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Rubenecia M.R.U.,Kyungpook National University | Ultra V.U.,Catholic University of Daegu | Ultra V.U.,University of Eastern Philippines | Woo C.S.,NIHHS | And 2 more authors.
International Journal of Agriculture and Biology | Year: 2015

In this study, the relationship between soil chemical and microbial properties and ginseng root growth was determined. Rhizosphere soil and ginseng root samples were collected from three different ginseng farms within Gyeongsangbuk-do, South Korea. Our results showed that available phosphorus, magnesium and cation exchange capacity (CEC) in soils have significant correlation with the overall growth of ginseng roots. Soil chemical properties such as pH, percent total C and N, C:N ratio, available P, exchangeable Ca, K and Na were also found to have correlation with soil microbial properties such as PC 1, PC 2, PC 3, AWCD and richness of metabolized carbon based on Biolog EcoPlateTM. However, direct correlation between soil microbial properties and ginseng root growth was not observed. Establishment of the relationship between soil chemical and microbial properties with ginseng root growth is important to fully understand the factors affecting nutrient availability in ginseng cultivated soils which could help identify cultural strategies that would enhance the root growth and quality of P. ginseng. © 2015 Friends Science Publishers.


Kim O.T.,NIHHS | Bang K.H.,NIHHS | Jung S.J.,NIHHS | Kim Y.C.,NIHHS | And 3 more authors.
Biologia Plantarum | Year: 2010

We isolated a gene encoding for farnesyl diphosphate synthase (FPS) from Panax ginseng, a species that produces a large quantity of triterpene saponins such as ginsenosides. The deduced amino acid sequence of PgFPS was 77, 84 and 95% identical to those of Arabidopsis, Hevea, and Centella. Southern blot analysis indicated that P. ginseng contained more than two genes encoding for FPS. When the cDNA of PgFPS was expressed in Escherichia coli, the recombinant enzyme, purified with a His-tag column, was found to possess FPS activity. When cultures of ginseng hairy root were treated with 0.1 mM methyl jasmonate (MJ), PgFPS mRNA was detected within 12 h of the treatment, and achieved maximum after 24 h. Also FPS activity in the hairy root cultures after 12 h of MJ treatment was higher than that of the control. © Springer Science+Business Media B.V 2010.


Chung I.-M.,Konkuk University | Lim J.-J.,Konkuk University | Ahn M.-S.,Ginseng and Medicinal Plants Research Institute | Jeong H.-N.,Ginseng and Medicinal Plants Research Institute | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Ginseng Research | Year: 2015

Background: The study of phenolic compounds profiles and antioxidative activity in ginseng fruit, leaves, and roots with respect to cultivation years, and has been little reported to date. Hence, this study examined the phenolic compounds profiles and 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free-radical-scavenging activities in the fruit, leaves, and roots of Korean ginseng (Panax ginseng Meyer) as a function of cultivation year. Methods: Profiling of 23 phenolic compounds in ginseng fruit, leaves, and roots was investigated using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography with the external calibration method. Antioxidative activity of ginseng fruit, leaves, and roots were evaluated using the method of DPPH free-radical-scavenging activity. Results: The total phenol content in ginseng fruit and leaves was higher than in ginseng roots (p <. 0.05), and the phenol content in the ginseng samples was significantly correlated to the DPPH free-radical-scavenging activity (r = 0.928****). In particular, p-coumaric acid (r = 0.847****) and ferulic acid (r = 0.742****) greatly affected the DPPH activity. Among the 23 phenolic compounds studied, phenolic acids were more abundant in ginseng fruit, leaves, and roots than the flavonoids and other compounds (p <. 0.05). In particular, chlorogenic acid, gentisic acid, p- and m-coumaric acid, and rutin were the major phenolic compounds in 3-6-yr-old ginseng fruit, leaves, and roots. Conclusion: This study provides basic information about the antioxidative activity and phenolic compounds profiles in fruit, leaves, and roots of Korean ginseng with cultivation years. This information is potentially useful to ginseng growers and industries involved in the production of high-quality and nutritional ginseng products. © 2015.


PubMed | Ginseng and Medicinal Plants Research Institute, Konkuk University and NIHHS
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of ginseng research | Year: 2016

The study of phenolic compounds profiles and antioxidative activity in ginseng fruit, leaves, and roots with respect to cultivation years, and has been little reported to date. Hence, this study examined the phenolic compounds profiles and 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free-radical-scavenging activities in the fruit, leaves, and roots of Korean ginseng (Panax ginseng Meyer) as a function of cultivation year.Profiling of 23 phenolic compounds in ginseng fruit, leaves, and roots was investigated using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography with the external calibration method. Antioxidative activity of ginseng fruit, leaves, and roots were evaluated using the method of DPPH free-radical-scavenging activity.The total phenol content in ginseng fruit and leaves was higher than in ginseng roots (p<0.05), and the phenol content in the ginseng samples was significantly correlated to the DPPH free-radical-scavenging activity (r=0.928****). In particular, p-coumaric acid (r=0.847****) and ferulic acid (r=0.742****) greatly affected the DPPH activity. Among the 23 phenolic compounds studied, phenolic acids were more abundant in ginseng fruit, leaves, and roots than the flavonoids and other compounds (p<0.05). In particular, chlorogenic acid, gentisic acid, p- and m-coumaric acid, and rutin were the major phenolic compounds in 3-6-yr-old ginseng fruit, leaves, and roots.This study provides basic information about the antioxidative activity and phenolic compounds profiles in fruit, leaves, and roots of Korean ginseng with cultivation years. This information is potentially useful to ginseng growers and industries involved in the production of high-quality and nutritional ginseng products.


