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Edwards M.R.,University of Southampton | Edwards M.R.,NIHR Southampton Respiratory Biomedical Research Unit | Mythen M.G.,University College London
Extreme Physiology and Medicine | Year: 2014

Major surgery and critical illnesses such as sepsis and trauma all disturb normal physiological fluid handling. Intravenous fluid therapy for resuscitation and fluid maintenance is a central part of medical care during these conditions, yet the evidence base supporting practice in this area lacks answers to a number of important questions. Recent research developments include a refinement of our knowledge of the endothelial barrier structure and function and a focus on the potential harm that may be associated with intravenous fluid therapy. Here, we briefly describe the contemporary view of fluid physiology and how this may be disrupted by pathological processes. The important themes in critical illness fluid research are discussed, with a particular focus on two emerging ideas: firstly, that individualising fluid treatment to the patient, their underlying disease state and the phase of that illness may be key to improving clinical outcomes using fluid interventions and, secondly, that fluids should be considered to be drugs, with specific indications and contraindications, dose ranges and potential toxicities. © 2014 Edwards and Mythen; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Jeevajothi Nathan J.,University Putra Malaysia | Mohd Desa M.N.,University Putra Malaysia | Thong K.L.,University of Malaya | Clarke S.C.,University of Southampton | And 5 more authors.
Infection, Genetics and Evolution | Year: 2014

Streptococcus pneumoniae is an epidemiologically important bacterial pathogen. Recently, we reported the antibiotic susceptibility patterns of a limited collection of pneumococcal isolates in Malaysia with a high prevalence of erythromycin resistant strains. In the present study, 55 of the pneumococcal isolates of serotype 19F were further analysed by pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). The generated genotypic patterns were then correlated with the antibiograms previously reported. Forty-seven different PFGE profiles (PTs) were obtained, showing that the isolates were genetically diverse. MLST identified 16 sequence types (STs) with ST-236 being predominant (58.2%), followed by ST-81 (10.3%). Among the ST-236 isolates, 22 were erythromycin resistant S. pneumoniae (ERSP) and 15 were trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMX) resistant, while among ST-81, four isolates were ERSP and two were TMP/SMX resistant. The high prevalence of erythromycin resistant serotype 19F isolates of ST-236 in this study has also been reported in other North and South East Asian countries. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Thomas M.,University of Southampton | Thomas M.,NIHR Southampton Respiratory Biomedical Research Unit | Thomas M.,NIHR Collaboration for Leadership in Applied Health Research and Care
Primary Care Respiratory Medicine | Year: 2015

After decades of improvement, asthma outcomes have stalled. Mortality, hospitalisations, exacerbations and symptom control remain sub-optimal. In controlled trials, most patients gain high levels of control, but in ‘real-life’ routine clinical practice most patients do not. Avoidable factors are found in most asthma deaths and hospital admissions. This perspective paper considers and contextualises the factors underlying poor asthma outcomes, and it suggests approaches that could improve the situation. Factors discussed include severe, therapy-resistant disease and the role of new and upcoming pharmacological therapies in improving outcomes. These are likely to be beneficial when targeted on patients with severe disease and discrete phenotypic characteristics, identified through biomarkers. However, for the majority of patients treated in the community, they are unlikely to be used widely, and better use of current therapy classes will be more important. Non-adherence with regular inhaled corticosteroid treatment and over-use of rescue bronchodilators are common, and many patients have poor inhaler technique. Self-management is frequently poor, particularly in those with psychosocial disadvantages and co-morbidities. Communication between clinicians and patients is sometimes poor, with failure to detect avoidable poor control and non-adherence, and failure to provide the necessary information and education to support efficient self-management. Strategies for improving monitoring and clinician–patient interactions to allow personalised treatment are considered. These strategies have the potential to allow individual patient needs to be recognised and efficient targeting of the variety of effective pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions that we possess, which has the potential to improve both individual and population outcomes. © 2015 Primary Care Respiratory Society UK/Macmillan Publishers Limited.

Cruickshank H.C.,University of Southampton | Jefferies J.M.,University of Southampton | Clarke S.C.,University of Southampton | Clarke S.C.,NIHR Southampton Respiratory Biomedical Research Unit | Clarke S.C.,Public Health England
BMJ Open | Year: 2014

Objective: To systematically review the literature for evidence of smoking and alcohol intake as independent risk factors for invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD). Design: Systematic review. Methods: MEDLINE (1946 - May 2012) and EMBASE (1947 - May 2012) were searched for studies investigating alcohol or smoking as risk factors for acquiring IPD and which reported results as relative risk. Studies conducted exclusively in clinical risk groups, those assessing risk factors for outcomes other than acquisition of IPD and studies describing risk factors without quantifying a relative risk were excluded. Results: Seven observational studies were identified and reviewed; owing to the heterogeneity of study design, meta-analysis was not attempted. Five of six studies investigating smoking reported an increased risk of IPD in the range 2.2-4.1. Four of the six studies investigating alcohol intake reported a significant increased risk for IPD ranging from 2.9 to 11.4, while one reported a significant protective effect. Conclusions: Overall, these observational data suggest that smoking and alcohol misuse may increase the risk of IPD in adults, but the magnitude of this risk remains unclear and should be explored with further research. The findings of this review will contribute to the debate on whether pneumococcal vaccine should be offered to smokers and people who misuse alcohol in addition to other clinically defined risk groups.

Pinnock H.,University of Edinburgh | Thomasa M.,University of Edinburgh | Thomasa M.,University of Southampton | Thomasa M.,NIHR Southampton Respiratory Biomedical Research Unit | And 2 more authors.
Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine | Year: 2015

Purpose of review Despite effective therapies, asthma outcomes remain suboptimal. Education in self-management is crucial to maintaining control in a variable condition such as asthma and reducing the risk of severe asthma exacerbations, hospitalizations and deaths. This review considers the evidence for supported self-management.Recent findings Recent systematic reviews have clarified and confirmed the major benefits from effective self-management education, but have also shown that implementation is rare in routine practice, with consequent avoidable morbidity and mortality. Recent research has focused on the most effective ways of delivering and supporting self-management in different patient groups and has clarified the relative effectiveness of the different components. Self-management support using new digital technologies has been investigated.Summary All clinicians treating patients with asthma should be supporting their patients to understand and manage their own condition. Optimal self-management incorporates education, provision of a personalized asthma action plan and is supported by regular professional review. Action plans in a written or digital format should advise on recognizing deterioration and the actions to take, including when to seek professional help, appropriate changes in medication dose or commencing rescue oral steroids. Action plans should be personalized and agreed by the patient, and provided in a culturally tailored form. © 2014 Wolters Kluwer Health.

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