Nigerian National Research Institute for Chemical Technology

Zaria, Nigeria

Nigerian National Research Institute for Chemical Technology

Zaria, Nigeria

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Gabriel O.E.,Nigerian National Research Institute for Chemical Technology | Youchao S.,Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics
Research Journal of Applied Sciences, Engineering and Technology | Year: 2013

In this study, an efficient biologically inspired constrained multi-objective optimization algorithm called Genetic Pareto Set Identification Algorithm plus Different Sex (GPSIA+DS) was developed. A complex system comprising of mixed configuration, k-out-of-n and redundant subsystem was used to validate GPSIA+DS in comparison with Genetic Pareto Set Identification Algorithm (GPSIA) and Fast Non-Dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm plus Constrain Domination (NSGA-II+CD). The optimization strategy based on Genetic Pareto Set Identification Algorithm (GPSIA) only considered feasible solutions. That is, solutions, which satisfies all constraints conditions. Infeasible solutions could facilitate faster convergence to the true Pareto front. GPSIA+DS, which considers feasible and infeasible solutions in it optimization strategy was shown to outperform GPSIA and NSGA-II for the test problem considered. © Maxwell Scientific Organization, 2013.


Dakare M.A.,Nigerian National Research Institute for Chemical Technology | Ameh D.A.,Ahmadu Bello University | Agbaji A.S.,Nigerian National Research Institute for Chemical Technology
Pakistan Journal of Nutrition | Year: 2011

Biochemical assessment of pawpaw (Carica papaya) seeds and daddawa produced from the seed by fermentation was carried out. B. Subtilis, B. pumilus and B. lichen if or mis were found to be involved in the fermentation. The proximate composition showed that the seed had high lipid (48.50±0.45%) and protein (21.72±0.37%) contents, which increased significantly (p<0.05) after fermentation to 54.19±0.42 and 23.56±0.33% respectively. The main mineral elements found in fermented and unfermented seeds were magnesium, calcium and sodium. Fermentation decreased the level of antinutritional factors: oxalate from 210.1-40.2 mg/100 g, phytic acid from 102.0-68.0 mg/100 g, tannin from 15.5-8.3 mg/100 g and trypsin inhibitor from 2431.2-63.0 mg/100 g. Both fermented and unfermented papaya seeds were rich in the essential amino acids, leucine, lysine isoleucine and phenylalanine. Oleic acid is the predominant fatty acid in both raw and fermented seed oil being 77.7 and 80.7%, respectively, while, palmitic and stearic acids were present in appreciable quantities. © Asian Network for Scientific Information, 2011.


Alhassan Y.,Delhi Technological University | Alhassan Y.,Nigerian National Research Institute for Chemical Technology | Kumar N.,Delhi Technological University | Bugaje I.M.,Nigerian National Research Institute for Chemical Technology
Bioresource Technology | Year: 2015

Biomass liquefaction using ionic liquids (ILs) as catalysts has received appreciable attention, in renewable fuels and chemicals production, recently. However, issues associated with the production cost, long reaction time and use of volatile solvents are undeniably challenging. Thus, Deep Eutectic Solvents (DESs) emerged as promising and potential ILs substitutes. The hydrothermal liquefaction of de-oiled Jatropha curcas cake was catalyzed by four synthesized DESs as catalysts and co-solvents for selective extraction. Proximate and ultimate analyses including ash, moisture and carbon contents of bio-crude produced varied slightly. The higher heating values found ranges from 21.15±0.82MJ/kg to 24.30±0.98MJ/kg. The bio-crude yields obtained using ChCl-KOH DES was 43.53wt% and ChCl-p-TsOH DES was 38.31wt%. Bio-crude yield using ChCl-FeCl3 DES was 30.80wt%. It is suggested that, the selectivity of bio-crude could be improved, by using DESs as catalyst and co-solvent in HTL of biomass such as de-oiled J. curcas cake. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.


