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Chapel Allerton, United Kingdom

Lamprou M.,University of Patras | Kaspiris A.,University of Patras | Panagiotopoulos E.,University of Patras | Giannoudis P.V.,University of Leeds | And 2 more authors.
Injury | Year: 2014

Bone has an enormous capacity for growth, regeneration, and remodelling, largely due to induction of osteoblasts that are recruited to the site of bone formation. Although the pathways involved have not been fully elucidated, it is well accepted that the immediate environment of the cells is likely to play a role via cell-matrix interactions, mediated by several growth factors. Formation of new blood vessels is also significant and interdependent to bone formation, suggesting that enhancement of angiogenesis could be beneficial during the process of bone repair. Pleiotrophin (PTN), also called osteoblast-specific factor 1, is a heparin-binding angiogenic growth factor, with a well-defined and significant role in both physiological and pathological angiogenesis. In this review we summarise the existing evidence on the role of PTN in bone repair. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Tebby J.,University of Leeds | Lecky F.,A+ Network | Edwards A.,A+ Network | Jenks T.,A+ Network | And 5 more authors.
BMC Medicine | Year: 2014

Background: The impact of diabetes mellitus in patients with multiple system injuries remains obscure. This study was designed to increase knowledge of outcomes of polytrauma in patients who have diabetes mellitus. Methods: Data from the Trauma Audit and Research Network was used to identify patients who had suffered polytrauma during 2003 to 2011. These patients were filtered to those with known outcomes, then separated into those with diabetes, those known to have other co-morbidities but not diabetes and those known not to have any co-morbidities or diabetes. The data were analyzed to establish if patients with diabetes had differing outcomes associated with their diabetes versus the other groups. Results: In total, 222 patients had diabetes, 2,558 had no past medical co-morbidities (PMC), 2,709 had PMC but no diabetes. The diabetic group of patients was found to be older than the other groups (P <0.05). A higher mortality rate was found in the diabetic group compared to the non-PMC group (32.4% versus 12.9%), P <0.05). Rates of many complications including renal failure, myocardial infarction, acute respiratory distress syndrome, pulmonary embolism and deep vein thrombosis were all found to be higher in the diabetic group. Conclusions: Close monitoring of diabetic patients may result in improved outcomes. Tighter glycemic control and earlier intervention for complications may reduce mortality and morbidity. © 2014 Tebby et al.

Barquet A.,AEPSM | Mayora G.,AEPSM | Guimaraes J.M.,INTO | Suarez R.,AEPSM | And 2 more authors.
Injury | Year: 2014

Introduction: Avascular necrosis of the femoral head (ANFH) following trochanteric fractures (TFx) is infrequent. The causal relationship between ANFH and TFx remains controversial. Although several major risk factors for ANFH have been proposed, most of them remain under discussion. In this study we undertook a systematic review of the literature to investigate the incidence of AVN, risk factors and outcomes following Tfx fixation. Materials and methods: A comprehensive review of the literature was undertaken using the PRISMA guidelines with no language restriction. Case reports of ANFH and series of TFx with or without cases of ANFH published between inception of journals to December 2013 were eligible for inclusion. Relevant information was divided in two sections. Part I: included the analysis of detailed case reports of ANFH, either published isolated or included in series of TFx, with the objective of establishing potential risk factors, clinical and radiological presentation, time to development, treatment and outcome of this complication. Part II: analyzed series of TFx, which included cases of ANFH with or without details of aetiology, treatment modalities and outcomes, with the objective of assessing the incidence of ANFH in TFx. Results: Overall 80 articles with 192 cases of ANFH after TFx met the inclusion criteria. The most probable developmental pathway appears to be a disruption of the extra osseous arterial blood supply to the femoral head. Suggested risk factors included high-energy trauma with fracture comminution and displacement, and an atypical course of the fracture line, more proximal, at the base of the neck. Most cases were diagnosed within the first two years after fracture. The clinical and radiological features appear to be similar to those of idiopathic avascular necrosis of the femoral head. The incidence of AVFH with a minimum of 1-year follow-up was calculated 0.95%, and with a minimum 2-year follow-up it was 1.37%. Total hip replacement was the mainstay of treatment. Conclusion: The incidence of AVFH after Tfx fixation is small 1.37% within the first 2 years of injury. Risk factors for the development of this complication are related to the severity of trauma, fragment geometry and fracture displacement. Optimum surgery of these fractures cannot guarantee prevention of ANFH. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Santolini E.,University of Leeds | Santolini E.,University of Genoa | West R.,University of Leeds | Giannoudis P.V.,University of Leeds | Giannoudis P.V.,NIHR Leeds Biomedical Research Unit
Injury | Year: 2015

Non-union continues to be the most devastating complication after fracture fixation. Its treatment can be prolonged and often unpredictable. The burden to the patient, surgeon and health care system can be immense. Strategies to prevent it and or identify early its development are desirable in order to improve the clinical course of the affected patients and their outcomes. We undertook a systematic review of the literature in order to identify the most common and important risk factors based on the hierarchy of level of evidence. Accordingly, a stratification scale was formed which highlighted 10 risk factors including; an open method of fracture reduction, open fracture, presence of post-surgical fracture gap, smoking, infection, wedge or comminuted types of fracture, high degree of initial fracture displacement, lack of adequate mechanical stability provided by the implant used, fracture location in the poor zone of vascularity of the affected bone, and the presence of the fracture in the tibia. Clinicians should take in to account these findings when managing patients with long bone fractures, particularly the femur and tibia in order to minimise the risk of non-union. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Panteli M.,University of Leeds | Pountos I.,University of Leeds | Jones E.,University of Leeds | Giannoudis P.V.,University of Leeds | Giannoudis P.V.,NIHR Leeds Biomedical Research Unit
Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine | Year: 2015

Delayed bone healing and non-union occur in approximately 10% of long bone fractures. Despite intense investigations and progress in understanding the processes governing bone healing, the specific pathophysiological characteristics of the local microenvironment leading to non-union remain obscure. The clinical findings and radiographic features remain the two important landmarks of diagnosing non-unions and even when the diagnosis is established there is debate on the ideal timing and mode of intervention. In an attempt to understand better the pathophysiological processes involved in the development of fracture non-union, a number of studies have endeavoured to investigate the biological profile of tissue obtained from the non-union site and analyse any differences or similarities of tissue obtained from different types of non-unions. In the herein study, we present the existing evidence of the biological and molecular profile of fracture non-union tissue. © 2015 The Authors.

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