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Najman Y.,Lancaster University | Appel E.,University of Tubingen | Boudagher-Fadel M.,University College London | Bown P.,University College London | And 8 more authors.
Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth | Year: 2010

A range of ages have been proposed for the timing of India-Asia collision; the range to some extent reflects different definitions of collision and methods used to date it. In this paper we discuss three approaches that have been used to constrain the time of collision: the time of cessation of marine facies, the time of the first arrival of Asian detritus on the Indian plate, and the determination of the relative positions of India and Asia through time. In the Qumiba sedimentary section located south of the Yarlung Tsangpo suture in Tibet, a previous work has dated marine facies at middle to late Eocene, by far the youngest marine sediments recorded in the region. By contrast, our biostratigraphic data indicate the youngest marine facies preserved at this locality are 50.6-52.8 Ma, in broad agreement with the timing of cessation of marine facies elsewhere throughout the region. Double dating of detrital zircons from this formation, by U-Pb and fission track methods, indicates an Asian contribution to the rocks thus documenting the time of arrival of Asian material onto the Indian plate at this time and hence constraining the time of India-Asia collision. Our reconstruction of the positions of India and Asia by using a compilation of published palaeomagnetic data indicates initial contact between the continents in the early Eocene. We conclude the paper with a discussion on the viability of a recent assertion that collision between India and Asia could not have occurred prior to ∼35 Ma. Copyright 2010 by the American Geophysical Union.

Evans J.A.,NIGL | Pashley V.,NIGL | Richards G.J.,University of Bristol | Brereton N.,UK Environment Agency | Knowles T.G.,University of Bristol
Science of the Total Environment | Year: 2015

This paper presents lead (Pb) isotope data from samples of farm livestock raised in three areas of Britain that have elevated natural Pb levels: Central Wales, the Mendips and the Derbyshire Peak District. This study highlights three important observations; that the Pb found in modern British meat from these three areas is geogenic and shows no clear evidence of modern tetraethyl anthropogenic Pb contribution; that the generally excellent match between the biological samples and the ore field data, particularly for the Mendip and Welsh data, suggests that this technique might be used to provenance biological products to specific ore sites, under favourable conditions; and that modern systems reflect the same process of biosphere averaging that is analogous to cultural focusing in human archaeological studies that is the process of biological averaging leading to an homogenised isotope signature with increasing Pb concentration. © 2015.

Key R.M.,BGS | Pitfield P.E.J.,BGS | Thomas R.J.,BGS | Goodenough K.M.,BGS | And 16 more authors.
Geological Society Special Publication | Year: 2011

Our recent geological survey of the basement of central and northern Madagascar allowed us to re-evaluate the evolution of this part of the East Africa-Antarctica Orogen (EAAO). Five crustal domains are recognized, characterized by distinctive lithologies and histories of sedimentation, magmatism, deformation and metamorphism, and separated by tectonic and/or unconformable contacts. Four consist largely of Archaean metamorphic rocks (Antongil, Masora and Antananarivo Cratons, Tsaratanana Complex). The fifth (Bemarivo Belt) comprises Proterozoic meta-igneous rocks. The older rocks were intruded by plutonic suites at c. 1000 Ma, 820-760 Ma, 630-595 Ma and 560-520 Ma. The evolution of the four Archaean domains and their boundaries remains contentious, with two end-member interpretations evaluated: (1) all five crustal domains are separate tectonic elements, juxtaposed along Neoproterozoic sutures and (2) the four Archaean domains are segments of an older Archaean craton, which was sutured against the Bemarivo Belt in the Neoproterozoic. Rodinia fragmented during the early Neoproterozoic with intracratonic rifts that sometimes developed into oceanic basins. Subsequent Mid- Neoproterozoic collision of smaller cratonic blocks was followed by renewed extension and magmatism. The global 'Terminal Pan-African' event (560-490 Ma) finally stitched together the Mid-Neoproterozoic cratons to form Gondwana. © The Geological Society of London 2011.

Evans J.A.,NIGL | Chenery C.A.,NIGL | Montgomery J.,Durham University
Journal of Analytical Atomic Spectrometry | Year: 2012

This paper presents a compilation of strontium and oxygen isotope data from human tooth enamel that has been produced at NERC Isotope Geosciences Laboratory over the last c.15 years. These many and often small studies are here combined to provide an overview of data from Britain. The strontium isotope composition ranges between 0.7078 and 0.7165 (excluding individuals deemed to be of non-British origin). The median Sr concentration is 84 ppm but there is a vector of increasing Sr concentrations related to seawater strontium isotope composition that is seen in individuals predominantly from the west coast of Scotland attributed to the used of kelp as a fertilizer. The oxygen isotope data is normally distributed with a mean value of 17.7‰ ± 1.4‰ (2SD n = 615). Two sub-populations of local individuals have been identified that provide control groups for human enamel values from the eastern side of Britain where there are lower rainfall levels: 17.2‰ ± 1.3‰, (2SD, n = 83) and western area of Britain where rainfall levels are higher = 18.2‰ ± 1‰, (2SD, n = 40). These data make it possible to make direct comparisons of population means between burial populations and the control dataset to assess commonality of origin. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

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