Okazaki, Japan
Okazaki, Japan

Nihon Fukushi University is a private university with its main campus at Mihama, Aichi, and other campuses at Nagoya and Handa, also in Aichi Prefecture, Japan. The school was founded as a junior college in 1953 and became a four-year college in 1957. Wikipedia.

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Kim J.,University of New South Wales | Chung C.Y.,University of New South Wales | Nakamura S.,Nihon Fukushi University | Palmisano S.,University of Wollongong | Khuu S.K.,University of New South Wales
Frontiers in Psychology | Year: 2015

For years now, virtual reality devices have been applied in the field of vision science in an attempt to improve our understanding of perceptual principles underlying the experience of self-motion. Some of this research has been concerned with exploring factors involved in the visually-induced illusory perception of self-motion, known as vection. We examined the usefulness of the cost-effective Oculus Rift in generating vection in seated observers. This device has the capacity to display optic flow in world coordinates by compensating for tracked changes in 3D head orientation. We measured vection strength in three conditions of visual compensation for head movement: compensated, uncompensated, and inversely compensated. During presentation of optic flow, the observer was instructed to make periodic head oscillations (±22° horizontal excursions at approximately 0.53 Hz). We found that vection was best in the compensated condition, and was weakest in the inversely compensated condition. Surprisingly, vection was always better in passive viewing conditions, compared with conditions where active head rotations were performed. These findings suggest that vection is highly dependent on interactions between visual, vestibular and proprioceptive information, and may be highly sensitive to limitations of temporal lag in visual-vestibular coupling using this system. © 2015 Kim, Chung, Nakamura, Palmisano and Khuu.

It has been repeatedly reported that visual stimuli containing a jittering/oscillating motion component can induce self-motion perception more strongly than a pure radial expansion pattern. A psychophysical experiment with 11 observers revealed that the additional accelerating components of the visual motion have to be convoluted with the motion of the main-axis to facilitate self-motion perception; additional motion presented in an isolated fashion impairs the perception of self-motion. These results are inconsistent with a simple hypothesis about the perceptual mechanism underlying the advantage of jitter/oscillation, which assumes that the accelerating component induces an additional self-motion independently of the main motion at the first stage, and then the two self-motions induced by the main motion and the additional component become integrated. © 2012 Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden.

Takagi D.,University of Tokyo | Kondo K.,Nihon Fukushi University | Kawachi I.,Huntington University
BMC Public Health | Year: 2013

Background: Previous studies have reported that older people's social participation has positive effects on their health. However, some studies showed that the impacts of social participation on health differ by gender. We sought to examine whether the effects of social participation on mental health differ for men and women in a Japanese population. We also examined the moderating influence of social position within the organization as well as urban/rural locality. Methods. We used two waves of the Aichi Gerontological Evaluation Study's longitudinal survey, which targeted residents with aged 65 years or over (n = 2,728) in a central part of Japan. The first wave survey was conducted in 2003, and the second wave in 2006. Depressive symptoms of the study participants were assessed using the short version of the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15). A multilevel logistic regression model was used with individual-level as level 1 and the school district-level as level 2. Results: We found that higher social participation and performing key roles in the organization had protective effects on depressive symptoms for women. However, there were no main effects of these variables for the mental health of men. We found an interaction between social participation, organizational position, and rural residence among men only. That is, men who occupied leadership positions in organizations reported better mental health, but only in rural areas. Conclusions: Our findings support the notion that increasing the opportunities for social participation improves older people's heath, especially for women. However, in the rural Japanese context, offering men meaningful roles within organizations may be important. © 2013 Takagi et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Nakamura S.,Nihon Fukushi University
Perception | Year: 2013

It is widely known that visual jitter convoluted with an expanding optical flow can robustly enhance an observer's illusory perception of forward self-motion (eg Palmisano et al 2000 Perception 29 57-67). In the present investigation I examine the effects of visual jitter on visually induced selfrotation (roll vection). The results showed that the strength of roll vection was decreased under conditions where the visual jitter was convoluted into the rotating visual stimulus. Although the extent of the decrement differed according to the amplitude and direction of the jitter, visual jitters in any direction with any amplitude can significantly reduce vection strength, at least under the conditions examined in the present experiment. The perceptual process underlying jitter effects on vection is discussed in the context of visuo-vestibular conflict in perception of self-motion. © 2013 a Pion publication.

Horizontal oscillation introduced into a visual inducer can enhance an observer's illusory perception of vertical self-motion induced by a vertically moving optic flow pattern. To examine the effects of increased retinal image motion on the facilitation of vection, vection strength was analysed under various stimulus conditions where the oscillation of the retinal image was determined both by the motion of the visual stimulus and the observer's eye movements. The results indicated that the facilitation of vection was regulated by the oscillation of the visual stimulus on the observer's retina rather than the stimulus oscillation per se. Thus, the current experiment clearly favours the hypothesis that increased retinal image motion plays a critical role in the facilitation of vection. © 2013 a Pion publication.

