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Gabriel O.E.,Nigerian National Research Institute for Chemical Technology | Youchao S.,Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics
Research Journal of Applied Sciences, Engineering and Technology

In this study, an efficient biologically inspired constrained multi-objective optimization algorithm called Genetic Pareto Set Identification Algorithm plus Different Sex (GPSIA+DS) was developed. A complex system comprising of mixed configuration, k-out-of-n and redundant subsystem was used to validate GPSIA+DS in comparison with Genetic Pareto Set Identification Algorithm (GPSIA) and Fast Non-Dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm plus Constrain Domination (NSGA-II+CD). The optimization strategy based on Genetic Pareto Set Identification Algorithm (GPSIA) only considered feasible solutions. That is, solutions, which satisfies all constraints conditions. Infeasible solutions could facilitate faster convergence to the true Pareto front. GPSIA+DS, which considers feasible and infeasible solutions in it optimization strategy was shown to outperform GPSIA and NSGA-II for the test problem considered. © Maxwell Scientific Organization, 2013. Source

Diya'uddeen B.H.,Nigerian National Research Institute for Chemical Technology | Diya'uddeen B.H.,University of Malaya | Rahim Pouran S.,University of Malaya | Abdul Aziz A.R.,University of Malaya | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry

The treatment of high-strength petroleum refinery effluent (PRE) with [BOD5]/[COD]0=0.14 was investigated using combined Fenton-sequencing batch reactor (SBR). The effect of [H2O2]:[COD]0 molar ratio on biodegradability enhancement was investigated. Fenton optimal conditions were: [H2O2]:[COD]0 of 6, [H2O2]:[Fe0] of 10 and pH=3.0 that could remove 76.5%, 45% and 96% of COD, TOC and phenol and increased biodegradability ratio to 0.37. The pretreated PRE subjected to SBR for one single cycle of 10h. The results revealed the effectiveness of hybrid Fenton-SBR system in treating PRE where the complete treatment of the PRE was attained by this system. © 2014 The Korean Society of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry. Source

Adeyemi H.M.M.,Nigerian National Research Institute for Chemical Technology | Adebote D.A.,Ahmadu Bello University
Electronic Journal of Environmental, Agricultural and Food Chemistry

Bobgunnia madagascariensis, a wild leguminous tree in its indigenous use is cited as being used for fodder and exhibit termite-resistant properties. In the feeding deterrent tests, the methanol extract of all parts of the B. madagascariensis showed deterrent activity against the red flour beetle, Tribolium casteneum and the inhibition rates recorded for the methanol extracts was observed to be comparable to that obtained for a standard storage pesticide/fumigant Phostoxin, (Aluminium phosphide 57%) used by farmers for post harvest storage of grains and pulses in the Northern part of Nigeria. Feeding Inhibition Rates recorded in the chloroform and methanol extracts from the leaves, stem and root barks of the B. madagascariensis showed considerable level of feeding inhibition rates, values were higher than 50% in most of the concentrations. For the contact toxicity tests, of the doses tested, 100μg/insect resulted in the highest contact toxicity to the red flour beetles, T. casteneum producing >70% mortality after 72hours of application with the methanol extracts. Source

Chia M.A.,University of Sao Paulo | Odoh O.A.,Ahmadu Bello University | Ladan Z.,Nigerian National Research Institute for Chemical Technology
Water, Air, and Soil Pollution

In this study, Scenedesmus quadricauda ABU12 was immobilized with sodium alginate to determine its potential for decolorizing indigo blue dye under different incubation conditions. The microalga was incubated at different pH (6.5-9.5), biomass concentrations (0.1- 1.0 g l-1), dye concentrations (12-75 mg l-1) and temperatures (25-40°C). The concentration of biomass used significantly determined the rate of dye decolorization, as the lowest biomass concentration (0.10 g) was able to completely decolorize the dye by day 3, while the highest biomass concentration (1.00 g l-1) attained 100% decolorization on day 4. Neutral pHs supported the highest dye decolorization rates compared alkaline pHs. The rate of dye decolorization had a linear relationship with the concentration of the dye in solution as increasing dye concentration in the medium significantly reduced the rate of decolorization (p<0.05). At 25°C, the rate of dye decolorization was consistently higher from day 2 to the end of the experiment. Infra-red analyses of the algal biomass and the dye solution was done in Kbr by pressing between flat aperture plates of sodium chloride and scanning from 4,000 to 625 cm-1. This revealed the presence of functional groups associated with the biomass and dye that provided possible explanations for the decolorization of the dye under the different incubation conditions. These results showed that immobilized S. quadricauda is capable of decolorizing indigo blue dye at low biomass when immobilized with sodium alginate. However, this was dependent on the incubation temperature and dye concentration. © Springer International Publishing 2014. Source

Dakare M.A.,Nigerian National Research Institute for Chemical Technology | Ameh D.A.,Ahmadu Bello University | Agbaji A.S.,Nigerian National Research Institute for Chemical Technology
Pakistan Journal of Nutrition

Biochemical assessment of pawpaw (Carica papaya) seeds and daddawa produced from the seed by fermentation was carried out. B. Subtilis, B. pumilus and B. lichen if or mis were found to be involved in the fermentation. The proximate composition showed that the seed had high lipid (48.50±0.45%) and protein (21.72±0.37%) contents, which increased significantly (p<0.05) after fermentation to 54.19±0.42 and 23.56±0.33% respectively. The main mineral elements found in fermented and unfermented seeds were magnesium, calcium and sodium. Fermentation decreased the level of antinutritional factors: oxalate from 210.1-40.2 mg/100 g, phytic acid from 102.0-68.0 mg/100 g, tannin from 15.5-8.3 mg/100 g and trypsin inhibitor from 2431.2-63.0 mg/100 g. Both fermented and unfermented papaya seeds were rich in the essential amino acids, leucine, lysine isoleucine and phenylalanine. Oleic acid is the predominant fatty acid in both raw and fermented seed oil being 77.7 and 80.7%, respectively, while, palmitic and stearic acids were present in appreciable quantities. © Asian Network for Scientific Information, 2011. Source

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