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Nagaoka, Japan

Kobayashi K.,Niigata Agr Res Institute | Joh T.,Niigata University | Fukuyama T.,Niigata University
Japanese Journal of Crop Science | Year: 2013

Black-kerneled rice contains antioxidants, making it of interest to consumers. However, it is much more expensive than common rice, and this is one of the problems for the food industry to utilize. To supply cheaper raw materials for the food industry, we assessed the polyphenol content and heat gelatinization properties of the screenings of 'Shiho' black-kerneled glutinous rice developed in Niigata Prefecture. Screenings of 1.70-1.85 mm grain thickness had 26.1% less polyphenol than refined grain, and screenings of <1.70 mm had 54.3% less. Therefore, to achieve the same polyphenol yield as from refined grain, it would be necessary to use 30% to 50% more rice screenings. The rate of decrease of polyphenol content was lower per unit weight than per kernel, and it seems that flour made from screenings would reduce the necessary amount of raw materials in comparison with whole grains. Thinner grain had a higher protein content than thicker grain, and screenings of <1.7 mm had 8.6% protein. In addition, the gelatinization start temperature was lower, and the rice cake hardening rate of rice screenings seemed to be lower than those of refined grain. The heat gelatinization properties of rice screenings also seemed to be inferior. Flour made from screenings would have a lower swelling capacity, a weaker gel strength, and slower starch retrogradation than that made from refined grain. It will be necessary to solve these problems before rice screenings can be used in the food industry. A supply route also needs to be established. © 2013 by The Crop Science Society of Japan.

Kobayashi K.,Niigata Agr Res Institute | Joh T.,Niigata University | Takahashi Y.,Niigata University | Fukuyama T.,Niigata University
Japanese Journal of Crop Science | Year: 2010

The black-kerneled glutinous rice cultivar 'Shiho' was recently released in Niigata Prefecture, but the relationships among yield, polyphenol content and characteristics for rice cake processing have not been discussed precisely. We carried out the cultivation experiment under different conditions at several locations in Niigata Prefecture in 2006 and 2007, and examined various agronomic characters and grain properties of 'Shiho'. Higher yield of 'Shiho' was attained by increasing the number of panicles per unit area by heavy manuring and the higher temperature during the ripening period. The higher temperature during the ripening period also resulted in the superior characteristics for rice cake processing, however lower content of polyphenol. Thus, it is difficult to find an appropriate cultivation method for satisfying simultaneously both yield and grain characteristics of 'Shiho' in higher order. It should be announced previously to rice farmers and the rice cake processed food company that 'Shiho' with higher polyphenol content could result in lower yield and inferior characteristics for rice cake processing. It may be important to develop of products characterized by keeping softness for a long period. 'Shiho' cultivated in different areas in Niigata prefecture showed marked differences in agronomic traits, ingredient of kernel and characteristics for rice cake processing, and damage by various diseases and pests. The cultivation methods need to be improved for various climatic conditions and farming systems in the mountainous region.

Hattori M.,Niigata Agr Res Institute | Hattori M.,Niigata University | Nagumo Y.,Niigata Agr Res Institute | Sato T.,Niigata Agr Res Institute | And 5 more authors.
Japanese Journal of Crop Science | Year: 2013

Recently, soybean yields in Niigata Prefecture have been subjected to wide annual fluctuation, and both the seed yield and quality have decreased in the last decade. This trend was confirmed based on the soybean yield statistics in Niigata Prefecture. We investigated the relationship between soybean seed yield and cropping system, and the effects of nitrogen fertility in soil and climatic factors on the yield. The yield decreased dramatically in the fields where soybean cropping continued for over four years. The recent decline in soybean yield was attributed to the decrease in pod number and seed weight. Compared with a continuous paddy field, a long-term paddy-upland rotation field had less available soil nitrogen during the soybeangrowing period, especially from the beginning of the bloom (R1) stage onward. The low level of available nitrogen in the soil of long-term rotated fields was suggested to reduce pod number and seed growth. It was also suggested that on increasing amount of solar irradiation increased the pod number in early August, from the beginning-bloom to beginning-pod (R1-3) stages, and that, the heavy rains in mid-August, during the full-pod to beginning-seed filling (R4-5) stages, caused a short-term wet damage, which triggered a decline in nodule activity along with premature pod fall.

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