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Daniel M.,Childrens Hospital | Daniel M.,NIHR Nottingham Hearing Biomedical Research Unit | Bailey S.,Childrens Hospital Westmead | Walker K.,Childrens Hospital Westmead | And 7 more authors.
International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology | Year: 2013

Objective: Robin sequence (RS) is associated with airway abnormalities that result in functional problems of obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA), feeding difficulties, and consequent poor growth. We evaluated the relationships between OSA severity, airway and feeding interventions, and weight at 12 months in infants with RS and OSA. Methods: Retrospective notes review of children with RS managed at our neonatal unit (1998-2010, inclusive). Results: Of 39 infants studied, 10 (25.6%) had mild/moderate OSA, and 29 (74.4%) severe. Infants with severe OSA required more airway interventions in hospital (82.8 vs 30.0%, p=0.004) and at discharge (72.4 vs 20.0%, p=0.007) than those with mild/moderate OSA; 30.0% of infants with mild/moderate OSA required continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) during admission and 20.0% on discharge, but amongst those with severe OSA 82.8% required airway interventions as an inpatient, 17.2% underwent mandibular distraction osteogenesis, and 55.2% required CPAP on discharge. Those with severe OSA were also more likely to require tube feeding on discharge (89.7 vs 50.0%, p=0.02). Overall, children were on a lower weight centiles at discharge compared to birth (-10.2 centiles) and at 12 months of age compared to birth (-14.8 centiles), but this occurred irrespective of OSA severity or need for airway interventions or tube feeding. Conclusions: Infants with RS commonly have OSA, feeding and airway difficulties. Weight at 12 months appeared not to be influenced by OSA severity, feeding or airway problems, suggesting that current intervention/management strategy results in the severely affected infants growing as well as those affected less severely. © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.


McCormack A.,NIHR Nottingham Hearing Biomedical Research Unit | McCormack A.,University of Nottingham | Edmondson-Jones M.,NIHR Nottingham Hearing Biomedical Research Unit | Edmondson-Jones M.,University of Nottingham | And 7 more authors.
Journal of Psychosomatic Research | Year: 2014

Background: Previous research has suggested that a substantial proportion of the population are severely affected by tinnitus, however recent population data are lacking. Furthermore, there is growing evidence that the perception of severity is closely related to personality factors such as neuroticism. Objective: In a subset (N. = 172,621) of a large population sample of >. 500,000 adults aged 40 to 69. years, (from the UK Biobank dataset) we calculated the prevalence of tinnitus and that which is perceived as bothersome, and examined the association between tinnitus and a putative predisposing personality factor, neuroticism. Method: Participants were recruited through National Health Service registers and aimed to be inclusive and as representative of the UK population as possible. The assessment included subjective questions concerning hearing and tinnitus. Neuroticism was self-rated on 13 questions from the Eysenck Personality Inventory. Associations between neuroticism and tinnitus were tested with logistic regression analyses. Results: Prevalence of tinnitus was significantly higher for males, and increased with age, doubling between the youngest and oldest age groups (males 13% and 26%; females 9% and 19% respectively). Of those with tinnitus, females were more likely to report bothersome tinnitus. Neuroticism was associated with current tinnitus and bothersome tinnitus, with the items: 'loneliness', 'mood swings', 'worrier/anxious' and 'miserableness', as the strongest associations of bothersome tinnitus. Conclusions: Neuroticism was identified as a novel association with tinnitus. Individuals with tinnitus and higher levels of neuroticism are more likely to experience bothersome tinnitus, possibly as a reflection of greater sensitivity to intrusive experiences. © 2013 The Authors.


McCormack A.,NIHR Nottingham Hearing Biomedical Research Unit | McCormack A.,University of Nottingham | Edmondson-Jones M.,NIHR Nottingham Hearing Biomedical Research Unit | Edmondson-Jones M.,University of Nottingham | And 6 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014

Objective: The impact of dietary factors on tinnitus has received limited research attention, despite being a considerable concern among people with tinnitus and clinicians. The objective was to examine the link between dietary factors and presence and severity of tinnitus.Design: This study used the UK Biobank resource, a large cross-sectional study of adults aged 40-69. 171,722 eligible participants were asked questions specific to tinnitus (defined as noises such as ringing or buzzing in the head or ears). Dietary factors included portions of fruit and vegetables per day, weekly fish consumption (oily and non-oily), bread type, cups of caffeinated coffee per day, and avoidance of dairy, eggs, wheat and sugar. We controlled for lifestyle, noise exposure, hearing, personality and comorbidity factors.Results: Persistent tinnitus, defined as present at least a lot of the time, was elevated with increased: (i) fruit/vegetable intake (OR51.01 per portion/day), (ii) bread (wholemeal/wholegrain, OR51.07; other bread, 1.20) and (iii) dairy avoidance (OR51.27). Persistent tinnitus was reduced with: (i) fish consumption (non-oily, OR50.91; oily, 0.95), (ii) egg avoidance (OR50.87) and (iii) caffeinated coffee consumption (OR50.99 per cup/day). Reports of ''bothersome'' tinnitus (moderate-severe handicap) increased with wholemeal/wholegrain bread intake (OR50.86). Reports of less frequent transient tinnitus increased with dairy avoidance (OR51.18) and decreased with caffeinated coffee (OR50.98 per cup/ day) and brown bread (OR50.94).Conclusions: This is the first population study to report the association between dietary factors and tinnitus. Although individually dietary associations are mostly modest, particular changes in diet, such as switching between foodstuffs, may result in stronger associations. These findings offer insights into possible dietary associations with tinnitus, and this may be useful when discussing management options in combination with other lifestyle changes and therapies. © 2014 McCormack et al.


