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PubMed | Niigata Agricultural Research Institute, Jichi Medical University and b Industrial Technology Institute of Ibaraki Prefecture
Type: | Journal: Bioscience, biotechnology, and biochemistry | Year: 2017

Polyamines have beneficial properties to prevent aging-associated diseases. Raw soybean has relatively high polyamine contents; and the fermented soybean natto is a good source of polyamines. However, detailed information of diversity of polyamine content in raw soybean is lacking. The objectives of this study were to evaluate differences of polyamines among raw soybeans and select the high polyamine-containing cultivar for natto production. Polyamine contents were measured chromatographically in 16 samples of soybean, which showed high variation among soybeans as follows: 93-861 nmol/g putrescine, 1055-2306 nmol/g spermidine, and 177-578 nmol/g spermine. We then confirmed the high correlations of polyamine contents between raw soybean and natto (r=0.96, 0.95, and 0.94 for putrescine, spermidine, and spermine, respectively). Furthermore, comparison of the polyamine contents among 9 Japanese cultivars showed that Nakasen-nari has the highest polyamine contents, suggesting its suitability for enhancement of polyamine contents of natto.


Hayashi K.,Japan National Agriculture and Food Research Organization | Nagumo Y.,Niigata Agricultural Research Institute | Domoto A.,Mie Prefecture Agricultural Research Institute
Science of the Total Environment | Year: 2016

In comparative life cycle assessments of agricultural production systems, analyses of both the trade-offs between environmental impacts and crop productivity and of the uncertainties specific to agriculture such as fluctuations in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and crop yields are crucial. However, these two issues are usually analyzed separately. In this paper, we present a framework to link trade-off and uncertainty analyses; correlated uncertainties are integrated into environment-productivity trade-off analyses. We compared three rice production systems in Japan: a system using a pelletized, nitrogen-concentrated organic fertilizer made from poultry manure using closed-air composting techniques (high-N system), a system using a conventional organic fertilizer made from poultry manure using open-air composting techniques (low-N system), and a system using a chemical compound fertilizer (conventional system). We focused on two important sources of uncertainties in paddy rice cultivation—methane emissions from paddy fields and crop yields. We found trade-offs between the conventional and high-N systems and the low-N system and the existence of positively correlated uncertainties in the conventional and high-N systems. We concluded that our framework is effective in recommending the high-N system compared with the low-N system, although the performance of the former is almost the same as the conventional system. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.


Katayanagi N.,Japan International Research Center for Agricultural science | Katayanagi N.,International Rice Research Institute | Katayanagi N.,Japan National Institute for Agro - Environmental Sciences | Furukawa Y.,International Rice Research Institute | And 4 more authors.
Soil Science and Plant Nutrition | Year: 2015

The DNDC (DeNitrification-DeComposition)-Rice model, one of the most advanced process-based models for the estimation of greenhouse gas emissions from paddy fields, has been discussed mostly in terms of the reproducibility of observed methane (CH4) emissions from Japanese rice paddies, but the model has not yet been validated for tropical rice paddies under alternate wetting and drying (AWD) irrigation management, a water-saving technique. We validated the model by using CH4 and nitrous oxide (N2O) flux data from rice in pots cultivated under AWD irrigation management in a screen-house at the International Rice Research Institute (Los Ban˜ os, the Philippines). After minor modification and adjustment of the model to the experimental irrigation conditions, we calculated grain yield and straw production. The observed mean daily CH4 fluxes from the continuous flooding (CF) and AWD pots were 4.49 and 1.22 kg C ha 1 day 1, respectively, and the observed mean daily N2O fluxes from the pots were 0.105 and 34.1 g N ha 1 day 1, respectively. The root-mean-square errors, indicators of simulation error, of daily CH4 fluxes from CF and AWD pots were calculated as 1.76 and 1.86 kg C ha 1 day 1, respectively, and those of daily N2O fluxes were 2.23 and 124 g N ha 1 day 1, respectively. The simulated gross CH4 emissions for CF and AWD from the puddling stage (2 days before transplanting) to harvest (97 days after transplanting) were 417 and 126 kg C ha 1, respectively; these values were 9.8% lower and 0.76% higher, respectively, than the observed values. The simulated gross N2O emissions during the same period were 0.0279 and 1.45 kg N ha 1 for CF and AWD, respectively; these values were respectively 87% and 29% lower than the observed values. The observed total global warming potential (GWP) of AWD resulting from the CH4 and N2O emissions was approximately one-third of that in the CF treatment. The simulated GWPs of both CF and AWD were close to the observed values despite the discrepancy in N2O emissions, because N2O emissions contributed much less than CH4 emissions to the total GWP. These results suggest that the DNDC-Rice model can be used to estimate CH4 emission and total GWP from tropical paddy fields under both CF and AWD conditions. © 2012 Japanese Society of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition.