Previous studies have shown that the addition of jittering motion into a visual inducer facilitates vection. A psychophysical experiment with 12 observers found that the expanding visual inducer, which contained rotational jitter around the observer's line of sight, can induce stronger forward vection than a pure radial expansion without any additional jittering component. The results suggested that angular rotational jitter can facilitate vection without the enhancement of motion parallax, which has been considered one of the critical factors in explaining jitter effects. © 2013 Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden.

Saito M.,Nihon Fukushi University
[Nippon kōshū eisei zasshi] Japanese journal of public health | Year: 2010

The purpose of this paper is to clarify the prevalence and characteristics of social isolation in elderly individuals living alone or with others in a dormitory suburb, and to examine the characteristics of non-responders to questions concerning social isolation. Data were obtained from a survey of 978 elderly (aged 65 and over) individuals living alone and 1,529 elderly individuals living together in Wako-shi, Saitama. The frequencies of contacts with non-co-resident children, relatives, friends, and neighbors were used to operationally define social isolation. Based on these responses, those who had contact with any of the above groups less than 2 or 3 times a month were termed "isolated elderly", those who had contact with these more than once a week were termed "non-isolated elderly", and those who did not answer these questions were termed "nonresponders". In addition, a logistic regression analysis was conducted to examine differences among the characteristics of isolated elderly between these households. Also, a multiple comparison analysis was performed to clarify the characteristics of non-responders. The major findings were as follows: 1) rates of prevalence of the isolated elderly were 24.01% for elderly living alone, and 28.7% for elderly living with others, respectively; 2) the elderly who were male, childless or living distant from children, and of lower income tended to be more socially isolated whether they were living alone or not; 3) a difference in isolation was noted between living alone and together in that divorced and unmarried elderly tended to be isolated when living alone while older and frail elderly tended to be isolated even when living together; 4) the characteristics of "nonresponders" were similar to those of the isolated elderly for both those living alone and living together. These findings suggest that social support for the socially isolated elderly should be adequately planned considering differences in the characteristics of isolation between those living alone and living together. It is also suggested that the non-responders in some questions relating to social isolation should be considered as likely to belong to the isolation groups when screening for the isolated elderly.

Vection can be induced by repeated presentation of static visual images with only two or four frames. The result suggests that vection is only affected by the perceived motion of the visual stimulus, not by awareness of visual displacement.

It has been suggested that the addition of oscillating motion components can facilitate visually induced self-motion perception (vection), even though they generate substantial conflicts between visual and vestibular information about self-motion. In the psychophysical experiments reported here, attributes of sinusoidal oscillation, such as consistency in phases or amplitudes, were varied in order to investigate the perceptual mechanism underlying the facilitative effects of additional oscillation. The results show that coherent oscillation in the orthogonal direction of the main visual motion can facilitate vection strength, whereas variation in the phases or nonuniform amplitude impairs it. Furthermore, the strength of self-motion perception and the perceived rigidity of the visual pattern covaried as a function of stimulus attributes. These results suggest that uniform oscillation first enhances the perceived rigidity of the visual pattern, and then the visual pattern that is perceived as being more rigid induces more compelling self-motion perception. © 2010 a Pion publication.

Tsuno Y.S.,Toho University | Yamazaki Y.,Nihon Fukushi University
BMC Public Health | Year: 2012

Background: The salutogenic model states that coping resources are defined within sociocultural and historical contexts and that various social and historical factors influence the availability of such resources. Though previous studies have suggested the need for an interregional comparison of psychological and social resources, few studies have undertaken such an investigation. The aim of this study is to investigate the associations among coping resources, sense of coherence (SOC), and health status in a comparison of urban and rural residents. Methods. General residents (aged 30-69 years) in two areas were targeted for the current study. Through a random sampling selection, 1,000 residents from each area were picked, and an anonymous questionnaire was mailed to each resident. Ultimately, 269 and 363 valid responses from the urban and rural areas, respectively, were analyzed. SOC, both social and psychological resources, and mental health were assessed. To examine relationships between SOC and resources associated with mental health, mental health was defined as a dependent variable. Hierarchical multiple regression was conducted with variables entered from sociodemographic characteristics, social and psychological resources, and SOC. Results: Regarding regional characteristics, social capital and participation in community activities were significantly greater in the rural area than in the urban area. Urban residents reported significantly higher self-esteem and optimism than rural residents. SOC showed the most significant association with mental health in both areas. Mental health was significantly associated with physical activity limitations and life stressors in both areas. However, the associations were weakened when social and psychological resources and SOC were added, which demonstrated their buffering effect on the negative influence of life stressors on health. When SOC was added, the association of self-esteem with mental health disappeared in both areas, but optimism in the urban area and humor in the rural area were directly and independently associated with mental health. Conclusions: Our findings indicate that resources available to urban and rural residents are characteristic of the area where they live, and that social and psychological resources as well as SOC are associated with better mental health. Possible directions for health support strategies, reflecting regional characteristics, are suggested. © 2012 Tsuno and Yamazaki; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

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