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Okazaki, Japan

Nihon Fukushi University is a private university with its main campus at Mihama, Aichi, and other campuses at Nagoya and Handa, also in Aichi Prefecture, Japan. The school was founded as a junior college in 1953 and became a four-year college in 1957. Wikipedia.

It has been repeatedly reported that visual stimuli containing a jittering/oscillating motion component can induce self-motion perception more strongly than a pure radial expansion pattern. A psychophysical experiment with 11 observers revealed that the additional accelerating components of the visual motion have to be convoluted with the motion of the main-axis to facilitate self-motion perception; additional motion presented in an isolated fashion impairs the perception of self-motion. These results are inconsistent with a simple hypothesis about the perceptual mechanism underlying the advantage of jitter/oscillation, which assumes that the accelerating component induces an additional self-motion independently of the main motion at the first stage, and then the two self-motions induced by the main motion and the additional component become integrated. © 2012 Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden.

It has been suggested that the addition of oscillating motion components can facilitate visually induced self-motion perception (vection), even though they generate substantial conflicts between visual and vestibular information about self-motion. In the psychophysical experiments reported here, attributes of sinusoidal oscillation, such as consistency in phases or amplitudes, were varied in order to investigate the perceptual mechanism underlying the facilitative effects of additional oscillation. The results show that coherent oscillation in the orthogonal direction of the main visual motion can facilitate vection strength, whereas variation in the phases or nonuniform amplitude impairs it. Furthermore, the strength of self-motion perception and the perceived rigidity of the visual pattern covaried as a function of stimulus attributes. These results suggest that uniform oscillation first enhances the perceived rigidity of the visual pattern, and then the visual pattern that is perceived as being more rigid induces more compelling self-motion perception. © 2010 a Pion publication.

Takagi D.,University of Tokyo | Kondo K.,Nihon Fukushi University | Kawachi I.,Huntington University
BMC Public Health | Year: 2013

Background: Previous studies have reported that older people's social participation has positive effects on their health. However, some studies showed that the impacts of social participation on health differ by gender. We sought to examine whether the effects of social participation on mental health differ for men and women in a Japanese population. We also examined the moderating influence of social position within the organization as well as urban/rural locality. Methods. We used two waves of the Aichi Gerontological Evaluation Study's longitudinal survey, which targeted residents with aged 65 years or over (n = 2,728) in a central part of Japan. The first wave survey was conducted in 2003, and the second wave in 2006. Depressive symptoms of the study participants were assessed using the short version of the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15). A multilevel logistic regression model was used with individual-level as level 1 and the school district-level as level 2. Results: We found that higher social participation and performing key roles in the organization had protective effects on depressive symptoms for women. However, there were no main effects of these variables for the mental health of men. We found an interaction between social participation, organizational position, and rural residence among men only. That is, men who occupied leadership positions in organizations reported better mental health, but only in rural areas. Conclusions: Our findings support the notion that increasing the opportunities for social participation improves older people's heath, especially for women. However, in the rural Japanese context, offering men meaningful roles within organizations may be important. © 2013 Takagi et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Previous studies have shown that the addition of jittering motion into a visual inducer facilitates vection. A psychophysical experiment with 12 observers found that the expanding visual inducer, which contained rotational jitter around the observer's line of sight, can induce stronger forward vection than a pure radial expansion without any additional jittering component. The results suggested that angular rotational jitter can facilitate vection without the enhancement of motion parallax, which has been considered one of the critical factors in explaining jitter effects. © 2013 Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden.

Vection can be induced by repeated presentation of static visual images with only two or four frames. The result suggests that vection is only affected by the perceived motion of the visual stimulus, not by awareness of visual displacement.

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