Qureishi A.,Northampton General Hospital | Lee Y.,NIHR Nottingham Hearing Biomedical Research Unit | Belfield K.,University of Nottingham | Birchall J.P.,University of Nottingham | Daniel M.,NIHR Nottingham Hearing Biomedical Research Unit
Infection and Drug Resistance | Year: 2014

Acute otitis media and otitis media with effusion are common childhood disorders, a source of significant morbidity, and a leading cause of antibiotic prescription in primary health care. Although effective treatments are available, some shortcomings remain, and thus better treatments would be welcome. Recent discoveries within the field of otitis media research relating to its etiology and pathogenesis have led to further investigation aimed at developing novel treatments. This article provides a review of the latest evidence relating to the understanding of acute otitis media and otitis media with effusion, current treatment strategies, their limitations, new areas of research, and novel strategies for treatment. © 2014 Qureishi et al.


McCormack A.,University of Nottingham | McCormack A.,NIHR Nottingham Hearing Biomedical Research Unit | Shorter G.W.,University of Ulster | Griffiths M.D.,Nottingham Trent University
International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction | Year: 2013

Internet gambling participation is rapidly increasing, however little is known about potential links between internet gambling and problem gambling. This study examined the predictors of online problem gambling and whether these differed from established predictors of offline problem gambling. Data were obtained online in response to posts on 32 international gambling websites (n = 1,119). Potential correlates included demographic questions, gambling activities, frequency of gambling, and reasons for gambling online. Multinomial logistic regression revealed that compared to non-problem gamblers, online problem gamblers were more likely to be male, smoke cigarettes, gamble alone, have a disability, lie about their age online, gamble online for more than 4 h at a time, engage in two or more online gambling activities regularly, gamble after a near miss, and drink alcohol while gambling online. Therefore, characteristics predictive of offline problem gambling are similar to those predicting online problem gambling. As a result online gambling could potentially be problematic for those individuals who have problems with gambling more generally. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York.


McCormack A.,Nottingham Trent University | McCormack A.,University of Nottingham | McCormack A.,NIHR Nottingham Hearing Biomedical Research Unit | Shorter G.W.,University of Ulster | Griffiths M.D.,Nottingham Trent University
Journal of Behavioral Addictions | Year: 2013

Background and aims: Online gambling participation is increasing rapidly, with relatively little research about the possible effects of different gambling activities on problem gambling behaviour. The aim of this exploratory study was to examine the participation in online gambling activities and the relationship with problem gambling among an international sample of online gamblers. Methods: An online gambling survey was posted on 32 international gambling websites and resulted in 1,119 respondents over a four-month period. Results: Poker was the most popular gambling activity online. A number of online activities were associated with problem gambling, including: roulette, poker, horse race betting, sports betting, spread betting and fruit (slot) machines. Not surprisingly, those that gambled on these activities regularly (except poker) were more likely to be a problem gambler, however, what is interesting is that the reverse is true for poker players; those that gambled regularly on poker were less likely to be a problem gambler compared to the non-regular poker players. The majority of the players also gambled offline, but there was no relationship between problem gambling and whether or not a person also gambled offline. Discussion: Problem gambling is associated more with certain online gambling activities than others, and those gambling on two or more activities online were more likely to be a problem gambler. Conclusion: This paper can help explain the impact different online gambling activities may have on gambling behaviour. Consideration needs to be given to the gambling activity when developing and implementing treatment programmes. © 2013 Akadémiai Kiadó.


Hoare D.,NIHR Nottingham Hearing Biomedical Research Unit | Hoare D.,University of Nottingham | Adjamian P.,University of Nottingham | Sereda M.,NIHR Nottingham Hearing Biomedical Research Unit | And 3 more authors.
Noise and Health | Year: 2013

The past decade has seen an escalating enthusiasm to comprehend chronic tinnitus from the perspective of both scientific understanding and clinical management. At the same time, there is a significant interest and commercial investment in providing targeted and individualized approaches to care, which incorporate novel sound-based technologies, with standard audiological and psychological strategies. Commercially produced sound-based devices for the tinnitus market include Co-ordinated Reset Neuromodulation ® , Neuromonics © , Serenade ® , and Widex ® Zen. Additionally, experimental interventions such as those based on frequency-discrimination training are of current interest. Many of these interventions overtly claim to target the underlying neurological causes of tinnitus. Here, we briefly summarize current perspectives on the pathophysiology of tinnitus and evaluate claims made by the device supporters from a critical point of view. We provide an opinion on how future research in the field of individualized sound-based interventions might best provide a reliable evidence-base in this growing area of translational medicine.


