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News Article | April 19, 2017
Site: www.eurekalert.org

Accelerated electrons have passed through the complete 2.1 kilometre length of the accelerator tunnel. In the next step, the energy of the electrons will be raised further, before they will be sent into a magnetic slalom section where the bright X-ray laser light will be generated. This first lasing is planned for May. DESY is the largest shareholder of the European XFEL and is responsible for the construction and operation of the superconducting linear accelerator. "The European XFEL's particle accelerator is the first superconducting linear accelerator of this size in the world to go into operation. With the commissioning of this complex machine, DESY and European XFEL scientists have placed the crown on their 20-year engagement in developing and building this large international project. The first experiments are within reach, and I am quite excited about the discoveries ahead of us", says Chairman of the DESY Board of Directors Helmut Dosch. "I am exceptionally happy about arriving at this milestone and congratulate all involved for the outstanding work and their great tenacity." Chairman of the European XFEL Management Board Robert Feidenhans'l says: "The successful commissioning of the accelerator is a very important step that brings us much closer to the start of user operation in the fall. Under the leadership of DESY, the Accelerator Consortium, comprising 17 research institutes, has done an excellent job in the last years. I thank all colleagues involved for their work, which entailed a great deal of know-how and precision but also much personal commitment. The accelerator is an outstanding example of successful global cooperation, encompassing research facilities, institutes, and universities alongside companies that produced certain components." The European XFEL is an X-ray laser of superlatives: The research facility will produce up to 27 000 X-ray laser flashes per second, each so short and intense that researchers can make pictures of structures and processes at the atomic level. The superconducting particle accelerator of the facility, which is now operational across its full length, is the key component of the 3.4 km long X-ray laser. The accelerator's superconducting TESLA technology, which was developed in an international collaboration led by DESY, is the basis for the unique high rate of X-ray laser flashes. Superconductivity means that the accelerator components have no electrical resistance. For this, they have to be cooled to extremely low temperatures. From December into January, the accelerator was cooled to its operating temperature of -271°C. The so-called electron injector and first section of the main accelerator then went into operation, comprising altogether 18 of 98 total accelerator modules. Within this section, the electron bunches were both accelerated and compressed three times, down to 10 micrometres (a thousandth of a millimetre). Finally, the team placed the third section of the accelerator into operation. Currently, the electrons reach an energy of 12 gigaelectronvolts (GeV), and in regular operation, an energy of up to 17.5 GeV is planned. "The energy and other properties of the electron bunches are already within the range where they will be during first user operation", says DESY physicist Winfried Decking, who leads the commissioning of the European XFEL accelerator. The coordination of the unique components of the accelerator and the control of the electron beam will now be intensively tested before the accelerated electrons are allowed into the following section: the up to 210 m long special magnetic structures called undulators. There, the ultrabright X-ray laser flashes will be generated. Scientific experiments should begin this fall. The superconducting particle accelerator of the European XFEL was built over the last seven years through an international consortium, under the leadership of DESY, composed of the following research institutes: CEA and CNRS in France; INFN in Italy; IFJ-PAN, NCBJ, and the Wroc?aw University of Technology in Poland; the Budker Institute, Institute for High Energy Physics, Institute for Nuclear Research, and NIIEFA in Russia; CIEMAT and Universidad Politécnica de Madrid in Spain; the Manne Siegbahn Laboratory, Stockholm University, and Uppsala University in Sweden; and the Paul Scherrer Institute in Switzerland.


