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McCormack A.,University of Nottingham | McCormack A.,NIHR Nottingham Hearing Biomedical Research Unit | Shorter G.W.,University of Ulster | Griffiths M.D.,Nottingham Trent University
International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction | Year: 2013

Internet gambling participation is rapidly increasing, however little is known about potential links between internet gambling and problem gambling. This study examined the predictors of online problem gambling and whether these differed from established predictors of offline problem gambling. Data were obtained online in response to posts on 32 international gambling websites (n = 1,119). Potential correlates included demographic questions, gambling activities, frequency of gambling, and reasons for gambling online. Multinomial logistic regression revealed that compared to non-problem gamblers, online problem gamblers were more likely to be male, smoke cigarettes, gamble alone, have a disability, lie about their age online, gamble online for more than 4 h at a time, engage in two or more online gambling activities regularly, gamble after a near miss, and drink alcohol while gambling online. Therefore, characteristics predictive of offline problem gambling are similar to those predicting online problem gambling. As a result online gambling could potentially be problematic for those individuals who have problems with gambling more generally. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York. Source

McCormack A.,Nottingham Trent University | McCormack A.,University of Nottingham | McCormack A.,NIHR Nottingham Hearing Biomedical Research Unit | Shorter G.W.,University of Ulster | Griffiths M.D.,Nottingham Trent University
Journal of Behavioral Addictions | Year: 2013

Background and aims: Online gambling participation is increasing rapidly, with relatively little research about the possible effects of different gambling activities on problem gambling behaviour. The aim of this exploratory study was to examine the participation in online gambling activities and the relationship with problem gambling among an international sample of online gamblers. Methods: An online gambling survey was posted on 32 international gambling websites and resulted in 1,119 respondents over a four-month period. Results: Poker was the most popular gambling activity online. A number of online activities were associated with problem gambling, including: roulette, poker, horse race betting, sports betting, spread betting and fruit (slot) machines. Not surprisingly, those that gambled on these activities regularly (except poker) were more likely to be a problem gambler, however, what is interesting is that the reverse is true for poker players; those that gambled regularly on poker were less likely to be a problem gambler compared to the non-regular poker players. The majority of the players also gambled offline, but there was no relationship between problem gambling and whether or not a person also gambled offline. Discussion: Problem gambling is associated more with certain online gambling activities than others, and those gambling on two or more activities online were more likely to be a problem gambler. Conclusion: This paper can help explain the impact different online gambling activities may have on gambling behaviour. Consideration needs to be given to the gambling activity when developing and implementing treatment programmes. © 2013 Akadémiai Kiadó. Source

Pierzycki R.H.,University of Nottingham | Pierzycki R.H.,NIHR Nottingham Hearing Biomedical Research Unit | Seeber B.U.,University of Nottingham | Seeber B.U.,TU Munich
JARO - Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology | Year: 2014

Comodulation masking release (CMR) is an improvement in the detection threshold of a masked signal that occurs when the masker envelopes are correlated across frequency (i.e., comodulation). CMR can be observed when flanking bands (FBs) of noise co-modulated with an on-frequency band (OFB) noise masker are added at remote frequencies (CMR1), or when co-modulated envelopes are used instead of anti-modulated envelopes (OFB and FB envelopes out of phase, CMR2). For FBs widely separated from the OFB, this process is assumed to rely mostly on across-channel comparison of temporal envelopes. Since cochlear implants (CIs) rely predominantly on the transmission of envelope cues, we investigated if CMR can be observed in electric hearing. We stimulated the auditory nerve of eight CI users with trains of modulated electric pulses presented on an OFB electrode alone, or together with pulse trains on one or two FB electrodes. Participants had to detect signal-induced changes in the envelope of an electric pulse train masker presented on the OFB electrode. Envelopes on FB electrodes were either co-modulated or anti-modulated with the envelope of the OFB masker. We observed CMR1 in one of the eight CI users. However, significant CMR2 was observed in most CI users. Reducing amplitude-modulation rate from 20 to 8 Hz, reducing envelopes' randomness or increasing electrode separation did not generally improve CMR1, but increased the prevalence of CMR2. The present results suggest that comodulation of envelopes can aid signal detection in electric hearing. © 2014 The Author(s). Source

Fielden C.A.,NIHR Nottingham Hearing Biomedical Research Unit | Fielden C.A.,University of Nottingham | Kitterick P.T.,NIHR Nottingham Hearing Biomedical Research Unit | Kitterick P.T.,University of Nottingham
Cochlear Implants International | Year: 2016

Objectives: The study surveyed practising cochlear implant (CI) audiologists with the aim of: (1) characterizing UK clinical practice around the management and fitting of a contralateral hearing aid (HA) in adult unilateral CI users (‘bimodal aiding’); (2) identifying factors that may limit the provision of bimodal aiding; and (3) ascertaining the views of audiologists on bimodal aiding. Methods: An online survey was distributed to audiologists working at the 20 centres providing implantation services to adults in the UK. Results: Responses were received from 19 of the 20 centres. The majority of centres reported evaluating HAs as part of the candidacy assessment for cochlear implantation. However, a majority also indicated that they do not take responsibility for the contralateral HA following implantation, despite identifying few practical limiting factors. Bimodal aiding was viewed as more beneficial than wearing the implant alone, with most respondents actively encouraging bimodal listening where possible. Respondents reported that fitting bimodal devices to take account of each other's settings was potentially more beneficial than independently fit devices, but such sympathetic fitting was not routine practice in any centre. Discussion: The results highlight some potential inconsistencies in the provision of bimodal aiding across the UK as reported by practising audiologists. The views of audiologists about what is best practice appear to be at odds with the nature and structure of the services currently offered. Conclusion: Stronger evidence that bimodal aiding can be beneficial for UK patients would be required in order for service providers to justify the routine provision of bimodal aiding and to inform guidelines to shape routine clinical practice. © 2016 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group. Source

Daniel M.,Paediatric Otorhinolaryngology | Daniel M.,NIHR Nottingham Hearing Biomedical Research Unit | Bailey S.,Sleep Medicine | Walker K.,Grace Center for Newborn Care | And 7 more authors.
International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology | Year: 2013

Objective: Robin sequence (RS) is associated with airway abnormalities that result in functional problems of obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA), feeding difficulties, and consequent poor growth. We evaluated the relationships between OSA severity, airway and feeding interventions, and weight at 12 months in infants with RS and OSA. Methods: Retrospective notes review of children with RS managed at our neonatal unit (1998-2010, inclusive). Results: Of 39 infants studied, 10 (25.6%) had mild/moderate OSA, and 29 (74.4%) severe. Infants with severe OSA required more airway interventions in hospital (82.8 vs 30.0%, p=0.004) and at discharge (72.4 vs 20.0%, p=0.007) than those with mild/moderate OSA; 30.0% of infants with mild/moderate OSA required continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) during admission and 20.0% on discharge, but amongst those with severe OSA 82.8% required airway interventions as an inpatient, 17.2% underwent mandibular distraction osteogenesis, and 55.2% required CPAP on discharge. Those with severe OSA were also more likely to require tube feeding on discharge (89.7 vs 50.0%, p=0.02). Overall, children were on a lower weight centiles at discharge compared to birth (-10.2 centiles) and at 12 months of age compared to birth (-14.8 centiles), but this occurred irrespective of OSA severity or need for airway interventions or tube feeding. Conclusions: Infants with RS commonly have OSA, feeding and airway difficulties. Weight at 12 months appeared not to be influenced by OSA severity, feeding or airway problems, suggesting that current intervention/management strategy results in the severely affected infants growing as well as those affected less severely. © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. Source

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