Jeon H.-L.,Chungnam National University | Oh H.-L.,Chungnam National University | Kim C.-R.,Chungnam National University | Hwang M.-H.,Chungnam National University | And 3 more authors.
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition | Year: 2013

The aim of this study was to evaluate the quality characteristics and antioxidative properties of cookies supple-mented with mulberry pomace (0%, 4%, 8%, 12%). The bulk density, spread ratio, and leavening rate of cookies decreased with increasing amounts of mulberry pomace. The lightness and b value (of the Hunter color system) decreased based on the amount of mulberry pomace. The pH of cookies decreased (acidity increased) with in-creasing mulberry pomace. The soluble solid content increased according to the amount of added mulberry po-mace, but the amount of reducing sugars decreased. In texture analysis, cookies with 12% mulberry pomace had the highest hardness. Total phenol and flavonoid content increased according to the amount of mulberry pomace added. Antioxidant activities, such as DPPH radical scavenging, hydroxyl radical scavenging, ABTS radical scavenging, and FRAP were highest in cookies with 12% mulberry pomace. In the sensory evaluation, sensory scores for color, taste, flavor, texture, and overall preference were highest in cookies with 8% mulberry pomace. Thus, our results suggest that the optimum amount of mulberry pomace to add to cookies is 8%.


Seo K.H.,Konkuk University | Lee J.Y.,Konkuk University | Debnath T.,Konkuk University | Kim Y.M.,Semyung University | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Food Biochemistry | Year: 2016

Castanea crenata is a species of chestnut originally native to South Korea and Japan. In this study, chestnut shell was investigated as a potential source of antioxidant compounds. Distilled water and ethanol extracts were prepared from chestnut shell and their antioxidant activities were investigated in vitro using different analytical methods, including 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, 2,2-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid), hydroxyl, superoxide radical and nitrite scavenging, reducing (Fe3+ to Fe2+) power, linoleic acid oxidation inhibition and free radical-induced DNA damage prevention activity. The extracts showed excellent radical-scavenging activities and prevented free radical-induced DNA damage. The antioxidant activity was highly correlated with the observed phenolic and flavonoid contents. Our results suggest that the extracts derived from chestnut shells could be a potent source of natural antioxidants. Practical Applications: Chestnuts (Castanea crenata) are widely available in Korea. The chestnut inner shell has been used as a cosmetic material for a long time in Korea, and previous research has demonstrated that chestnut fruits and leaves contain phenolic compounds. However, little is known about the potential uses of chestnut shell. Chestnut has been sold as an anti-wrinkle and anti-aging compound when mixed with honey, and previous research on the chestnut inner shell has suggested that this material inhibited the biosynthesis of melanin. Recently, it has been reported that chestnut inner shell extracts inhibited the development of hepatic steatosis in mice fed a high-fat diet. The food industry uses ~7000 tons of chestnuts annually during the production of marron-glacé, chestnut purée, etc. The peeling process generates a waste product, i.e., the shell, which accounts for ~10% of the weight of whole chestnuts, and is used as fuel. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


PubMed | Bonecell Biotech Inc., Wonkwang University and NIHHS
Type: | Journal: Biomaterials research | Year: 2015

Angiogenin (ANG) is a potent stimulator of angiogenesis. The aim of this study was to fabricate an ANG-loaded scaffold and to evaluate its angiogenic and osteogenic effects. In this study, we fabricated an ANG-loaded scaffold using bovine bone powder and fibrin glue. We then evaluated the structural, morphological, and mechanical properties of the scaffold and the in vitro release profile of ANG. Cell proliferation, viability, and adhesion were evaluated using endothelial cells in vitro, and angiogenesis and new bone formation were evaluated using a rabbit calvarial defect model in vivo.Micro-computed tomography imaging showed that the bone powder was uniformly distributed in the scaffold, and scanning electron microscopy showed that the bone powder was bridged by polymerized fibrin. The porosity and compressive strength of the scaffolds were ~60% and ~0.9MPa, respectively, and were not significantly altered by ANG loading. In vitro, at 7days, approximately 0.4g and 1.3g of the ANG were released from the FB/ANG 0.5 and FB/ANG 2.0, respectively and sustained slow release was observed until 25days. The released ANG stimulated cell proliferation and adherence and was not cytotoxic. Furthermore, in vivo implantation resulted in enhanced angiogenesis, and new bone formation depended on the amount of loaded ANG.These studies demonstrate that a fibrin and bone powder scaffold loaded with ANG might be useful to promote bone regeneration by enhanced angiogenesis.