Alhassan Y.,Delhi Technological University | Alhassan Y.,Nigerian National Research Institute for Chemical Technology | Kumar N.,Delhi Technological University | Bugaje I.M.,Nigerian National Research Institute for Chemical Technology | And 2 more authors.
Energy Conversion and Management | Year: 2014

Solvent Technology, is gaining the interest of researchers in improving transesterification process recently. Transesterification of cotton seed oil into biodiesel using different mixtures of methanol with Diethyl Ether (DEE), Dichlorobenzene (CBN) or Acetone (ACT) co-solvent systems was conducted. Potassium hydroxide (KOH) was used as the catalyst all through. The reaction conditions optimized include; the molar ratio of co-solvent in methanol, reaction temperature and time. The catalyst concentration was also optimized. The optimization was based on the percentage yields of Fatty Acids Methyl Esters (FAMEs) produced. In addition, the effects of co-solvent systems on physico-chemical properties (Acid value and fatty acids composition) and fuel properties (viscosity, density and calorific value) were investigated as well. The result obtained, indicated 10% (v/v) addition of co-solvents CBN and ACT in methanol was the optimal volume. The optimal reaction temperature was 55 °0C for 10 min when the catalyst concentration of 0.75% (w/w) weight of oil was used. Fuel properties were within the acceptable limit of ASTM and not significantly affected by the co-solvent systems except for the calorific value. It was concluded that the addition of co-solvent reduced the reaction time and improved some fuel properties of the biodiesel produced. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Habila N.,Nigerian National Research Institute for Chemical Technology | Agbaji A.S.,Nigerian National Research Institute for Chemical Technology | Ladan Z.,Nigerian National Research Institute for Chemical Technology | Bello I.A.,Ahmadu Bello University | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Parasitology Research | Year: 2010

Essential oils (EOs) from Cymbopogon citratus (CC), Eucalyptus citriodora (EC), Eucalyptus camaldulensis (ED), and Citrus sinensis (CS) were obtained by hydrodistillation process. The EOs were evaluated in vitro for activity against Trypanosoma brucei brucei (Tbb) and Trypanosoma evansi (T. evansi). The EOs were found to possess antitrypanosomal activity in vitro in a dose-dependent pattern in a short period of time. The drop in number of parasite over time was achieved doses of 0.4g/ml, 0.2g/mL, and 0.1g/mL for all the EOs. The concentration of 0.4g/mL CC was more potent at 3 minutes and 2 minutes for Tbb and T. evansi, respectively. The GC-MS analysis of the EOs revealed presence of Cyclobutane (96.09) in CS, 6-octenal (77.11) in EC, Eucalyptol (75) in ED, and Citral (38.32) in CC among several other organic compounds. The results are discussed in relation to trypanosome chemotherapy. © 2010 Nathan Habila et al.


Adeyemi H.M.M.,Nigerian National Research Institute for Chemical Technology | Adebote D.A.,Ahmadu Bello University
Electronic Journal of Environmental, Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2010

Bobgunnia madagascariensis, a wild leguminous tree in its indigenous use is cited as being used for fodder and exhibit termite-resistant properties. In the feeding deterrent tests, the methanol extract of all parts of the B. madagascariensis showed deterrent activity against the red flour beetle, Tribolium casteneum and the inhibition rates recorded for the methanol extracts was observed to be comparable to that obtained for a standard storage pesticide/fumigant Phostoxin, (Aluminium phosphide 57%) used by farmers for post harvest storage of grains and pulses in the Northern part of Nigeria. Feeding Inhibition Rates recorded in the chloroform and methanol extracts from the leaves, stem and root barks of the B. madagascariensis showed considerable level of feeding inhibition rates, values were higher than 50% in most of the concentrations. For the contact toxicity tests, of the doses tested, 100μg/insect resulted in the highest contact toxicity to the red flour beetles, T. casteneum producing >70% mortality after 72hours of application with the methanol extracts.


Diya'uddeen B.H.,Nigerian National Research Institute for Chemical Technology | Diya'uddeen B.H.,University of Malaya | Rahim Pouran S.,University of Malaya | Abdul Aziz A.R.,University of Malaya | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry | Year: 2015

The treatment of high-strength petroleum refinery effluent (PRE) with [BOD5]/[COD]0=0.14 was investigated using combined Fenton-sequencing batch reactor (SBR). The effect of [H2O2]:[COD]0 molar ratio on biodegradability enhancement was investigated. Fenton optimal conditions were: [H2O2]:[COD]0 of 6, [H2O2]:[Fe0] of 10 and pH=3.0 that could remove 76.5%, 45% and 96% of COD, TOC and phenol and increased biodegradability ratio to 0.37. The pretreated PRE subjected to SBR for one single cycle of 10h. The results revealed the effectiveness of hybrid Fenton-SBR system in treating PRE where the complete treatment of the PRE was attained by this system. © 2014 The Korean Society of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry.


