mechanisms. © 2012 Michiyo Nagano-Ito and Shinichi Ichikawa.
Kawano M.,Niigata University of Pharmacy and Applied Life Sciences
RNA Biology | Year: 2012
Toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems are categorized into three classes based on the type of antitoxin. In type I TA systems, the antitoxin is a small antisense RNA that inhibits translation of small toxic proteins by binding to the corresponding mRNAs. Those type I TA systems were originally identified as plasmid stabilization modules rendering a post-segregational killing (PSK) effect on the host cells. The type I TA loci also exist on the Escherichia coli chromosome but their biological functions are less clear. Genetic organization and regulatory elements of hok/sok and ldr/rdl families are very similar and the toxins are predicted to contain a transmembrane domain, but otherwise share no detectable sequence similarity. This review will give an overview of the type I TA modules of E. coli K-12, especially hok/sok, ldr/rdl and SOS-inducible symE/symR systems, which are regulated by divergently overlapping cis-encoded antisense RNAs. © 2012 Landes Bioscience.
Rahman M.M.,Niigata University of Pharmacy and Applied Life Sciences
Journal of molecular recognition : JMR | Year: 2011
Existing antifungal drugs are notable for their inability to act rapidly, as well as their toxicity and limited spectrum. The identification of fungal-specific genes and virulence factors would provide targets for new and influential drugs. The display of repertories of antibody fragments on the surface of filamentous phage offers a new way to produce immunoreagents as defined specificities. Here we report the selection of Cryptococcus-specific targets by using phage-display panning from a cDNA library, where bactericidal antibodies have been developed against conserved surface-exposed antigens. A single-chain variable fragment (scFv) phage library was constructed from splenocyte of an immunized mouse by idiotypic vaccination with HM-1 killer toxin (HM-1) neutralizing monoclonal antibody (nmAb-KT) that was used for selection against Cryptococcus neoformans membrane fraction (CnMF). Key elements were the selection against antigen (nmAb-KT and CnMF) and the release of bound phages using competitive panning elution with CnMF at neutral pH condition. Isolated scFvs react specifically with C. neoformans and some other pathogenic and non-pathogenic fungal strain's cell wall receptors by exerting strong antifungal activity in vitro. A high affinity clone, designated M1 was selected for detailed characterization and tested anti-cryptococcal activity with IC(50) values at 5.33 × 10(-7) to 5.56 × 10(-7) M against C. neoformans. The method described here is a new technique for the isolation of cell membrane specific immunoreactive phages in the form of scFv using CnMF that contained cell membrane associated proteins. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Nabekura T.,Niigata University of Pharmacy and Applied Life Sciences
Toxins | Year: 2010
Multidrug resistance is a phenomenon whereby tumors become resistant to structurally unrelated anticancer drugs. P-glycoprotein belongs to the large ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter superfamily of membrane transport proteins. P-glycoprotein mediates resistance to various classes of anticancer drugs including vinblastine, daunorubicin, and paclitaxel, by actively extruding the drugs from the cells. The quest for inhibitors of anticancer drug efflux transporters has uncovered natural compounds, including (-)-epigallocatechin gallate, curcumin, capsaicin, and guggulsterone, as promising candidates. In this review, studies on the effects of natural compounds on P-glycoprotein and anticancer drug efflux transporters are summarized. © 2010 by the authors.
Asakura T.,Niigata University of Pharmacy and Applied Life Sciences
Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology | Year: 2011
Background: Insulin injection pens are the predominant devices for insulin delivery in Europe and Japan because of their ease of use and convenience. This study compared clinically relevant technical attributes of durable insulin pens that are important to people with diabetes, specifically functions relating to cartridge-fitting, dose-setting, and dose-delivery on NovoPen® 4, ClikStar ®, HumaPen Luxura®, Itango ®, and Biosulin® Pen. Methods: Frequency components and duration of audible clicks on dose setting and injection were measured using audio equipment when setting and delivering 20 IU of insulin. To assess cartridge-fitting torque, each pen was attached to a torque gauge via the attached needle, and torque was measured with each 180° turn as the cartridge was screwed into the body of the pen. Rotary torque of the dose-setting dial was measured when setting the dose to the maximum dose unit of the pen. Injection force was measured when delivering 20 IU at 5 mm/s in a vertical position and at a tilt of 14.7° from vertical. Results: Audible clicks on dose-setting and dose-delivery were most distinguishable on NovoPen 4, while NovoPen 4 and ClikStar had generally lower cartridge-fitting torque and injection (both vertical and angled) force values. Conclusion: Overall, the results showed that durable insulin pens such as NovoPen 4 have useful features related to assembly, dose-setting, and injection, which may facilitate ease of use for diabetes patients, particularly elderly patients and those with visual and/or manual dexterity impairments. © Diabetes Technology Society.