Nigerian National Research Institute for Chemical Technology

Zaria, Nigeria

Nigerian National Research Institute for Chemical Technology

Zaria, Nigeria
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Alhassan Y.,Delhi Technological University | Alhassan Y.,Nigerian National Research Institute for Chemical Technology | Pali H.S.,Delhi Technological University | Kumar N.,Delhi Technological University | Bugaje I.M.,Nigerian National Research Institute for Chemical Technology
Energy | Year: 2017

Bioenergy is the only renewable carbon energy source and can contribute to future sustainable energy. This paper presents: I) the whole Jatropha curcas seed liquefaction to produce bio-crude oil, using (Na2CO3) as conventional catalyst; and II) co-liquefaction of glycerol and whole Jatropha curcas seed to produce bio-crude oil, using deep eutectic solvents (choline chloride-p-toluene sulphonic acid) as novel catalyst. The effects of process parameters, including reaction temperature, catalyst concentration, and biomass loading were observed. Temperature was the predominant factor. High yield of bio-crude oil (32.87 wt%) was obtained for the liquefaction (I) as compared to yield of bio-crude oil (8.99 wt%) for the co-liquefaction (II). The optimum glycerol addition was 30 wt%. The bio-crude oil I had moisture (6.47 ± 0.27 wt%) and bio-crude oil II was (6.04 ± 0.42 wt%). The oxygen content in bio-crude oil I was (28.15 ± 0.88 wt%) while bio-crude oil II had reduced (21.58 ± 0.70 wt%) oxygen content. The HHV of the bio-crude oil II (31.73 ± 0.69 MJ/kg) is higher than that of bio-crude oil I (28.80 ± 1.32 MJ/kg). Acidic deep eutectic solvents deterred co-liquefaction yield. In conclusion, co-liquefaction decreased the product yield but improved its quality. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd


Habila N.,Ahmadu Bello University | Inuwa M.H.,Ahmadu Bello University | Aimola I.A.,Ahmadu Bello University | Udeh M.U.,Nigerian National Research Institute for Chemical Technology | Haruna E.,Ahmadu Bello University
Research in Veterinary Science | Year: 2012

Insect-borne diseases exact a high public health burden and have a devastating impact on livestock and agriculture. To date, control has proved to be exceedingly difficult. One such disease that has plagued sub-Saharan Africa is caused by the protozoan African trypanosomes (Trypanosoma species) and transmitted by tsetse flies (Diptera: Glossinidae). This presentation describes Trypanosoma evansi (T. evansi) which causes the disease known as trypanosomosis (Surra) or trypanosomiasis in which several attempts have being made to unravel the clinical pathogenic mechanisms in T. evansi infections, yielding various reports which have implicated hemolysis associated to decrease in life span of erythrocytes and extensive erythrophagocytosis being among those that enjoy prominence. T. evansi generates Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) from glucose catabolism which is required for the parasite motility and survival. Oxidation of the erythrocytes induces oxidative stress due to free radical generation. Lipid peroxidation of the erythrocytes causes membrane injury, osmotic fragility and destruction of the red blood cell (RBC) making anemia a hallmark of the pathology of T. evansi infections. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.


Hammuel C.,Nigerian National Research Institute for Chemical Technology | Yebpella G.G.,Nigerian National Research Institute for Chemical Technology | Shallangwa G.A.,Ahmadu Bello University | Magomya A.M.,Nigerian National Research Institute for Chemical Technology | Agbaji A.S.,Nigerian National Research Institute for Chemical Technology
Acta Poloniae Pharmaceutica - Drug Research | Year: 2011

The methanol and the aqueous extracts of the plant, Agave sisalana were prepared and evaluated for its phytochemical properties and antimicrobial activities. The phytochemical analysis of the preparation revealed the presence of some secondary metabolites which include: saponins, glycosides, cardiac glycosides, steroids, tannins and flavonoids. The in vitro antimicrobial activity of the crude methanol and aqueous extract of the Agave sisalana were investigated. The extract showed antimicrobial activities against the test organisms with different zones of inhibition ranging from 28-32 mm and 25-29 mm for methanol and aqueous extract, respectively. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of both the methanol and aqueous extract was between 10-20 mg/mL, and the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) was between 20-40 mg/mL for both extracts. The investigation indicated that the methanol extract inhibited the growth of the microbes more than the aqueous extract. The ability of the crude extracts of A. sisalana to inhibit the growth of the microbes is an indication of its antimicrobial potential, which may be employed in the management of microbial infections.