Mitsui T.,Niigata University | Shiraya T.,Niigata University | Shiraya T.,Niigata Agricultural Research Institute | Kaneko K.,Niigata University | Wada K.,Niigata University
Frontiers in Plant Science | Year: 2013

Recent proteomic analyses revealed dynamic changes of metabolisms during rice grain development. Interestingly, proteins involved in glycolysis, citric acid cycle, lipid metabolism, and proteolysis were accumulated at higher levels in mature grain than those of developing stages. High temperature (HT) stress in rice ripening period causes damaged (chalky) grains which have loosely packed round shape starch granules. The HT stress response on protein expression is complicated, and the molecular mechanism of the chalking of grain is obscure yet. Here, the current state on the proteomics research of rice grain grown under HT stress is briefly overviewed. © 2013 Mitsui, Shiraya, Kaneko and Wada.


Ishimoto M.,Niigata Agricultural Research Institute
Japanese Journal of Applied Entomology and Zoology | Year: 2011

To determine the possibility of Stenotus rubrovittatus nymphs occurring on rice plants, oviposition on rice ears was investigated. A pair of adults was released on a caged ear at three rice stages: at heading, at 7 or 8 days and at 14 days after heading, and left on the ear for 3 days. Eggs were laid in normal glumes and in "Hakufu"(dead, white glumes), but eggs in normal glumes were observed only at heading. On release of adults at heading, the percentage of oviposited ears was 50.0-58.3% and the average number of eggs laid in each ear was 8.7-13.8. Very few hatchlings emerged from glumes at any of the stages. These results suggest that nymph numbers in rice fields are low because few hatchlings emerge.


Motonaga Y.,Niigata University | Matsumoto T.,Niigata Agricultural Research Institute | Motonaga N.,Niigata Agricultural Research Institute
Proceedings of the SICE Annual Conference | Year: 2010

European Pear'Le Lectier' is one of the brand local specialties of Niigata Prefecture in Japan. Quality management during post-ripening is very important for producing it with high quality. Color evaluation of fruit has been considered as a useful and effective method for the quality management. In this work, fruit color chart, which had the standard shape and the image charts based on the analyzed color scale, was developed for improvement of the quality management in the post-ripening and shipping process. Color and shape analyses of fruit were conducted by using color image processing. As a result, the standard curve of fruit color change and the standard shape were calculated. Prototype color charts produced based on the result were used for examination of comparison to the traditional color chart and of the basis of color scale. Finally, a practical fruit color chart was made from the result of the examination. It is possible to use this color chart to evaluate color of from an immature to a mature fruit. © 2010 SICE.


Ishimoto M.,Niigata Agricultural Research Institute | Nagase A.,Niigata Plant Protection Office
Japanese Journal of Applied Entomology and Zoology | Year: 2010

Eysarcoris lewisi is a plant bug that causes pecky rice. The virulence of 11 isolates of an entomopathogenic fungus, Beauveria bassiana, was compared by bioassays on adults, and four isolates showing high virulence were selected. The virulence of these four isolates was further compared by bioassays on adults and 4th instar nymphs, and isolate Nb-60, which showed high virulence against both stages, was selected. The virulence of this isolate to 2nd, 3rd and 5th instar nymphs was also examined by bioassays. LC50 values of this isolate against adults, and 2nd, 3rd, 4th and 5th instar nymphs were estimated to be 5.4×106, 7.1×105, 2.0×107, 1.3×107, and 4.7×106 conidia/ml, respectively. There were significant differences in the virulence of this isolate among nymphal instars, and it was suggested that these differences were related to days from inoculation to first ecdysis. Judging from these results and the ecological characteristics of E. lewisi around paddies, B. bassiana would be a good candidate for use as a microbial control agent against this bug.


Mano J.,Yamaguchi University | Nagata M.,Yamaguchi University | Okamura S.,Yamaguchi University | Shiraya T.,Niigata University | And 2 more authors.
Plant and Cell Physiology | Year: 2014

