NIHR Nottingham Digestive Diseases Biomedical Research Unit

Nottingham, United Kingdom

NIHR Nottingham Digestive Diseases Biomedical Research Unit

Nottingham, United Kingdom
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Sauter M.,University of Zürich | Sauter M.,Triemli Hospital | Heinrich H.,University of Zürich | Fox M.,University of Zürich | And 7 more authors.
Neurogastroenterology and Motility | Year: 2014

Background: Measurements of anorectal function using high-resolution anorectal manometry (HR-ARM) and rectal barostat technology provide more reliable results than standard ARM with an elastic balloon; however, HR-ARM results have not been compared to ARM and standard barostat protocols are impractical in routine clinical practice. The aim of this study was to validate HR-ARM against standard ARM and standard barostat against a novel Rapid Barostat Bag (RBB) measurement and elastic balloon measurements of rectal function. Methods: Twenty-six healthy volunteers (15 female, 11 male, 19-52 years) were studied. Measurements of anal function and simulated defecation were compared for 12-sensor HR-ARM and 6-sensor standard ARM using line plots from the same recording. Rectal capacity, compliance, and sensation (volume threshold) were measured by elastic balloon, standard barostat, and RBB methods using stepwise inflation of a 700-mL polyethylene bag to 40 mmHg distension by electronic barostat and handheld syringe monitored by sphygmo-manometer, respectively. Results are reported as mean ± SD. Bland-Altman plots and correlation coefficients (r) for measurements were calculated. Key Results: There was excellent agreement between HR- and standard ARM measurements (r > 0.86, <25 mmHg difference) and between standard barostat and RBB measurements of rectal capacity (r = 0.97, <25 mL difference). Correlation coefficients of threshold volumes for initial perception, urgency and discomfort were 0.37, 0.71, and 0.95, respectively. No significant correlation was present with elastic balloon measurements. Time to complete studies was shorter for HR-ARM than standard ARM and for RBB than standard barostat in historical controls. Conclusions & Inferences: HR-ARM with RBB measurements of anorectal function provides quick and reasonably accurate measurements of continence function suitable for use in routine clinical practice (ClinicalTrial.gov NCT01456442). © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.


Arends J.E.,University Utrecht | Arends J.E.,Members of the European Study Group on Viral Hepatitis ESGVH | Ghisetti V.,Amedeo Of Savoia Hospital | Ghisetti V.,Members of the European Study Group on Viral Hepatitis ESGVH | And 8 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Virology | Year: 2014

Hepatitis E virus (HEV) genotype 3 is the most recently characterized hepatotropic virus and is increasingly being recognized as the cause of unexplained liver disease in many western countries. Although asymptomatic in most cases, HEV GT3 may be responsible for a wide range of illnesses, from mild to fulminant acute hepatitis, and also chronic hepatitis in immunocompromised patients. Extrahepatic manifestations have been occasionally described. Anti-HEV antibody detection by immunoassays is hampered by moderate test accuracy particularly in immunocompromised hosts while a WHO international standard for molecular detection of HEV RNA by RT-PCR has recently been introduced. This review describes the basic virology, epidemiology, clinical virology and treatment of HEV GT3 infections in high income countries. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.


Yang J.-F.,First Peoples Hospital of Hangzhou | Yang J.-F.,Zhejiang University | Fox M.,University of Zürich | Fox M.,NIHR Nottingham Digestive Diseases Biomedical Research Unit | And 6 more authors.
World Journal of Gastroenterology | Year: 2015

AIM: To validate 4-sample lactose hydrogen breath testing (4SLHBT) compared to standard 13-sample LHBT in the clinical setting. METHODS: Irritable bowel syndrome patients with diarrhea (IBS-D) and healthy volunteers (HVs) were enrolled and received a 10 g, 20 g, or 40 g dose lactose hydrogen breath test (LHBT) in a randomized, double-blinded, controlled trial. The lactase gene promoter region was sequenced. Breath samples and symptoms were acquired at baseline and every 15 min for 3 h (13 measurements). The detection rates of lactose malabsorption (LM) and lactose intolerance (LI) for a 4SLHBT that acquired four measurements at 0, 90, 120, and 180 min from the same data set were compared with the results of standard LHBT. RESULTS: Sixty IBS-D patients and 60 HVs were studied. The genotype in all participants was C/C-13910. LM and LI detection rates increased with lactose dose from 10 g, 20 g to 40 g in both groups (P < 0.001). 4SLHBT showed excellent diagnostic concordance with standard LHBT (97%-100%, Kappa 0.815-0.942) with high sensitivity (90%-100%) and specificity (100%) at all three lactose doses in both groups. CONCLUSION: Reducing the number of measurements from 13 to 4 samples did not significantly impact on the accuracy of LHBT in health and IBS-D. 4SLHBT is a valid test for assessment of LM and LI in clinical practice. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Baishideng Publishing Group Inc. All rights reserved.