Chia M.A.,University of Sao Paulo | Odoh O.A.,Ahmadu Bello University | Ladan Z.,Nigerian National Research Institute for Chemical Technology
Water, Air, and Soil Pollution | Year: 2014

In this study, Scenedesmus quadricauda ABU12 was immobilized with sodium alginate to determine its potential for decolorizing indigo blue dye under different incubation conditions. The microalga was incubated at different pH (6.5-9.5), biomass concentrations (0.1- 1.0 g l-1), dye concentrations (12-75 mg l-1) and temperatures (25-40°C). The concentration of biomass used significantly determined the rate of dye decolorization, as the lowest biomass concentration (0.10 g) was able to completely decolorize the dye by day 3, while the highest biomass concentration (1.00 g l-1) attained 100% decolorization on day 4. Neutral pHs supported the highest dye decolorization rates compared alkaline pHs. The rate of dye decolorization had a linear relationship with the concentration of the dye in solution as increasing dye concentration in the medium significantly reduced the rate of decolorization (p<0.05). At 25°C, the rate of dye decolorization was consistently higher from day 2 to the end of the experiment. Infra-red analyses of the algal biomass and the dye solution was done in Kbr by pressing between flat aperture plates of sodium chloride and scanning from 4,000 to 625 cm-1. This revealed the presence of functional groups associated with the biomass and dye that provided possible explanations for the decolorization of the dye under the different incubation conditions. These results showed that immobilized S. quadricauda is capable of decolorizing indigo blue dye at low biomass when immobilized with sodium alginate. However, this was dependent on the incubation temperature and dye concentration. © Springer International Publishing 2014.


Alhassan Y.,Delhi Technological University | Alhassan Y.,Nigerian National Research Institute for Chemical Technology | Kumar N.,Delhi Technological University
Waste and Biomass Valorization | Year: 2016

This paper reports the production of biodiesel from Pongamia pinnata seed oil via single step process. The efficiency of deep eutectic solvents (DESs) synthesized from the mixture of choline chloride and para toluene solfonic acid (PTSA), was used with silica support (So-DES) and without support (Un-DES) as heterogeneous and homogeneous catalysts, respectively. The oil esterification with methanol and methyl tert-butyl ether as solvents was conducted. From the results, the optimum reaction conditions for esterification of P. pinnata seed oil with Un-DES are; catalyst loading 1 (wt%/v), reaction time was 120 min and temperature was 343 K. maximum total acid number (TAN) reduction obtained under these conditions was 0.57 mg/KOH/g and a corresponding biodiesel conversion of 97.53 %. The optimal reaction conditions for esterification with So-DES using methanol as solvent are; temperature of 353 K, catalyst loading was 5 (wt%/v) and reaction time was 240 min. The optimum TAN reduction obtained under these conditions was 1.42 mg/KOH/g with corresponding biodiesel conversion of 89.3 %. Catalysts reuse was between four to seven reuses for Un-DES and So-DES respectively. Physico-chemical properties studies indicated that, viscosity, density and calorific values were within acceptable standard limits. It could be concluded that, DES synthesized from choline chloride and PTSA either with or without supporting material, could effectively produce biodiesel with acceptable fuel quality via single step process. © 2016, Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.


PubMed | Delhi Technological University and Nigerian National Research Institute for Chemical Technology
Type: | Journal: Bioresource technology | Year: 2015

Biomass liquefaction using ionic liquids (ILs) as catalysts has received appreciable attention, in renewable fuels and chemicals production, recently. However, issues associated with the production cost, long reaction time and use of volatile solvents are undeniably challenging. Thus, Deep Eutectic Solvents (DESs) emerged as promising and potential ILs substitutes. The hydrothermal liquefaction of de-oiled Jatropha curcas cake was catalyzed by four synthesized DESs as catalysts and co-solvents for selective extraction. Proximate and ultimate analyses including ash, moisture and carbon contents of bio-crude produced varied slightly. The higher heating values found ranges from 21.15 0.82 MJ/kg to 24.30 0.98 MJ/kg. The bio-crude yields obtained using ChCl-KOH DES was 43.53 wt% and ChCl-p-TsOH DES was 38.31 wt%. Bio-crude yield using ChCl-FeCl3 DES was 30.80 wt%. It is suggested that, the selectivity of bio-crude could be improved, by using DESs as catalyst and co-solvent in HTL of biomass such as de-oiled J. curcas cake.

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