Sakuma M.,Niigata University of Health and Welfare
Clinical calcium | Year: 2012
Osteoporosis is one of the main diseases of the locomotive syndrome. Exercise therapy is a basic approach for prevention and treatment of osteoporosis, and is effective for increasing bone mineral density and preventing fall. Single foothold standing with the eyes open for one minute and squatting by "rokotore" are recommended as exercises that are easy for elderly people. Strengthening of back muscles is also useful for prevention of round back due to osteoporosis. We suggest that improved outcomes may be achieved by combining some of these exercises.
Kushida O.,Niigata University of Health and Welfare
[Nihon kōshū eisei zasshi] Japanese journal of public health | Year: 2012
A core construct of the Transtheoretical model is that the processes and stages of change are strongly related to observable behavioral changes. We created the Processes of Change Scale of vegetable consumption behavior and examined the validity and reliability of this scale. In September 2009, a self-administered questionnaire was administered to male Japanese employees, aged 20-59 years, working at 20 worksites in Niigata City in Japan. The stages of change (precontempration, contemplation, preparation, action, and maintenance stage) were measured using 2 items that assessed participants' current implementation of the target behavior (eating 5 or more servings of vegetables per day) and their readiness to change their habits. The Processes of Change Scale of vegetable consumption behavior comprised 10 items assessing 5 cognitive processes (consciousness raising, emotional arousal, environmental reevaluation, self-reevaluation, and social liberation) and 5 behavioral processes (commitment, rewards, helping relationships, countering, and environment control). Each item was selected from an existing scale. Decisional balance (pros [2 items] and cons [2 items]), and self-efficacy (3 items) were also assessed, because these constructs were considered to be relevant to the processes of change. The internal consistency reliability of the scale was examined using Cronbach's alpha. Its construct validity was examined using a factor analysis of the processes of change, decisional balance, and self-efficacy variables, while its criterion-related validity was determined by assessing the association between the scale scores and the stages of change. The data of 527 (out of 600) participants (mean age, 41.1 years) were analyzed. Results indicated that the Processes of Change Scale had sufficient internal consistency reliability (Cronbach's alpha: cognitive processes=0.722, behavioral processes=0.803). The processes of change were divided into 2 factors: "consciousness raising, emotional arousal, environmental reevaluation, self-reevaluation, commitment, rewards, helping relationships, and social liberation" and "countering and environment control" in the factor analysis. Moreover, each construct--the processes of change, decisional balance, and self-efficacy--could be classified into different factors. The scores for cognitive processes were higher in the contemplation and preparation stages than in the precontemplation stage (P<0.05). Scores for behavioral processes increased from the precontemplation stage to the preparation stages (P<0.05), and were higher in the action + maintenance stage than in the precontemplation stage (P< 0.05). For male workers, the Processes of Change Scale has sufficient validity and reliability, as demonstrated by the internal fitness and the construct and criterion-related validity of the scale found in this study.
Sargent B.,University of Southern California |
Schweighofer N.,University of Southern California |
Kubo M.,Niigata University of Health and Welfare |
Fetters L.,University of Southern California
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014
A critical issue in the study of infant development is to identify the processes by which task-specific action emerges from spontaneous movement. Emergent leg action has been studied by providing contingent reinforcement to specific leg movements using an overhead infant-activated mobile, however, there is limited information on the strategies used by infants to support the emergence of task-specific leg action from spontaneous movement. The purpose of this study is to (1) determine the ability of 3 month old infants to learn, through discovery, the contingency between leg action and mobile activation using a virtual threshold, and (2) identify strategies, defined by variance of the end-effectors (feet) and hip-knee joint coordination, used by infants that learned the contingency. Fourteen 3 month old infants participated in 2 sessions of mobile reinforcement on consecutive days. As a group, infants increased the percentage of mobile activation to meet performance criteria on Day 2, but did not meet memory or learning criteria across days. However, five infants learned the contingency based on individual learning criteria. When interacting with the mobile on Day 2 as compared to spontaneous kicking on Day 1, infants who learned the contingency, but not infants who did not learn the contingency, increased variance of the end-effectors (feet) in the vertical, task-specific direction and demonstrated less in-phase hip-knee joint coordination. An important discovery is that infants can discover this very specific contingency, suggesting that this movement behavior (action) can be shaped in future work. This may have implications for the rehabilitation of infants with atypical leg action. © 2014 Sargent et al.
Tamaki H.,Niigata University of Health and Welfare
Journal of musculoskeletal & neuronal interactions | Year: 2013
The present study aimed to clarify the structural recovery, and to compare the time course of morphological changes in trabeculae and the process of bone mass change in rat tibiae following temporary immobilization of hind limb by sciatic neurectomy or nerve freezing. In 11-week-old male Fischer 344 rats, 4-5 mm of the sciatic nerve was removed (neurectomy group) or frozen by 5-second application of a stainless steel rod immersed in liquid nitrogen (nerve-freezing group). Quantitative changes in cancellous bone were assessed by histomorphometry. The results clarified that: trabecular bone volume (BV/TV) decreases until 3 weeks after denervation, and in the nerve-freezing group, it then increases from week 4, recovering to pre-surgery levels by week 10 (no recovery was seen in the neurectomy group); in the initial phase of bone atrophy, the decrease in BV/TV is more gradual in the nerve-freezing group than in the neurectomy group; and changes in trabecular architecture in the bone atrophy-recovery process are strongly associated with changes in trabecular thickness. The findings suggested that after transient injury by nerve freezing and subsequent recovery of neuromuscular function, bone tissue undergoes recovery from bone loss, but that trabeculae may not show complete structural recovery.
Hagihara Y.,Niigata University of Health and Welfare |
Nara T.,Niigata University
American Journal of Physical Anthropology | Year: 2016
Objective: The Jomon, one of the ancestral populations of modern Japanese, were hunter-gatherers inhabiting the Japanese archipelago from 11,000 to 300 BC. We evaluated changes in the diaphyseal morphology of the fibula from the middle to the final phase of the Jomon period, compared to the morphology of other historical and modern populations from the Japanese archipelago, to elucidate temporal changes in habitual activities and possible division of labor among males and females. Material and Method: Jomon specimens of 107 males and 97 females were obtained from the shell mounds of the Pacific coastal area of East Japan, distinguishing between middle (3,000-2,000 BC) and late-final (2,000-300 BC) phases of the Jomon period. Mid-shaft morphology of the fibula and tibia were compared to morphological measurements of specimens from Yayoi (37 males, 28 females), medieval (56 males, 56 females), early modern (51 males, 50 females), and modern (125 males, 68 females) periods. Result: Largest values of fibular areas and relative fibular-to-tibial areas were identified in males from the late-final Jomon phase, compared to the middle Jomon phase and after the Yayoi period. These period-specific differences in fibular area were smaller in females, with the largest between-sex difference identified in the late-final Jomon phase. Discussion: Results confirm a change in the habitual activity pattern of males in the late-final phase. Males of the late-final Jomon phase likely did more long-distance traveling to the inland/mountainous region, as part of an ecological change that occurred during the middle to the late-final Jomon phase. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.