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Alli L.A.,University Of Abuja | Adesokan A.A.,Ladoke Akintola University of Technology | Salawu A.O.,Nigerian National Institute for Pharmaceutical Research and Development
Journal of Intercultural Ethnopharmacology | Year: 2016

Background: The problem of resistance of malarial parasites to available antimalarial drugs makes the development of new drugs imperative, with natural plant products providing an alternative source for discovering new drugs. Aim: To evaluate the antimalarial activity of eluted fractions of Acacia nilotica root extract and determine the phytochemicals responsible for its antimalarial activity. Materials and Methods: The extract was eluted successively in gradients of solvent mixture (hexane, ethyl acetate, and methanol) in multiples of 100 ml, and each fraction was collected separately. Eluates that showed similar thin layer chromatographic profiles and Rf values were combined to produce 4 main fractions (F-1, F-2, F-3, and F-4), which were tested separately for antimalarial activity using the curative test. Changes in body weight, temperature, and packed cell volume (PCV) were also recorded. Results: Fraction F-1 of A. nilotica at 50 and 100 mg/kg b/w produced significant and dose-dependent reduction in parasite count in Plasmodium berghei infected mice compared to the control, and also significantly increased the survival time of the mice compared to the control group. This fraction also ameliorated the malaria-induced anemia by improving PCV in treated mice. Conclusion: Antimalarial activity of extract of A. nilotica root is probably localized in the F-1 fraction of the extract, which was found to be rich in alkaloids and phenolics. Further study will provide information on the chemical properties of the active metabolites in this fraction. © SAGEYA.


Oga E.F.,Nigerian National Institute for Pharmaceutical Research and Development
International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences | Year: 2010

Tuberculosis cases have significantly increased within the past decade, especially among AIDS patients, hence the importance of isoniazid, a first line anti-tubercular agent. This has prompted many investigators to develope methods for the rapid determination of isoniazid in pure form as well as in pharmaceutical formulations. A method is described for the determination of isoniazid, in pure form and in pharmaceutical formulations. The method is based on the coupling of isoniazid and vanillin in an ethanolic hydrochloric acid medium and the spectrophotometric determination at the absorption maximum (405nm). A yellow coloured hydrazone was formed. Beer's law was obeyed in the concentration range of 1-12μg/ml at 405nm. The proposed method was applied in the analysis of commercially purchased brands of isoniazid tablets and showed good accuracy and precision. Excipients used in the pharmaceutical formulation showed no interference in the analysis. The method offers the advantages of rapidity, simplicity and sensitivity and low cost and can be easily applied resource-poor settings without the need for expensive instrumentation and reagents.


Mbah C.C.,Nigerian National Institute for Pharmaceutical Research and Development | Mbah C.C.,University of Nigeria | Builders P.F.,Nigerian National Institute for Pharmaceutical Research and Development | Attama A.A.,University of Nigeria
Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery | Year: 2014

Introduction: The application of vesicular carrier formulations has generated promise of overcoming some problems associated with drug delivery arising from not only the physicochemical properties of the drug but also those of the biological barriers, such as the membrane linings of various body tissues and the skin. This review article discusses the importance of various vesicular carriers, namely liposomes, niosomes, transfersomes and ethosomes in drug delivery with greater emphasis on ethosomes. Areas covered: The nature, mechanism of drug delivery, methods of preparation as well as characterization of vesicular carriers was discussed with a focus on ethosomes. An overview of their potential applications was provided with discussions on the future prospects and challenges of achieving enhanced drug delivery using ethosomes. Expert opinion: Vesicular carriers offer controlled and sustained drug release, improved permeability and protection of the encapsulated bioactives. Ethosomes offer more efficient and enhanced bioavailability better than the older dosage forms owing to the high ethanol content. Ethosomes have potential applications in the development of nanomedicines, including phytomedicines, for the treatment of challenging diseases ravaging the world today. The future holds great prospects in the utilization of vesicular carriers, especially ethosomes, in overcoming peculiar problems of drug delivery. © 2014 Informa UK, Ltd.


