Nigerian Institute of Social and Economic Research NISER

Ibadan, Nigeria

Nigerian Institute of Social and Economic Research NISER

Ibadan, Nigeria
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Babatimehin O.,Obafemi Awolowo University | Ayanlade A.,King's College London | Babatimehin M.,Nigerian Institute of Social and Economic Research NISER | Yusuf J.O.,African Center for Development Research
Open Geography Journal | Year: 2011

This study is about the distribution of health care facilities in Kogi State within the context of the geography and politics of the state. Hence, the study analyses the spatial patterns of health care facilities among the three senatorial districts (which corresponds to the division along major ethnic lines) in the state. Also, the ownership structure of facilities and the relationship between population and distribution of health care facilities in the state are analysed. The list of health care facilities and ownership in Nigeria obtained from the Department of Health Planning and Research, Federal Ministry of Health served as database for the analysis of the spatial patterns of distribution and ownership of health care facilities in Kogi State. Also, the National Population Commission's census figures provided information on the population of the State. Kogi State was stratified into the three existing senatorial districts - Kogi Central, Kogi East, and Kogi West. The total number of health care facilities and their ownership in each stratum were determined and used for the analyses. Data show that there exist inequalities in the distribution of HCFs among the various senatorial districts in the state. Kogi east senatorial district recorded the highest concentration of HCFs having 66.3% of all HCFs in the state, followed by Kogi west (19.6%) and Kogi central (14.1%). It is observed that the facility-population ratios for both PHC and SHC (1:2575 and 1:29024 respectively) are high. These proportions vary among the various senatorial districts; for example PHC-population ratios were 1:6850, 1:2746 and 1:1689 for Kogi central, west and east respectively; the ratios for SHC were 1:41,859, 1:27804 and 1:23736 for Kogi central, west and east respectively. Although, the government dominates the ownership of health care facilities in the state, her impact is heaviest in Kogi east where she owns 93% of HCFs as opposed to 70% in Kogi central where the impact is least. Kogi east which has produced the civilian Chief Executives of the state since its creation in 1991 ranks far ahead of the two other districts in the distribution of HCFs. Appropriate authorities should endeavour to achieve a more equitable distribution of health care facilities in the state, so as to engender equity and social justice. © Babatimehin et al.

Arawomo D.F.,Nigerian Institute of Social and Economic Research NISER | Badejo A.A.,University of Ibadan
International Journal of Trade and Global Markets | Year: 2015

Agriculture is the mainstay of the economies in most of ECOWAS countries. Ironically, however, persistent food shortage arising from constraints on agriculture is exposing many of them to threats of extreme hunger and starvation. Trade in food products has been identified as a very critical factor in safeguarding food security for the world's poor. This study therefore examined the extent and drivers of intra-regional trade in food products in ECOWAS and the two monetary zones (WAEMU and WAMZ) in the sub-region. Poisson Quasi Maximum Likelihood of Santos-Silva and Tenreyro was used to estimate the gravity model. While exporter income discourages intra-regional trade in food products, importer income promotes it. Landed area irrigated and the land available for cultivation promotes intra-regional trade in food products in ECOWAS. It is only in WAMZ that colonial ties and border enhance intraregional trade in food products. © 2015 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.

Osigwe A.C.,Nigerian Institute of Social and Economic Research NISER
International Journal of Energy Economics and Policy | Year: 2015

The dominance of oil in the Nigeria’s external sector and as its major source of revenue is not in dispute. This therefore necessitates the need to probe the nexus and the magnitude of the effects of fluctuation in the exchange rate on oil price and on how it impacts the Nigeria’s economic performance. Against this background, this study evaluated the effects of exchange rate fluctuations on crude oil price as well as on economic performance, simultaneously. The ordinary least square and the two stage least squares estimation techniques were employed. The study found that real exchange rate has a positive effect (1.2%) on the Nigeria’s economic performance. We also found that a 1% increase in the price of oil would positively influence the economic performance of Nigeria by the magnitude of 4%. The R2 shows that 82% deviation in the gross domestic product was captured by the explanatory variables whereas the J-statistics of the model is insignificant, thus, confirming the relevance and validity of the instruments used. © 2015, Econjournals. All Rights Reserved.