Sevrain D.,University of Western Brittany | Dubreuil M.,University of Western Brittany | Dolman G.E.,NIHR Nottingham Digestive Diseases Biomedical Research Unit | Zaitoun A.,University of Nottingham | And 5 more authors.
Biomedical Optics Express | Year: 2015

In this paper we analyze a fibrosis scoring method based on measurement of the fibrillar collagen area from second harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy images of unstained histological slices from human liver biopsies. The study is conducted on a cohort of one hundred chronic hepatitis C patients with intermediate to strong Metavir and Ishak stages of liver fibrosis. We highlight a key parameter of our scoring method to discriminate between high and low fibrosis stages. Moreover, according tothe intensity histograms of the SHG images and simple mathematical arguments, we show that our area-based method is equivalent to an intensity-based method, despite saturation of the images. Finally we propose an improvement of our scoring method using very simple image processing tools. © 2015 Optical Society of America.


Yang J.,Zhejiang University | Yang J.,First Peoples Hospital of Hangzhou | Fox M.,University of Zürich | Fox M.,NIHR Nottingham Digestive Diseases Biomedical Research Unit | And 6 more authors.
Alimentary Pharmacology and Therapeutics | Year: 2014

Background Irritable bowel syndrome patients with diarrhoea (IBS-D) often report intolerance to milk; however, the mechanism underlying these symptoms is unknown. Aim To assess the role of psychological factors, immune activation and visceral sensitivity on the development of lactose intolerance (LI) in IBS-D patients. Methods Fifty-five IBS-D patients and 18 healthy controls (HCs) with lactase deficiency underwent a 20-g lactose hydrogen breath test (LHBT). Patients were categorised as lactose malabsorption (LM; malabsorption only) or LI [malabsorption plus increase in total symptom score (TSS). Measurements included (i) psychological status; (ii) enteric biopsies with quantification of mast cells (MCs), T-lymphocytes and enterochromaffin cells; (iii) serum cytokines; (iv) rectal sensitivity before and after lactose ingestion. Results LI was more prevalent in IBS-D patients than HCs [25/55 (46%) vs. 3/18 (17%), P = 0.029]. IBS-D patients with LI had (i) higher levels of anxiety than those with LM (P = 0.017) or HCs (P = 0.006); (ii) increased mucosal MCs compared with LM (P = 0.006) and HCs (P < 0.001); (iii) raised serum TNF-α compared with LM (P = 0.034) and HCs (P < 0.001) and (iv) increased rectal sensitivity after lactose ingestion compared with LM (P < 0.001) or HCs (P < 0.001). Severity of abdominal symptoms after lactose ingestion was associated with the increase in visceral sensitivity after lactose intake (r = 0.629, P < 0.001), MCs (r = 0.650, P < 0.001) and anxiety (r = 0.519, P < 0.001). Conclusions IBS-D patients with lactose intolerence are characterised by anxiety, mucosal immune activation and increased visceral sensitivity after lactose ingestion. The presence of these biomarkers may indicate an IBS phenotype that responds to dietary therapy and/or mast cell stabilisers (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01286597). © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.


Cheung M.C.M.,Queen Mary, University of London | Walker A.J.,University of Nottingham | Hudson B.E.,University of Bristol | Verma S.,King's College London | And 8 more authors.
Journal of Hepatology | Year: 2016

Background & Aims: Direct-acting antivirals have become widely used for patients with chronic hepatitis C virus infection with decompensated cirrhosis. Virological responses are excellent and early improvements in liver function, at least in a proportion of patients, have been observed but the longer term impact of viral clearance on end-stage liver disease complications is unclear. Methods: Prospective study of patients with decompensated cirrhosis who received 12. weeks of all-oral direct-acting antivirals through the English Expanded Access Programme. Endpoints were deaths, liver transplantation, hepatocellular carcinoma, serious decompensation events, sepsis or hospitalisations, and MELD scores between start of therapy to 15. months post-treatment start. An untreated cohort of patients was retrospectively studied over 6. months for comparison. Results: Amongst 317/406 patients who achieved sustained virological response at 24. weeks post-treatment, there were 9 deaths (3%), 17 new liver cancers (5%), 39 transplantations (12%) and 52 with serious decompensations (16%), over 15. months.When compared to the first six months from treatment start and to untreated patients, there was a reduction in incidence of decompensations [30/406 (7%) in months 6-15 and 72/406 (18%) in months 0-6 for treated patients . vs. 73/261 (28%) in untreated patients]. There was no significant difference in liver cancer incidence (10/406 (2.5%) in months 6-15 and 17/406 (4%) in months 0-6 for treated patients . vs. 11/261 (4%) in untreated patients). Conclusions: This study suggests that antiviral therapy in patients with decompensated cirrhosis led to prolonged improvement in liver function, with no evidence of paradoxical adverse impact nor increase in liver malignancy. Lay summary: This is a report of a large group of patients in England who have hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection with advanced liver disease. They have been treated with new anti-HCV drugs, which cured the infection in the majority. This study looks at their outcomes a year following treatment, in terms of deaths, cancers and other complications of advanced liver disease. We conclude that in most patients anti-HCV treatment is beneficial even in advanced liver disease. © 2016 European Association for the Study of the Liver.