Nwokem C.O.,Nigerian National Research Institute for Chemical Technology | Gimba C.E.,Ahmadu Bello University | Ndukwe G.I.,Ahmadu Bello University | Abechi S.E.,Ahmadu Bello University
Journal of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Research | Year: 2014

The effect of the pre-selection of particle size range on the treatment of locally-sourced bentonite clay from logomani, North-Eastern Nigeria using aqueous acid and alkali solution has been studied. Characterization of the clay adsorbents was done via Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction analyses (XRD). The acid and alkali modified clay adsorbents were applied in the removal of methylene blue from aqueous media. The highest adsorbed amount (51.196mg/g) which represents 91.421% for the HCl-treated clay was obtained with the clay particle size range of < 63μm treated with 0.5M HCl. While on the other hand, the lowest adsorbed amount of 24.726mg/g which represents 44.154% for the HCl-treated clay was obtained with the clay particle size range of 106-125μm treated with 2.5M HCl. A similar trend was also observed for the H2SO4-treated clay in which case the highest value of Qt (42.636mg/g)which represents 76.137% was obtained with particle size range of < 63μm treated with 0.5M H2SO4 and the lowest value of Qt (24.632mg/g) which represents 43.986% with particle size range of 106-125μm treated with 2.5M H2SO4. Generally, the values for amount adsorbed Qt, obtained for the clays treated with alkali solutions were higher. The optimum adsorptive capacity for the alkali-treated clay was 52.190mg/g, which represents 93.196%. This was obtained with the clay treated with 0.5M NaOH and the lowest, 43.713mg/g, which represents 78.059% which was obtained with the particle size range of 106-125μm. In general, the values for amount adsorbed Qt, obtained for the clay samples for which particle size was pre-selected prior to treatment were greater than the values for the unselected clay.


Dakare M.A.,Nigerian National Research Institute for Chemical Technology | Ameh D.A.,Ahmadu Bello University | Agbaji A.S.,Nigerian National Research Institute for Chemical Technology
Pakistan Journal of Nutrition | Year: 2011

Biochemical assessment of pawpaw (Carica papaya) seeds and daddawa produced from the seed by fermentation was carried out. B. Subtilis, B. pumilus and B. lichen if or mis were found to be involved in the fermentation. The proximate composition showed that the seed had high lipid (48.50±0.45%) and protein (21.72±0.37%) contents, which increased significantly (p<0.05) after fermentation to 54.19±0.42 and 23.56±0.33% respectively. The main mineral elements found in fermented and unfermented seeds were magnesium, calcium and sodium. Fermentation decreased the level of antinutritional factors: oxalate from 210.1-40.2 mg/100 g, phytic acid from 102.0-68.0 mg/100 g, tannin from 15.5-8.3 mg/100 g and trypsin inhibitor from 2431.2-63.0 mg/100 g. Both fermented and unfermented papaya seeds were rich in the essential amino acids, leucine, lysine isoleucine and phenylalanine. Oleic acid is the predominant fatty acid in both raw and fermented seed oil being 77.7 and 80.7%, respectively, while, palmitic and stearic acids were present in appreciable quantities. © Asian Network for Scientific Information, 2011.


Alhassan Y.,Delhi Technological University | Alhassan Y.,Nigerian National Research Institute for Chemical Technology | Kumar N.,Delhi Technological University | Bugaje I.M.,Nigerian National Research Institute for Chemical Technology
Bioresource Technology | Year: 2015

Biomass liquefaction using ionic liquids (ILs) as catalysts has received appreciable attention, in renewable fuels and chemicals production, recently. However, issues associated with the production cost, long reaction time and use of volatile solvents are undeniably challenging. Thus, Deep Eutectic Solvents (DESs) emerged as promising and potential ILs substitutes. The hydrothermal liquefaction of de-oiled Jatropha curcas cake was catalyzed by four synthesized DESs as catalysts and co-solvents for selective extraction. Proximate and ultimate analyses including ash, moisture and carbon contents of bio-crude produced varied slightly. The higher heating values found ranges from 21.15±0.82MJ/kg to 24.30±0.98MJ/kg. The bio-crude yields obtained using ChCl-KOH DES was 43.53wt% and ChCl-p-TsOH DES was 38.31wt%. Bio-crude yield using ChCl-FeCl3 DES was 30.80wt%. It is suggested that, the selectivity of bio-crude could be improved, by using DESs as catalyst and co-solvent in HTL of biomass such as de-oiled J. curcas cake. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.


Alhassan Y.,Delhi Technological University | Alhassan Y.,Nigerian National Research Institute for Chemical Technology | Kumar N.,Delhi Technological University | Bugaje I.M.,Nigerian National Research Institute for Chemical Technology | And 2 more authors.
Energy Conversion and Management | Year: 2014