Henshaw H.,NIHR Nottingham Hearing Biomedical Research Unit | Ferguson M.A.,NIHR Nottingham Hearing Biomedical Research Unit
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Background:Auditory training involves active listening to auditory stimuli and aims to improve performance in auditory tasks. As such, auditory training is a potential intervention for the management of people with hearing loss.Objective:This systematic review (PROSPERO 2011: CRD42011001406) evaluated the published evidence-base for the efficacy of individual computer-based auditory training to improve speech intelligibility, cognition and communication abilities in adults with hearing loss, with or without hearing aids or cochlear implants.Methods:A systematic search of eight databases and key journals identified 229 articles published since 1996, 13 of which met the inclusion criteria. Data were independently extracted and reviewed by the two authors. Study quality was assessed using ten pre-defined scientific and intervention-specific measures.Results:Auditory training resulted in improved performance for trained tasks in 9/10 articles that reported on-task outcomes. Although significant generalisation of learning was shown to untrained measures of speech intelligibility (11/13 articles), cognition (1/1 articles) and self-reported hearing abilities (1/2 articles), improvements were small and not robust. Where reported, compliance with computer-based auditory training was high, and retention of learning was shown at post-training follow-ups. Published evidence was of very-low to moderate study quality.Conclusions:Our findings demonstrate that published evidence for the efficacy of individual computer-based auditory training for adults with hearing loss is not robust and therefore cannot be reliably used to guide intervention at this time. We identify a need for high-quality evidence to further examine the efficacy of computer-based auditory training for people with hearing loss. © 2013 Henshaw, Ferguson.


Pierzycki R.H.,University of Nottingham | Pierzycki R.H.,NIHR Nottingham Hearing Biomedical Research Unit | Seeber B.U.,University of Nottingham | Seeber B.U.,TU Munich
JARO - Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology | Year: 2014

Comodulation masking release (CMR) is an improvement in the detection threshold of a masked signal that occurs when the masker envelopes are correlated across frequency (i.e., comodulation). CMR can be observed when flanking bands (FBs) of noise co-modulated with an on-frequency band (OFB) noise masker are added at remote frequencies (CMR1), or when co-modulated envelopes are used instead of anti-modulated envelopes (OFB and FB envelopes out of phase, CMR2). For FBs widely separated from the OFB, this process is assumed to rely mostly on across-channel comparison of temporal envelopes. Since cochlear implants (CIs) rely predominantly on the transmission of envelope cues, we investigated if CMR can be observed in electric hearing. We stimulated the auditory nerve of eight CI users with trains of modulated electric pulses presented on an OFB electrode alone, or together with pulse trains on one or two FB electrodes. Participants had to detect signal-induced changes in the envelope of an electric pulse train masker presented on the OFB electrode. Envelopes on FB electrodes were either co-modulated or anti-modulated with the envelope of the OFB masker. We observed CMR1 in one of the eight CI users. However, significant CMR2 was observed in most CI users. Reducing amplitude-modulation rate from 20 to 8 Hz, reducing envelopes' randomness or increasing electrode separation did not generally improve CMR1, but increased the prevalence of CMR2. The present results suggest that comodulation of envelopes can aid signal detection in electric hearing. © 2014 The Author(s).


PubMed | Nottingham Trent University, NIHR Nottingham Hearing Biomedical Research Unit and University of Nottingham
Type: | Journal: Hearing research | Year: 2016

Understanding what is said in demanding listening situations is assisted greatly by looking at the face of a talker. Previous studies have observed that normal-hearing listeners can benefit from this visual information when a talkers voice is presented in background noise. These benefits have also been observed in quiet listening conditions in cochlear-implant users, whose device does not convey the informative temporal fine structure cues in speech, and when normal-hearing individuals listen to speech processed to remove these informative temporal fine structure cues. The current study (1) characterised the benefits of visual information when listening in background noise; and (2) used sine-wave vocoding to compare the size of the visual benefit when speech is presented with or without informative temporal fine structure. The accuracy with which normal-hearing individuals reported words in spoken sentences was assessed across three experiments. The availability of visual information and informative temporal fine structure cues was varied within and across the experiments. The results showed that visual benefit was observed using open- and closed-set tests of speech perception. The size of the benefit increased when informative temporal fine structure cues were removed. This finding suggests that visual information may play an important role in the ability of cochlear-implant users to understand speech in many everyday situations. Models of audio-visual integration were able to account for the additional benefit of visual information when speech was degraded and suggested that auditory and visual information was being integrated in a similar way in all conditions. The modelling results were consistent with the notion that audio-visual benefit is derived from the optimal combination of auditory and visual sensory cues.

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