Ameh S.J.,Nigerian National Institute for Pharmaceutical Research and Development | Tarfa F.D.,Nigerian National Institute for Pharmaceutical Research and Development | Ebeshi B.U.,Niger Delta University
Anemia | Year: 2012

Background. Patients in West Africa where sickle cell anemia (SCA) is endemic have for ages been treated with natural products, especially herbs, as, is still the case in rural communities. Objective. In this paper we look closely at some of these herbs to see if there are any lessons to be learnt or clues to be found for optimizing the treatments based on them, as had been done in the case of NIPRISAN, which was developed from herbs in Nigeria based on Yoruba Medicine. Methods. Select publications on SCA, its molecular biology and pathology, and actual and experimental cases of herbal treatment were perused in search of molecular clues that can be linked to chemical constituents of the herbs involved. Results. The study revealed that during the last 2-3 decades, much progress was made in several aspects of SCA pharmacology, especially the approval of hydroxyurea. As for SCA herbalism, this paper revealed that antisickling herbs abound in West Africa and that the most promising may yet be found. Three new antisickling herbs (Entandrophragma utile, Chenopodium ambrosioides, and Petiveria alliacea) were reported in May 2011. At NIPRD, where NIPRISAN was developed, three other recipes are currently awaiting development. Conclusion. The study raised the hope that the search in the Tropics for more effective herbal recipes for managing sickle cell anaemia will be more fruitful with time and effort. © 2012 Sunday J. Ameh et al.


Emeje M.O.,University of Nigeria | Emeje M.O.,Tezpur University | Franklin-Ude P.I.,Nigerian National Institute for Pharmaceutical Research and Development | Ofoefule S.I.,Nigerian National Institute for Pharmaceutical Research and Development
International Journal of Biological Macromolecules | Year: 2010

In this study, the fluid uptake (swelling) kinetics and disintegrant properties of gellan gum in metronidazole tablets were evaluated in both simulated gastric and intestinal fluids (SGF and SIF respectively) without enzymes. The mechanical properties as well as the disintegration and dissolution profile of the tablets were also assessed and compared with those of two standard disintegrants: maize starch and sodium starch glycolate (Primogel®). Results show that, swelling was faster and higher in SIF than SGF with the minimum and maximum swelling rates of the gum being 0.365 and 6.900mm3/min respectively in SGF, while the corresponding values in SIF were 0.277 and 7.600mm3/min respectively. The gum was most effective as a disintegrant for metronidazole tablets at an optimum concentration of 0.2% (w/w) when incorporated extra-granularly. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.


Chime S.A.,University of Nigeria | Attama A.A.,University of Nigeria | Builders P.F.,Nigerian National Institute for Pharmaceutical Research and Development | Onunkwo G.C.,University of Nigeria
Journal of Microencapsulation | Year: 2013

Objective: To formulate sustained-release diclofenac potassium-loaded solid lipid microparticles (SLMs) based on solidified reverse micellar solution (SRMS) and to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo properties. Methods: SRMS consisting of mixtures of Phospholipon® 90H and Softisan® 154 were used to formulate diclofenac potassium-loaded SLMs. Characterization based on the particle size and morphology, stability and encapsulation efficiency (EE%) were carried out on the SLMs. In vitro release was carried out in simulated intestinal fluid (pH 7.5). Anti-inflammatory and ulcerogenic properties were studied using rats. Results: Maximum EE% of 95%, 94% and 93% were obtained for SLMs formulated with SRMS 1:1, 2:1 and 1:2, respectively. In vitro release showed about 85-90% drug release at 13h. Diclofenac potassium-loaded SLMs showed good anti-inflammatory and gastro-protective properties. Conclusion: Diclofenac potassium-loaded SLMs based on SRMS could be used orally or parenterally under controlled conditions, for once daily administration. © 2013 Informa UK Ltd.