Accelerated electrons have passed through the complete 2.1 kilometre length of the accelerator tunnel. In the next step, the energy of the electrons will be raised further, before they will be sent into a magnetic slalom section where the bright X-ray laser light will be generated. This first lasing is planned for May. DESY is the largest shareholder of the European XFEL and is responsible for the construction and operation of the superconducting linear accelerator. "The European XFEL's particle accelerator is the first superconducting linear accelerator of this size in the world to go into operation. With the commissioning of this complex machine, DESY and European XFEL scientists have placed the crown on their 20-year engagement in developing and building this large international project. The first experiments are within reach, and I am quite excited about the discoveries ahead of us", says Chairman of the DESY Board of Directors Helmut Dosch. "I am exceptionally happy about arriving at this milestone and congratulate all involved for the outstanding work and their great tenacity." Chairman of the European XFEL Management Board Robert Feidenhans'l says: "The successful commissioning of the accelerator is a very important step that brings us much closer to the start of user operation in the fall. Under the leadership of DESY, the Accelerator Consortium, comprising 17 research institutes, has done an excellent job in the last years. I thank all colleagues involved for their work, which entailed a great deal of know-how and precision but also much personal commitment. The accelerator is an outstanding example of successful global cooperation, encompassing research facilities, institutes, and universities alongside companies that produced certain components." The European XFEL is an X-ray laser of superlatives: The research facility will produce up to 27 000 X-ray laser flashes per second, each so short and intense that researchers can make pictures of structures and processes at the atomic level. The superconducting particle accelerator of the facility, which is now operational across its full length, is the key component of the 3.4 km long X-ray laser. The accelerator's superconducting TESLA technology, which was developed in an international collaboration led by DESY, is the basis for the unique high rate of X-ray laser flashes. Superconductivity means that the accelerator components have no electrical resistance. For this, they have to be cooled to extremely low temperatures. From December into January, the accelerator was cooled to its operating temperature of -271°C. The so-called electron injector and first section of the main accelerator then went into operation, comprising altogether 18 of 98 total accelerator modules. Within this section, the electron bunches were both accelerated and compressed three times, down to 10 micrometres (a thousandth of a millimetre). Finally, the team placed the third section of the accelerator into operation. Currently, the electrons reach an energy of 12 gigaelectronvolts (GeV), and in regular operation, an energy of up to 17.5 GeV is planned. "The energy and other properties of the electron bunches are already within the range where they will be during first user operation", says DESY physicist Winfried Decking, who leads the commissioning of the European XFEL accelerator. The coordination of the unique components of the accelerator and the control of the electron beam will now be intensively tested before the accelerated electrons are allowed into the following section: the up to 210 m long special magnetic structures called undulators. There, the ultrabright X-ray laser flashes will be generated. Scientific experiments should begin this fall. The superconducting particle accelerator of the European XFEL was built over the last seven years through an international consortium, under the leadership of DESY, composed of the following research institutes: CEA and CNRS in France; INFN in Italy; IFJ-PAN, NCBJ, and the Wroc?aw University of Technology in Poland; the Budker Institute, Institute for High Energy Physics, Institute for Nuclear Research, and NIIEFA in Russia; CIEMAT and Universidad Politécnica de Madrid in Spain; the Manne Siegbahn Laboratory, Stockholm University, and Uppsala University in Sweden; and the Paul Scherrer Institute in Switzerland. Explore further: Superconducting part of the European XFEL accelerator ready


Imbeaux F.,French Atomic Energy Commission | Citrin J.,EURATOM | Hobirk J.,Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics (Garching) | Hogeweij G.M.D.,EURATOM | And 38 more authors.
Nuclear Fusion | Year: 2011

In order to prepare adequate current ramp-up and ramp-down scenarios for ITER, present experiments from various tokamaks have been analysed by means of integrated modelling in view of determining relevant heat transport models for these operation phases. A set of empirical heat transport models for L-mode (namely, the Bohm-gyroBohm model and scaling based models with a specific fixed radial shape and energy confinement time factors of H96-L = 0.6 or HIPB98 = 0.4) has been validated on a multi-machine experimental dataset for predicting the li dynamics within ±0.15 accuracy during current ramp-up and ramp-down phases. Simulations using the Coppi-Tang or GLF23 models (applied up to the LCFS) overestimate or underestimate the internal inductance beyond this accuracy (more than ±0.2 discrepancy in some cases). The most accurate heat transport models are then applied to projections to ITER current ramp-up, focusing on the baseline inductive scenario (main heating plateau current of Ip = 15 MA). These projections include a sensitivity study to various assumptions of the simulation. While the heat transport model is at the heart of such simulations (because of the intrinsic dependence of the plasma resistivity on electron temperature, among other parameters), more comprehensive simulations are required to test all operational aspects of the current ramp-up and ramp-down phases of ITER scenarios. Recent examples of such simulations, involving coupled core transport codes, free-boundary equilibrium solvers and a poloidal field (PF) systems controller are also described, focusing on ITER current ramp-down. © 2011 IAEA, Vienna.


Riabov G.,RAS Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute | Artamonov S.,RAS Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute | Ivanov E.,RAS Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute | Mikheev G.,RAS Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute | And 4 more authors.
RuPAC 2012 Contributions to the Proceedings - 23rd Russian Particle Accelerator Conference | Year: 2012

The history of the design and costruction of the 80 MeV H- isochronous cyclotron as well as some design features are discribed. Copyright © 2012 by the respective authors.


