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Chung I.-M.,Konkuk University | Lim J.-J.,Konkuk University | Ahn M.-S.,Ginseng and Medicinal Plants Research Institute | Jeong H.-N.,Ginseng and Medicinal Plants Research Institute | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Ginseng Research | Year: 2015

Background: The study of phenolic compounds profiles and antioxidative activity in ginseng fruit, leaves, and roots with respect to cultivation years, and has been little reported to date. Hence, this study examined the phenolic compounds profiles and 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free-radical-scavenging activities in the fruit, leaves, and roots of Korean ginseng (Panax ginseng Meyer) as a function of cultivation year. Methods: Profiling of 23 phenolic compounds in ginseng fruit, leaves, and roots was investigated using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography with the external calibration method. Antioxidative activity of ginseng fruit, leaves, and roots were evaluated using the method of DPPH free-radical-scavenging activity. Results: The total phenol content in ginseng fruit and leaves was higher than in ginseng roots (p <. 0.05), and the phenol content in the ginseng samples was significantly correlated to the DPPH free-radical-scavenging activity (r = 0.928****). In particular, p-coumaric acid (r = 0.847****) and ferulic acid (r = 0.742****) greatly affected the DPPH activity. Among the 23 phenolic compounds studied, phenolic acids were more abundant in ginseng fruit, leaves, and roots than the flavonoids and other compounds (p <. 0.05). In particular, chlorogenic acid, gentisic acid, p- and m-coumaric acid, and rutin were the major phenolic compounds in 3-6-yr-old ginseng fruit, leaves, and roots. Conclusion: This study provides basic information about the antioxidative activity and phenolic compounds profiles in fruit, leaves, and roots of Korean ginseng with cultivation years. This information is potentially useful to ginseng growers and industries involved in the production of high-quality and nutritional ginseng products. © 2015.

Hasnat M.A.,Konkuk University | Pervin M.,Konkuk University | Park S.R.,Konkuk University | Jang Y.C.,Konkuk University | And 5 more authors.
Food Science and Biotechnology | Year: 2015

The anti-inflammatory effects of oat extracts in vitro and in vivo were determined based on antioxidant functions. To examine the effect of oat extracts in murine macrophage RAW 264.7 cells, MTT assays were used and nitric oxide (NO) production was analyzed based on absorbance and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression levels using Western blot analysis. Immunoglobulin expression levels were determined using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Oat extracts showed significant (p<0.05) antioxidant properties and restored the cell viability of LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells, compared with controls. NO production and iNOS protein levels were also reduced by oat extracts. DSS (3%)-administered mice manifested symptoms similar to human colitis patients, and oat extracts attenuated the symptoms of colitis. Preventive and therapeutic administration of oat extracts used as antioxidants can ameliorate inflammatory conditions in cells and DSS-induced colitis in mice. © 2015, The Korean Society of Food Science and Technology and Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

Seo K.H.,Konkuk University | Lee J.Y.,Konkuk University | Debnath T.,Konkuk University | Kim Y.M.,Semyung University | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Food Biochemistry | Year: 2016

Castanea crenata is a species of chestnut originally native to South Korea and Japan. In this study, chestnut shell was investigated as a potential source of antioxidant compounds. Distilled water and ethanol extracts were prepared from chestnut shell and their antioxidant activities were investigated in vitro using different analytical methods, including 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, 2,2-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid), hydroxyl, superoxide radical and nitrite scavenging, reducing (Fe3+ to Fe2+) power, linoleic acid oxidation inhibition and free radical-induced DNA damage prevention activity. The extracts showed excellent radical-scavenging activities and prevented free radical-induced DNA damage. The antioxidant activity was highly correlated with the observed phenolic and flavonoid contents. Our results suggest that the extracts derived from chestnut shells could be a potent source of natural antioxidants. Practical Applications: Chestnuts (Castanea crenata) are widely available in Korea. The chestnut inner shell has been used as a cosmetic material for a long time in Korea, and previous research has demonstrated that chestnut fruits and leaves contain phenolic compounds. However, little is known about the potential uses of chestnut shell. Chestnut has been sold as an anti-wrinkle and anti-aging compound when mixed with honey, and previous research on the chestnut inner shell has suggested that this material inhibited the biosynthesis of melanin. Recently, it has been reported that chestnut inner shell extracts inhibited the development of hepatic steatosis in mice fed a high-fat diet. The food industry uses ~7000 tons of chestnuts annually during the production of marron-glacé, chestnut purée, etc. The peeling process generates a waste product, i.e., the shell, which accounts for ~10% of the weight of whole chestnuts, and is used as fuel. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Rubenecia M.R.U.,Kyungpook National University | Ultra V.U.,Catholic University of Daegu | Ultra V.U.,University of Eastern Philippines | Woo C.S.,NIHHS | And 2 more authors.
International Journal of Agriculture and Biology | Year: 2015

In this study, the relationship between soil chemical and microbial properties and ginseng root growth was determined. Rhizosphere soil and ginseng root samples were collected from three different ginseng farms within Gyeongsangbuk-do, South Korea. Our results showed that available phosphorus, magnesium and cation exchange capacity (CEC) in soils have significant correlation with the overall growth of ginseng roots. Soil chemical properties such as pH, percent total C and N, C:N ratio, available P, exchangeable Ca, K and Na were also found to have correlation with soil microbial properties such as PC 1, PC 2, PC 3, AWCD and richness of metabolized carbon based on Biolog EcoPlateTM. However, direct correlation between soil microbial properties and ginseng root growth was not observed. Establishment of the relationship between soil chemical and microbial properties with ginseng root growth is important to fully understand the factors affecting nutrient availability in ginseng cultivated soils which could help identify cultural strategies that would enhance the root growth and quality of P. ginseng. © 2015 Friends Science Publishers.

Jeon H.-L.,Chungnam National University | Oh H.-L.,Chungnam National University | Kim C.-R.,Chungnam National University | Hwang M.-H.,Chungnam National University | And 3 more authors.
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition | Year: 2013

The aim of this study was to evaluate the quality characteristics and antioxidative properties of cookies supple-mented with mulberry pomace (0%, 4%, 8%, 12%). The bulk density, spread ratio, and leavening rate of cookies decreased with increasing amounts of mulberry pomace. The lightness and b value (of the Hunter color system) decreased based on the amount of mulberry pomace. The pH of cookies decreased (acidity increased) with in-creasing mulberry pomace. The soluble solid content increased according to the amount of added mulberry po-mace, but the amount of reducing sugars decreased. In texture analysis, cookies with 12% mulberry pomace had the highest hardness. Total phenol and flavonoid content increased according to the amount of mulberry pomace added. Antioxidant activities, such as DPPH radical scavenging, hydroxyl radical scavenging, ABTS radical scavenging, and FRAP were highest in cookies with 12% mulberry pomace. In the sensory evaluation, sensory scores for color, taste, flavor, texture, and overall preference were highest in cookies with 8% mulberry pomace. Thus, our results suggest that the optimum amount of mulberry pomace to add to cookies is 8%.

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