Solvent Technology, is gaining the interest of researchers in improving transesterification process recently. Transesterification of cotton seed oil into biodiesel using different mixtures of methanol with Diethyl Ether (DEE), Dichlorobenzene (CBN) or Acetone (ACT) co-solvent systems was conducted. Potassium hydroxide (KOH) was used as the catalyst all through. The reaction conditions optimized include; the molar ratio of co-solvent in methanol, reaction temperature and time. The catalyst concentration was also optimized. The optimization was based on the percentage yields of Fatty Acids Methyl Esters (FAMEs) produced. In addition, the effects of co-solvent systems on physico-chemical properties (Acid value and fatty acids composition) and fuel properties (viscosity, density and calorific value) were investigated as well. The result obtained, indicated 10% (v/v) addition of co-solvents CBN and ACT in methanol was the optimal volume. The optimal reaction temperature was 55 °0C for 10 min when the catalyst concentration of 0.75% (w/w) weight of oil was used. Fuel properties were within the acceptable limit of ASTM and not significantly affected by the co-solvent systems except for the calorific value. It was concluded that the addition of co-solvent reduced the reaction time and improved some fuel properties of the biodiesel produced. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Adeyemi H.M.M.,Nigerian National Research Institute for Chemical Technology | Adebote D.A.,Ahmadu Bello University
Electronic Journal of Environmental, Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2010

Bobgunnia madagascariensis, a wild leguminous tree in its indigenous use is cited as being used for fodder and exhibit termite-resistant properties. In the feeding deterrent tests, the methanol extract of all parts of the B. madagascariensis showed deterrent activity against the red flour beetle, Tribolium casteneum and the inhibition rates recorded for the methanol extracts was observed to be comparable to that obtained for a standard storage pesticide/fumigant Phostoxin, (Aluminium phosphide 57%) used by farmers for post harvest storage of grains and pulses in the Northern part of Nigeria. Feeding Inhibition Rates recorded in the chloroform and methanol extracts from the leaves, stem and root barks of the B. madagascariensis showed considerable level of feeding inhibition rates, values were higher than 50% in most of the concentrations. For the contact toxicity tests, of the doses tested, 100μg/insect resulted in the highest contact toxicity to the red flour beetles, T. casteneum producing >70% mortality after 72hours of application with the methanol extracts.


Chia M.A.,University of Sao Paulo | Odoh O.A.,Ahmadu Bello University | Ladan Z.,Nigerian National Research Institute for Chemical Technology
Water, Air, and Soil Pollution | Year: 2014

In this study, Scenedesmus quadricauda ABU12 was immobilized with sodium alginate to determine its potential for decolorizing indigo blue dye under different incubation conditions. The microalga was incubated at different pH (6.5-9.5), biomass concentrations (0.1- 1.0 g l-1), dye concentrations (12-75 mg l-1) and temperatures (25-40°C). The concentration of biomass used significantly determined the rate of dye decolorization, as the lowest biomass concentration (0.10 g) was able to completely decolorize the dye by day 3, while the highest biomass concentration (1.00 g l-1) attained 100% decolorization on day 4. Neutral pHs supported the highest dye decolorization rates compared alkaline pHs. The rate of dye decolorization had a linear relationship with the concentration of the dye in solution as increasing dye concentration in the medium significantly reduced the rate of decolorization (p<0.05). At 25°C, the rate of dye decolorization was consistently higher from day 2 to the end of the experiment. Infra-red analyses of the algal biomass and the dye solution was done in Kbr by pressing between flat aperture plates of sodium chloride and scanning from 4,000 to 625 cm-1. This revealed the presence of functional groups associated with the biomass and dye that provided possible explanations for the decolorization of the dye under the different incubation conditions. These results showed that immobilized S. quadricauda is capable of decolorizing indigo blue dye at low biomass when immobilized with sodium alginate. However, this was dependent on the incubation temperature and dye concentration. © Springer International Publishing 2014.


Alhassan Y.,Delhi Technological University | Alhassan Y.,Nigerian National Research Institute for Chemical Technology | Kumar N.,Delhi Technological University
Waste and Biomass Valorization | Year: 2016

This paper reports the production of biodiesel from Pongamia pinnata seed oil via single step process. The efficiency of deep eutectic solvents (DESs) synthesized from the mixture of choline chloride and para toluene solfonic acid (PTSA), was used with silica support (So-DES) and without support (Un-DES) as heterogeneous and homogeneous catalysts, respectively. The oil esterification with methanol and methyl tert-butyl ether as solvents was conducted. From the results, the optimum reaction conditions for esterification of P. pinnata seed oil with Un-DES are; catalyst loading 1 (wt%/v), reaction time was 120 min and temperature was 343 K. maximum total acid number (TAN) reduction obtained under these conditions was 0.57 mg/KOH/g and a corresponding biodiesel conversion of 97.53 %. The optimal reaction conditions for esterification with So-DES using methanol as solvent are; temperature of 353 K, catalyst loading was 5 (wt%/v) and reaction time was 240 min. The optimum TAN reduction obtained under these conditions was 1.42 mg/KOH/g with corresponding biodiesel conversion of 89.3 %. Catalysts reuse was between four to seven reuses for Un-DES and So-DES respectively. Physico-chemical properties studies indicated that, viscosity, density and calorific values were within acceptable standard limits. It could be concluded that, DES synthesized from choline chloride and PTSA either with or without supporting material, could effectively produce biodiesel with acceptable fuel quality via single step process. © 2016, Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

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