Svistunov Y.,NIIEFA | Durkin A.,Russian Academy of Sciences | Ovsyannikov A.D.,Saint Petersburg State University
RuPAC 2012 Contributions to the Proceedings - 23rd Russian Particle Accelerator Conference | Year: 2012

Modeling results for deuteron dynamics in RFQ structure with operational frequency 433 MHz and 1 MeV output energy are presented. The results are compared with experimental data. The purpose of investigation is to find optimal input RFQ emittance parameters for offnominal values of input current and vane voltage. Copyright © 2012 by the respective authors.


Hirai T.,ITER Organization | Escourbiac F.,ITER Organization | Carpentier-Chouchana S.,Sogeti Inc. | Durocher A.,ITER Organization | And 13 more authors.
Physica Scripta | Year: 2014

The full tungsten divertor qualification program was defined for the R&D activity in domestic agencies. The qualification program consists of two steps: (i) technology development and validation and (ii) a full-scale demonstration. Small-scale mock-ups were manufactured in Japanese and European industries and delivered to the ITER divertor test facility in Russia for high heat flux testing. In parallel activity to the qualification program, both domestic agencies demonstrated that W monoblock technologies withstanding up to 20 MW m-2 were available. © 2014 The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences.


Svistunov Y.A.,Saint Petersburg State University | Kudinovich I.V.,Saint Petersburg State University | Golovkina A.G.,Saint Petersburg State University | Ovsyannikov D.A.,Saint Petersburg State University | And 2 more authors.
Problems of Atomic Science and Technology | Year: 2014

The problems of target choice for compact ADS with reactor thermal power 200... 400 MW and 200... 400 MeV proton beam are considered. Simulation results of neutron yield from fissile and non-fissile targets are presented and the optimal target sizes are calculated. The principal target design characteristics and its thermal condition are also considered.


Leonov V.M.,RAS Research Center Kurchatov Institute | Gribov Yu.V.,ITER Organization | Kavin A.A.,NIIEFA | Khayrutdinov R.R.,RAS Research Center Kurchatov Institute | And 2 more authors.
37th EPS Conference on Plasma Physics 2010, EPS 2010 | Year: 2010

Development of the operational scenarios and analysis of conditions influenced the plasma performance in different discharge stages are the important aspects of the ITER design. Results of previous studies of plasma termination in ITER 15 MA DT inductive scenario are presented in [1-3], where the main attention has been focused on the analysis of operation of the Poloidal Field (PF) system. This paper presents results of further complex study of conditions in the termination stage of the reference ITER 15 MA inductive scenario to consider the most important peculiarities of this stage and to optimize plasma parameters behaviour during this stage.


Kocan M.,ITER Organization | Pitts R.A.,ITER Organization | Gribov Y.,ITER Organization | Bruno R.,ITER Organization | And 6 more authors.
40th EPS Conference on Plasma Physics, EPS 2013 | Year: 2013

The study here demonstrates that the expected surface heat fluxes in the nominal current ramp down scenario for ITER Baseline QDT = 10 inductive operation will be well within the power handling margins of the upper FWPs. The heat fluxes are a factor 2 lower than the power handling margin in the early full-bore ramp down phase and a factor 3 lower when the secondary strike point crosses the gap between the FWPs 8 and 9. Copyright © (2013) by the European Physical Society (EPS).


Ezato K.,Japan Atomic Energy Agency | Suzuki S.,Japan Atomic Energy Agency | Seki Y.,Japan Atomic Energy Agency | Mohri K.,Japan Atomic Energy Agency | And 4 more authors.
Fusion Engineering and Design | Year: 2015

Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) is in progress for technology qualification toward full-tungsten (W) ITER divertor outer vertical target (OVT), especially, tungsten monoblock technology that needs to withstand the repetitive heat load as high as 20 MW/m2. To demonstrate the armor heat sink bonding technology and heat removal capability, 6 small-scale W monoblock mock-ups manufactured by different bonding technologies using different W materials in addition to 4 full-scale prototype plasma-facing units (PFUs). After non-destructive test, the W components were tested under high heat flux (HHF) in ITER Divertor Test Facility (IDTF) at NIIEFA. Consequently, all of the W monoblocks endured the repetitive heat load at 20 MW/m2 for 1000 cycles (requirements 20 MW/m2 for 300 cycles) without any failure. In addition to the armor to heat sink joints, the load carrying capability test on the W monoblock with a leg attachment was carried out. In uniaxial tensile test, all of the W monoblock attachments with different bonding technologies such as brazing and HIPping withstand the tensile load exceeding 20 kN that is the value more than twice the design value. The failures occurred at the leg attachments or the W monoblocks, rather than the bonding interface of the W monoblocks to the leg attachment. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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