Afieroho O.E.,Nigerian National Institute for Pharmaceutical Research and Development | Okorie O.,University of Port Harcourt | Okonkwo T.J.N.,University of Port Harcourt
Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research | Year: 2012

Purpose: To develop a simple and cost effective spectrophotometer method for the determination of ACE inhibitor ramipril in dosage forms. Methods: UV spectrophotometry was used to develop and validate a simple method for the assay of ramipril in solid dosage form at λ max of 210 nm, as per International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) guidelines. Aqueous methanol (5%) was used as the blank solvent. The method was validated for linearity, recovery, accuracy, precision, specificity in the presence of excipients, and also for inter-day stability under laboratory conditions. Results: Validation results showed linearity in the range 1 - 38 μg/ml; recovery accuracy 101.55%; regression equation Y = 0.0256X + 0.0697, R 2 of 0.9942; precision RSD < 2.00%; and negligible interference from common excipients and colorants. The method was accurate (95% confidence limit) compared to standard liquid chromatography (LC) method, with comparable reproducibility when used to assay a commercial product (Ramitace ®, 2 and 5 mg tablets). Conclusion: The validated data were within allowable limits and therefore, the proposed method is recommended for routine quality control (QC) analysis. © Pharmacotherapy Group.


Ohwoavworhua F.O.,Nigerian National Institute for Pharmaceutical Research and Development | Adelakun T.A.,Nigerian National Institute for Pharmaceutical Research and Development
Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences | Year: 2010

The microcrystalline cellulose is an important ingredient in pharmaceutical, food, cosmetic and other industries. In this study, the microcrystalline cellulose, obtained from the stalk of Sorghum caudatum was evaluated for its physical and tableting characteristics with a view to assessing its usefulness in pharmaceutical tableting. The microcrystalline cellulose, obtained from the stalk of Sorghum caudatum, obtained by sodium hydroxide delignification followed by sodium hypochlorite bleaching and acid hydrolysis was examined for its physicochemical and tableting properties in comparison with those of the well-known commercial microcrystalline cellulose grade, Avicel PH 101. The extraction yield of this microcrystalline cellulose, obtained from the stalk of Sorghum caudatum was approximately 19%. The cellulose material was composed of irregularly shaped fibrous cellulose particles and had a moisture content of 6.2% and total ash of 0.28%. The true density was 1.46. The flow indices showed that the microcrystalline cellulose, obtained from the stalk of Sorghum caudatum flowed poorly. The hydration, swelling and moisture sorption capacities were 3.9, 85 and 24%, respectively. Tablets resulting from these cellulose materials were found to be without surface defects, sufficiently hard and having disintegration time within 15 min. The study revealed that the microcrystalline cellulose, obtained from the stalk of Sorghum caudatum compares favourably with Avicel PH 101 and conformed to official requirement specified in the British Pharmacopoeia 1993 for microcrystalline cellulose.


Rodrigues A.,CSIR - National Chemical Laboratory | Emeje M.,CSIR - National Chemical Laboratory | Emeje M.,Nigerian National Institute for Pharmaceutical Research and Development
Carbohydrate Polymers | Year: 2012

Starch has found use in industries as diverse as food, textiles, cosmetics, plastics, adhesives, paper, and pharmaceuticals. From a pharmaceutical standpoint, starch finds its value in solid-oral dosage forms, where it has been used as a binder, diluent, and disintegrant. However, only recently has the use of starch in nanotechnology started to make significant advances in biomedical applications, including newer drug delivery techniques. There has been a considerable effort to develop biodegradable nanoparticles as effective drug delivery systems. Being cheap, non-toxic, renewable, biodegradable and compatible with many other materials for industrial applications, starch is attracting the interest of drug delivery scientists. We have put together in a short and concise format, recent applications of starch derivatives in the emerging field of nanodrug delivery with the conclusion that a lot still needs to be done. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Folashade K.O.,Nigerian National Institute for Pharmaceutical Research and Development | Omoregie E.H.,Nigerian National Institute for Pharmaceutical Research and Development
Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science | Year: 2012

Lippia multiflora Moldenke is a tropical to subtropical herbaceous aromatic plant widely distributed throughout tropical Africa, South and Central American countries. It has been traditionally used in various communities for different purposes ranging from therapeutic febrifuge in form of tea and fumigants to non-therapeutic drink for relaxation and sedation, and as well as condiments. Of most economic and scientific importance is the essential oil in the aerial part of the plant, the "lippia oil". The ther apeutic properties of the plant are largely attributed by researchers to the oil. This review is aimed at collating all the scientific data available on the oil and drawing attention to its chemical components, pharmacological activities and resources for industrial exploration and exploitation.

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