Adeagbo A.,Nigerian Institute of Social and Economic Research NISER | Daramola A.,Nigerian Institute of Social and Economic Research NISER | Carim-Sanni A.,Nigerian Institute of Social and Economic Research NISER | Akujobi C.,Nigerian Institute of Social and Economic Research NISER | Ukpong C.,Nigerian Institute of Social and Economic Research NISER
International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction | Year: 2016

The study set out to assess the effects of natural disasters on households' livelihoods, their assets and other aspects of well being in Nigeria. As expected, there were differential impacts on respondents from natural disaster occurrences.Floods were found to be the most common natural disaster type in a study carried out in six states of the country. Findings from the survey conducted on 1116 respondents show that a significant proportion of respondents' experienced severe negative effects on their dwelling units (47%), household assets (41%) and on children's schooling (45%). Others suffered severe health related impacts, while access to utilities such as electricity and water supply was also severely constrained for some. About half of the respondents from rural areas were displaced as a result of natural disaster events. Children formed the highest number among those displaced.The damage/loss/replacement assessment shows that respondents spent a little above N200,000 on the average to replace losses and fix damages incurred from natural disaster impacts. Urban/rural differentials show that mean spending to replace losses was higher for rural respondents, although these also had lower average earnings. Male/female analysis of natural disaster impacts shows that males had a higher proportion of spending. The chi-square test to analyze significant differences in level of spending to fix damages show significant differences for urban/rural groups, as well as for male/female groups (P<0.05).The authors suggest the need for insurance schemes with counterpart government funding to ensure speedy recovery from natural disaster impacts for all categories of people. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.

Adeoti J.O.,Nigerian Institute of Social and Economic Research NISER | Adeyinka F.M.,Nigerian Institute of Social and Economic Research NISER | Ubaru M.O.,Technology Development Agency NITDA
International Journal of Technological Learning, Innovation and Development | Year: 2010

The study reported in this paper examines the use of ICTs and their efficiency impacts in the Nigerian printing and publishing industry. The findings provide evidence of the diffusion of ICTs in the industry, and regression of technical efficiency scores on firm characteristics and indicators of ICT investment showed that age of firm, age of main production equipment, size of firm and ownership structure have no significant impact on technical efficiency of firms in the research sample. Factors that have significant impact on technical efficiency of firms include physical capital, sales turnover, proportion of workers with higher education, and three aspects of ICT investment (viz., investment in computers, investment in computer software, and investment in e-business facility). The results demonstrate that ICT investments have significant positive impacts on technical efficiency, but firms are however prone to adopting hardware without requisite in-house ICT skills and adequate knowledge of software. Promoting ICT investment should therefore, be accompanied by deliberate efforts to guide firms to acquire ICT skills and software in tandem with investment in ICT hardware. © 2010 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.

Daramola A.Y.,Nigerian Institute of Social and Economic Research NISER | Oni O.T.,EPRD | Ogundele O.,EPRD | Adesanya A.,EPRD
International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction | Year: 2016

Much of the strategies employed in managing natural disasters in Nigeria have been reactive, while efforts at embracing preparedness have been lean. Evidence from literature as well as global experiences however shows that factors which increase adaptive capacity to disasters are ex-ante risk reducing strategies. In this light, the study focuses on factors influencing adaptive capacity of households and individuals and describes level of preparedness to natural disaster occurrences. A sample of 1116 individuals was obtained from six states spread across the geopolitical zones of Nigeria for a questionnaire survey. With the use of a binary logit model, we attempt to explain the severity or non-severity of the negative effects of natural disaster outcomes using adaptive capacity/vulnerability variables. The results show that households making use of unapproved dump sites for solid waste disposal, those with inferior roof construction materials, and those located in the rural areas were more likely to experience increased severe negative effects from natural disaster occurrences. Moreover, factors such as a lack of personal savings, agriculture based livelihoods and a single income source increased the odds of experiencing severe negative effects from natural disasters for individuals. We also discuss coping strategies adopted by individuals and households in the aftermath of natural disasters. Much of these represent informal mechanisms and we find that some of these strategies may not be entirely beneficial to individuals and households in the long run. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.

Momodu M.I.,Nigerian Institute of Social and Economic Research NISER
Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences | Year: 2013

Apart from air, water and food, energy is the most important item for human survival. It is essential for meeting various domestic, industrial and commercial obligations. Kerosene, electricity, gas and fuelwood are however, the major sources of domestic energy in Nigeria. The paper examines the role and challenges associated with the use of fuelwood in Nigeria. Desk research on energy utilisation, rate of deforestation and alternative sources of energy provided data for the paper. Content analysis of available data was used in the preparation of the paper. The paper revealed that domestic energy accounts for more than 50 per cent of the total energy consumed in Nigeria. The paper further shows that fuelwood provides energy for more than 60 per cent Nigerians and also responsible for meeting 80 per cent of domestic energy needs. Again, majority of Nigerians adopted fuelwood for meeting domestic energy needs due to the high level of poverty, inadequate infrastructure and lack of political-will to address the country's energy challenges. The paper therefore recommends the use of gas, kerosene and electricity for domestic needs in order to conserve the nation's forest resources, prevents loss of biodiversity and conserve the ground water.

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