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Ade A.R.,Nigerian Stored Products Research Institute | Ajav E.A.,University of Ibadan | Raji O.A.,University of Ibadan
Agricultural Engineering International: CIGR Journal | Year: 2015

The moisture desorption isotherms of fluted pumpkin seeds(Telfairia occidentalis) were determined at 20ºC, 25ºC and 30ºC respectively, over a relative humidity range of 41%-95% using the static gravimetric technique. Eight saturated salt solutions were used to provide constant relative humidity. The samples were weighed until constant weights were attained and Equilibrium Moisture Contents (EMC) were calculated. The experimental data were fitted to five moisture sorption isotherm models: Guggenheim-Anderson-de Boer (GAB), Modified Oswin, Modified Henderson, Halsey and Chung-Pfost. The models were linearised and a linear regression program was employed to analyse the data. Best models fitting were determined based on the highest coefficient of determination (R2), lowest Standard Error of Estimate (SEE), and lower values of Root Mean Square Error (RMSE). The experimental sorption isotherm of Telfairia occidentalis followed the characteristic shape of type II isotherms. All the five models gave the best fit with R2 (0.95-0.98), SEE (0.03-0.44), and RMSE (0.005-0.095) with the exception of Chung-Pfost at 20oC with R2 (0.089). At a temperature of 30oC, Oswin, GAB, Henderson, Chung Pfost, and Halsey gave good fits. © 2015, Int. Comm. of Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering. All rights reserved.

Atanda O.O.,Abeokuta Federal University of Agriculture | Ogunrinu M.C.,Abeokuta Federal University of Agriculture | Olorunfemi F.M.,Nigerian Stored Products Research Institute
World Mycotoxin Journal | Year: 2011

Desiccated coconut agar is the conventional medium used for the detection of aflatoxigenic fungi and direct visual determination of aflatoxins. In this study, an improved medium was developed by the incorporation of 0.2% (v/v) neutral red dye into desiccated coconut agar. The medium was formulated by a 2×3 factorial design of neutral red and phenol red stains at three concentration levels. The formulated medium was evaluated for performance by screening for the minimal time required by each Aspergillus species to produce pigments and fluorescence of agar. The medium was also employed for detection of aflatoxigenic fungi and direct visual determination of aflatoxins in foods and fish-meal. The neutral red desiccated coconut agar (NRDCA) as compared to the conventional desiccated coconut agar (DCA) had a light pink background as opposed to the white background of the DCA which often interferes with the visibility of fluorescence. The time of pigmentation and fluorescence production on NRDCA was 28 and 38 h respectively as compared with 33 and 44 h of DCA and 41 and 48 h of palm kernel agar (PKA: an alternative culture medium for cultivation of aflatoxigenic fungi with a reddish pink background). Furthermore, aflatoxigenic moulds were detected in all food commodities and fish-meal after 60 hours of incubation. The highest percentage of aflatoxigenic moulds (62.5%) was detected in yam flour with NRDCA while the lowest percentage (4.46%) was detected with PKA on rice. In addition, aflatoxins were produced in high amounts in food commodities in which aflatoxigenic moulds were detected and there was a significant positive correlation (r=0.4, P<0.05) between the isolates and aflatoxin concentration of the food samples. Rice (a major staple food for Nigerians) had the highest total aflatoxin concentration of 140, 220 and 205 μg/kg on DCA, NRDCA and PKA respectively, while 'gari' had the least concentration of 45, 50 and 40 μg/kg. These values were far above the NAFDAC recommended level of 10 μg/kg for unprocessed foods in Nigeria and therefore a source of concern. In addition the study also reveals that Aspergillus nomius can produce aflatoxins B1 in copious amounts on NRDCA, contrary to previous reports of its production in minute quantities on laboratory media. The benefit of this study lies in the rapid analysis and simplified technique for the detection of aflatoxigenic fungi and visual determination of aflatoxins. © 2011 Wageningen Academic Publishers.

Florence I.F.,Nigerian Stored Products Research Institute | Olawoye T.I.,Federal University of Technology Akurre
Journal of Medicinal Plant Research | Year: 2011

In this project research, organic solvents were used to extract samples of guava and orange mistletoes and their hosts. The preliminary phytochemical studies revealed presence of saponins, tannins, and anthraquinones both in the host plants and in the parasites. Phlobatanins were found in guava parasite and its host only, while cardiac glycosides with steroidal nucleus were found only in orange parasite and its host. Also lipids extracts were resolved into monoacylglycerol, diacylglycerol, triacylglycerol and free fatty acids. The sugar Thin Layer Chromatography revealed the presence of a ketohexose sugar which was confirmed by selliwanoff's test. It appears that the aromatic smell evident in the orange parasite and its host is due to the cardiac glycosides with steroidal nucleus in their extracts. The aromaticity apparently acquired from the orange host by its parasite is probably a contributory factor in the medicinal value of the parasite. © 2011 Academic Journals.

Ilesanmi F.F,Nigerian Stored Products Research Institute | Balogun E.A,Abeokuta Federal University of Agriculture | Ilesanmi O.S,University of Ibadan
Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science | Year: 2011

Medicinal plants and drugs are usually abused through wrong dose usage. These practises may pose a great health risk to the users. The objective of this work is to compare the effect of chronic administration of extract of Landolphia owariensis and Chloroquine phosphate on the activities of enzymes in the kidney, liver, and serum. The methanol extract of Landolphia owariensis and Chloroquine phosphate were administered orally to albino rats on daily doses of 250mg/kg and the activities of enzymes were monitored for 12 days. A total of 36 albino rats were divided into three. Chloroquine phosphate was administered to 12 rats, Landolphia owariensis was administered to another 12 rats and saline solution was administered to the remaining 12 as control. The results revealed that the rats administered with Landolphia owariensis showed an insignificant increase in alkaline and acid phosphatase activities in both liver and kidney. The activity of enzymes in the liver and kidney decreases significantly with chloroquine administration P< 0.05. The comparative studies of the chloroquine and Landolphia owariensis extract showed that chronic administration of chloroquine has detrimental effect on tissues, while the chronic administration of Landolphia owariensis extract causes little or no damage to the tissues.

Olaoye J.O.,University Of Ilorin | Oyewole S.N.,Nigerian Stored Products Research Institute
Agricultural Engineering International: CIGR Journal | Year: 2012

Pounded yam is a very popular delicacy in Nigeria. There is need to proffer solution to the problem of its preparation which is energy consuming. This study was carried out to determine the optimum drying and blanching parameters of "poundo" yam. The "poundo" yam was produced from white yam (Dioscorea rotunda) using an experimental dryer. The produced "poundo" yam was subjected to proximate analysis. Optimization was carried out on the results of the analysis using regression analysis technique. Excel solver and SPSS 16.0 software packages were used for the optimization and its statistical analysis respectively. 4.79% of fat, 4.58% of protein, 3.01% of fibre, 1.50% of ash, 79.52% of carbohydrate and 1549.52 kJ (100 g) -1 of calorie were obtained as the optimum values. For optimum nutrition retention in "poundo" yam, yam should be blanched at 100°C for a blanching duration of 10 minutes and dried at 65°C. Moreover, the process models developed could be used to select any combination of the drying and blanching parameters that will suit the nutrition quality requirements of the prospective consumers of "poundo" yam.

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