Ozaras R.,Istanbul University | Corti G.,University of Florence | Ruta S.,Carol Davila University of Medicine and Pharmacy | Lacombe K.,University Pierre and Marie Curie | And 12 more authors.
Clinical Microbiology and Infection | Year: 2015

The prevalence and management of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection differ among European countries. The availability and reimbursement of diagnostics and drugs may also vary, determining distinct treatment outcomes. Herein, we analyse differences in medical facilities for the care of patients with chronic HBV infection across Europe. A survey was sent to the members of the ESCMID Study Group for Viral Hepatitis, all of whom are experts in chronic HBV infection management. The comprehensive survey asked questions regarding hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) prevalence, the availability of diagnostics and drugs marketed, and distinct clinical practice behaviours in the management of chronic HBV infection. World Bank data were used to assess the economic status of the countries. With 16 expert physicians responding (69%), the HBsAg prevalence rates were <1% in France, Hungary, Italy, The Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, and the UK, intermediate (1-5%) in Turkey, Romania, and Serbia, and high (>5%) in Albania and Iran. Regarding the availability and reimbursement of HBV diagnostics (HBV DNA and liver stiffness measurement), HBV drugs (interferon, lamivudine, tenofovir, and entecavir), HBV prophylaxis, and duration of HBeAg-positive and HBeAg-negative HBV infection, the majority of high-income and middle-income countries had no restrictions; Albania, Iran and Serbia had several restrictions in diagnostics and HBV drugs. The countries in the high-income group were also the ones with no restrictions in medical facilities, whereas the upper-middle-income countries had some restrictions. The prevalence of chronic HBV infection is much higher in southern and eastern than in western European countries. Despite the availability of European guidelines, policies for diagnostics and treatment vary significantly across European countries. © 2015 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.


PubMed | University Hospitals Geneva Medical Center, University Paul Sabatier, NIHR Nottingham Digestive Diseases Biomedical Research Unit, Amedeo Of Savoia Hospital and 2 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of clinical virology : the official publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology | Year: 2014

Hepatitis E virus (HEV) genotype 3 is the most recently characterized hepatotropic virus and is increasingly being recognized as the cause of unexplained liver disease in many western countries. Although asymptomatic in most cases, HEV GT3 may be responsible for a wide range of illnesses, from mild to fulminant acute hepatitis, and also chronic hepatitis in immunocompromised patients. Extrahepatic manifestations have been occasionally described. Anti-HEV antibody detection by immunoassays is hampered by moderate test accuracy particularly in immunocompromised hosts while a WHO international standard for molecular detection of HEV RNA by RT-PCR has recently been introduced. This review describes the basic virology, epidemiology, clinical virology and treatment of HEV GT3 infections in high income countries.


PubMed | University of Nottingham, Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Imperial College London, University of Bristol and 6 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of hepatology | Year: 2016

All oral direct acting antivirals (DAAs) effectively treat chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, but the benefits in advanced liver disease are unclear. We compared outcomes in treated and untreated patients with decompensated cirrhosis.Patients with HCV and decompensated cirrhosis or at risk of irreversible disease were treated in an expanded access programme (EAP) in 2014. Treatment, by clinician choice, was with sofosbuvir, ledipasvir or daclatasvir, with or without ribavirin. For functional outcome comparison, untreated patients with HCV and decompensated cirrhosis who were registered on a database 6months before treatment was available were retrospectively studied. Primary endpoint was sustained virological response 12weeks post antiviral treatment (treated cohort) and the secondary endpoint (both cohorts) was adverse outcomes (worsening in MELD score or serious adverse event) within 6months.467 patients received treatment (409 decompensated cirrhosis). Viral clearance was achieved in 381 patients (81.6%) - 209 from 231 (90.5%) with genotype 1 and 132 from 192 (68.8%) with genotype 3. MELD scores improved in treated patients (mean change -0.85) but worsened in untreated patients (mean+0.75) (p<0.0001). Patients with initial serum albumin <35g/L, aged >65 or with low (<135mmol/L) baseline serum sodium concentrations were least likely to benefit from therapy.All oral DAAs effectively cured HCV in patients with advanced liver disease. Viral clearance was associated with improvement in liver function within 6months compared to untreated patients. The longer term impact of HCV treatment in patients with decompensated cirrhosis remains to be determined.


PubMed | Rennes Institute of Physics, University of Western Brittany, University of Nottingham and NIHR Nottingham Digestive Diseases Biomedical Research Unit
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Biomedical optics express | Year: 2015

In this paper we analyze a fibrosis scoring method based on measurement of the fibrillar collagen area from second harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy images of unstained histological slices from human liver biopsies. The study is conducted on a cohort of one hundred chronic hepatitis C patients with intermediate to strong Metavir and Ishak stages of liver fibrosis. We highlight a key parameter of our scoring method to discriminate between high and low fibrosis stages. Moreover, according to the intensity histograms of the SHG images and simple mathematical arguments, we show that our area-based method is equivalent to an intensity-based method, despite saturation of the images. Finally we propose an improvement of our scoring method using very simple image processing tools.

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