In plants, environmental stresses cause an increase in the intracellular level of reactive oxygen species (ROS), leading to tissue injury. To obtain biochemical insights into this damage process, we investigated the protein carbonyls formed by ROS or by the lipid peroxide-derived α,β- unsaturated aldehydes and ketones (i.e. reactive carbonyl species, or RCS) in the leaves of Arabidopsis thaliana under salt stress. A. thaliana Col-0 plants that we treated with 300 mM NaCl for 72 h under continuous illumination suffered irreversible leaf damage. Several RCS such as 4-hydroxy-(E)-2-nonenal (HNE) were increased within 12 h of this salt treatment. Immunoblotting using distinct antibodies against five different RCS, i.e. HNE, 4-hydroxy-(E)-2-hexenal, acrolein, crotonaldehyde and malondialdehyde, revealed that RCS-modified proteins accumulated in leaves with the progress of the salt stress treatment. The band pattern of Western blotting suggested that these different RCS targeted a common set of proteins. To identify the RCS targets, we collected HNE-modified proteins via an anti-HNE antiserum affinity trap and performed an isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation, as a quantitative proteomics approach. Seventeen types of protein, modified by 2-fold more in the stressed plants than in the non-stressed plants, were identified as sensitive RCS targets. With aldehyde-reactive probe-based affinity trapping, we collected the oxidized proteins and identified 22 additional types of protein as sensitive ROS targets. These RCS and ROS target proteins were distributed in the cytosol and apoplast, as well as in the ROS-generating organelles the peroxisome, chloroplast and mitochondrion, suggesting the participation of plasma membrane oxidation in the cellular injury. Possible mechanisms by which these modified targets cause cell death are discussed. © 2014 The Author 2014.


Mori S.,Rakuno Gakuen University | Otani M.,Niigata University | Kobayashi H.,Niigata Agricultural Research Institute | Nakano M.,Niigata University
Scientia Horticulturae | Year: 2014

Agapanthus praecox ssp. orientalis (Leighton) Leighton, a monocotyledonous ornamental plant belonging to Agapanthaceae, has recently become popular as a potted plant for landscaping and as a cut flower. As a first step toward molecular breeding for flower color alteration in this plant, we isolated and characterized a gene encoding dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (DFR), a pivotal enzyme of the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway. A full-length cDNA clone for DFR was isolated from flower tepals of a cultivar with deep-blue flowers, and its genomic clone, designated ApDFR1 (accession number AB099529 in the GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ databases) was isolated from leaves by a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based strategy. Nucleotide sequence analysis revealed that ApDFR1 contains four introns and an open reading frame encoding a polypeptide of 378 amino acid residues. Deduced amino acid sequence shows 59-75% identities with those of previously reported DFR genes. Southern blot analysis showed that there are one or two copies of the DFR gene in the genome of A. praecox ssp. orientalis. ApDFR1 transcripts were detected in young flower tepals, stamens, pistils and bracts, but not in pedicles, scapes and leaves as revealed by reverse transcription-PCR analysis. When ApDFR1 was expressed under the control of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter in transgenic Petunia hybrida 'W85', a dfr-recessive line, some transgenic plants showed drastic flower color alteration from white to red purple. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis showed that colored flower limbs of transgenic plants accumulate anthocyanidins, mainly cyanidin and petunidin. These results indicate that ApDFR1 encodes DFR and is active in a heterologous plant species. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.


Wei W.,Tokyo University of Science | Isobe K.,Tokyo University of Science | Shiratori Y.,Niigata Agricultural Research Institute | Nishizawa T.,Tokyo University of Science | And 3 more authors.
Soil Biology and Biochemistry | Year: 2014

Agricultural fields are one of the largest anthropogenic sources of atmospheric nitrous oxide (N2O). Fungi have been suggested to contribute substantially to N2O emission in terrestrial environments; however, the extent of the fungal contribution and the phylogenetic and physiologic nature of related fungal communities in agricultural fields are largely unknown. This study focused on the large N2O emission from cropland soil that occurs after granular organic fertilizers were applied to the surface. The granular organic fertilizers applied were evidently covered by fungal mycelia. An experiment using a soil microcosm was established to imitate the field observations. N2O emissions following surface organic fertilization were suppressed by 84 and 20% after the addition of cycloheximide (a fungal inhibitor) and streptomycin (a bacterial inhibitor), respectively, suggesting that fungi provide the main contribution to the observed N2O emission. The population density and community composition of fungi in the surface-fertilized and non-fertilized soils in the field were determined using colony counting, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and subsequent phylogenetic analyses. Thirty-four fungal strains were isolated from the soils, and their N2O producing activities were analyzed. Fungal population density in the surface-fertilized soil (2.6×106CFU/g) was much higher than that in the non-fertilized soil (1.0×105CFU/g). In addition, the fungal community compositions of the soils differed. Actinomucor elegans, Bionectria ochroleuca, Fusarium avenaceum, Fusarium equiseti, Fusarium oxysporum, Fusarium solani and Nectria sp. dominated the surface-fertilized soil, and their activity in producing N2O was confirmed. These results suggested that N2O emission after the surface application of granular organic fertilizers in the cropland field mainly resulted from fungal denitrification. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

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