Debnath T.,Konkuk University | Mijan M.A.,Konkuk University | Kim D.H.,Konkuk University | Jo J.E.,Konkuk University | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Food Biochemistry | Year: 2015

In this study, an ethanol extract (HDE1) and a fermented extract (HDE2) of Haliotis discus hannaiIno (Pacific abalone) were administered to mice with dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis. Both extracts were administered at 50mg/kg and evaluated for their anti-inflammatory effects. Histological evaluations indicated that HDE1 effectively suppressed colonic tissue damage in mice with DSS-induced colitis. In addition, the expression levels of immune-related cytokines and transcription factors such as interferon-γ (IFN-γ), phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription-1 (pSTAT1), interleukin-4 (IL-4), phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription-6 (pSTAT6) and Gata3 were also downregulated by both extracts. These results indicated that both HDE1 and HDE2 suppressed inflammatory cytokines and mediators. However, histological examinations clearly suggested that HDE1 had greater efficacy in attenuating colonic tissue damage by DSS than HDE2. Therefore, HDE1 may be a potential anti-inflammatory agent for the treatment of ulcerative colitis. Practical Applications: Pacific abalone is an important marine food source in many Asian countries. The health benefits of Pacific abalone have been demonstrated in a number of studies. This study investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of Pacific abalone extracts in a mouse model of ulcerative colitis. An ethanol extract (HDE1) of Pacific abalone potently suppressed the mucosal tissue damage and crypt loss in the colons of mice exposed to DSS. In addition, inflammatory cytokines and mediators were effectively suppressed by HDE1. Therefore, HDE1 may be a potential therapy for ulcerative colitis. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Choi H.J.,Pusan National University | Lee D.-H.,Pusan National University | Park S.-H.,Pusan National University | Kim J.,Pusan National University | And 5 more authors.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications | Year: 2011

Oncogenic RhoA GTPase has been investigated as a mediator of pro-inflammatory responses and aggressive carcinogenesis. Among the various targets of RhoA-linked signals, pro-inflammatory prostaglandin E 2 (PGE 2), a major prostaglandin metabolite, was assessed in epithelial cancer cells. RhoA activation increased PGE 2 levels and gene expression of the rate-limiting PGE 2 producing enzymes, cyclooxygenase-2 and microsomal prostaglandin E synthase 1 (mPGES-1). In particular, human mPGES-1 was induced by RhoA via transcriptional activation in control and interleukin (IL)-1β-activated cancer cells. To address the involvement of potent signaling pathways in RhoA-activated mPGES-1 induction, various signaling inhibitors were screened for their effects on mPGES-1 promoter activity. RhoA activation enhanced basal and IL-1β-mediated phosphorylated nuclear factor-κB and extracellular signal-regulated kinase1/2 proteins, all of which were positively involved in RhoA-induced gene expression of mPGES-1. As one potent down-stream transcription factor of ERK1/2 signals, early growth response gene 1 product also mediated RhoA-induced gene expression of mPGES-1 by enhancing transcriptional activity. Since oncogene-triggered PGE 2 production is a critical modulator of epithelial tumor cells, RhoA-associated mPGES-1 represents a promising chemo-preventive or therapeutic target for epithelial inflammation and its associated cancers. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.


PubMed | Kyung Hee University and NIHHS
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of ginseng research | Year: 2016

Ginseng is a semishade perennial plant cultivated in sloping, sun-shaded areas in Korea. Recently, owing to air-environmental stress and various fungal diseases, greenhouse cultivation has been suggested as an alternative. However, the optimal light transmission rate (LTR) in the greenhouse has not been established.The effect of LTR on photosynthesis rate, growth, and ginsenoside content of ginseng was examined by growing ginseng at the greenhouse under 6%, 9%, 13%, and 17% of LTR.The light-saturated net photosynthesis rate (A sat) and stomatal conductance (g s) of ginseng increased until the LTR reached 17% in the early stage of growth, whereas they dropped sharply owing to excessive leaf chlorosis at 17% LTR during the hottest summer period in August. Overall, 6-17% of LTR had no effect on the aerial part of plant length or diameter, whereas 17% and 13% of LRT induced the largest leaf area and the highest root weight, respectively. The total ginsenoside content of the ginseng leaves increased as the LTR increased, and the overall content of protopanaxatriol line ginsenosides was higher than that of protopanaxadiol line ginsenosides. The ginsenoside content of the ginseng roots also increased as the LTR increased, and the total ginsenoside content of ginseng grown at 17% LTR increased by 49.7% and 68.3% more than the ginseng grown at 6% LTR in August and final harvest, respectively.These results indicate that 13-17% of LTR should be recommended for greenhouse cultivation of ginseng.

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