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Eriksen S.,Norwegian University of Life Sciences | Aldunce P.,University of Chile | Aldunce P.,University of Melbourne | Bahinipati C.S.,Madras Institute of Development Studies MIDS | And 8 more authors.
Climate and Development | Year: 2011

Climate adaptation has become a pressing issue. Yet little attention has been paid to the consequences of adaptation policies and practices for sustainability. Recognition that not every adaptation to climate change is a good one has drawn attention to the need for sustainable adaptation strategies and measures that contribute to social justice and environmental integrity. This article presents four normative principles to guide responses to climate change and illustrates the significance of the 'sustainable adaptation' concept through case studies from diverse contexts. The principles are: first, recognize the context for vulnerability, including multiple stressors; second, acknowledge that differing values and interests affect adaptation outcomes; third, integrate local knowledge into adaptation responses; and fourth, consider potential feedbacks between local and global processes. We argue that fundamental societal transformations are required in order to achieve sustainable development pathways and avoid adaptation funding going into efforts that exacerbate vulnerability and contribute to rising emissions. Despite numerous challenges involved in achieving such change, we suggest that sustainable adaptation practices have the potential to address some of the shortcomings of conventional social and economic development pathways. © 2011 Earthscan. Source


Daramola A.Y.,Nigerian Institute of Social and Economic Research
Journal of Air Transport Management | Year: 2014

Increasing air traffic growth has been achieved along with substantial improvement in safety globally. While air traffic is equally growing in Nigeria, safety levels do not appear to be growing side by side. This was gleaned from the spate of accidents and fatalities recorded in the last couple of decades. The study therefore set out to assess safety performance in Nigeria's air transport industry by comparing accidents and fatality rates with global average levels during the period 1985-2008. A content analysis of the accident reports was done using the Human Factors Analysis Classification System (HFACS) as a conceptual framework; this was augmented with results of industry experts assessment of the Nigerian aviation industry. Their assessments were also discussed in the context of the conceptual framework. Accidents and passenger fatality rates in Nigeria were higher than global average figures for most of the years included in the analysis period. Findings on aircraft ages show that these are also higher than world average levels. The aviation industry experts' assessment presented various challenges which include inadequate airport facilities, absence of timely meteorological information and dearth of skilled personnel in Nigeria's aviation industry. The content analysis of the accident reports using the HFACS shows that skill based errors; physical environment and inadequate supervision are the most frequently occurring categories influencing accident occurrences. The Chi-square and Fishers's test used to analyze significant relationships in the HFACS categories obtained in the accident reports showed five pairs of significant associations between adjacent categories. Based on these associations, Supervisory Violations:-Crew Resource Management:- Decision Errors path is deemed the most potent for accident occurrences. Findings from the research point to the need to address personnel skill, physical environment issues (mostly weather related) and supervisory competence. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Daramola A.,Nigerian Institute of Social and Economic Research | Jaja C.,University of Ibadan
Journal of Transport Geography | Year: 2011

In realization of the increasingly important role played by air transport, the Nigerian government followed the global trend of deregulation in reforming its domestic airline industry in 1985. Some of the effects of deregulation have been consistent with observed trends in other countries but others have been quite different. The abandonment of less profitable routes in the short term as well as the unfolding core-periphery structures following the emergence and dominance of certain core control centers replicates what obtained in the United States. However, evidence from literature suggesting that liberalization in practice has often resulted in the rising concentration of connectivity in a limited number of nodes and links rather than in its dispersal over the network at large does not hold yet in Nigeria's domestic air network. This paper shows that the shifting balance between concentration and dispersal in Nigeria's domestic network is generally skewed towards dispersal. Passenger traffic is more dispersed among nodes as gleaned from diminishing standard deviation values with increasing number of nodes. Generally speaking, overall connectivity also tends towards more evenness in the network since deregulation. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Gbadegesin A.S.,University of Ibadan | Olorunfemi F.B.,Nigerian Institute of Social and Economic Research
Management of Environmental Quality | Year: 2011

Purpose: After almost 60 years of water supply development in Nigeria, it is unfortunate that as many as 43 per cent of the population still lack access to safe water. The situation is worse in the rural areas. There is, therefore, the need to better understand the constraints and challenges of water supply, especially in the rural areas of the country. With this regard this study seeks to assess the extent to which stakeholders are willing and able to adopt and implement sustainable, cost-effective and environmentally friendly management options for water resources in selected rural areas of Oyo State, Nigeria. Design/methodology/approach: The study areas include three rural/semi-urban Local Government Areas (LGAs) of Oyo state. The three LGAs are Ibarapa, Afijio, and Lagelu. The choice of the three study areas is justified on the grounds that the areas are different in terms of potable water supply problems and management. The study adopted a combination of qualitative and quantitative methodology, including Focus Group Discussions (FGDs), in-depth interviews (IDIs) with stakeholders as well as a structured and semi-structured questionnaires survey. Findings: The outcome of the study reveals that the knowledge base of the different stakeholder groups about the technological, socio-economic and ecological dimensions of water resources management is very low. For some communities, however, the indigenous knowledge in the conservation of traditional water sources (e.g. streams and rivers) exists but needs to be improved. Originality/value: The results formed a database on the ideas and experience of local initiatives which could be adapted to solve water supply problems in similar rural communities in Nigeria and elsewhere in the African continent. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited. Source


Habtezion S.,International START Secretariat | Habtezion S.,University of Nairobi | Adelekan I.,University of Ibadan | Adelekan I.,University of Nairobi | And 30 more authors.
Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability | Year: 2015

Traditional approaches for understanding environmental governance. -. such as environmental policy analysis or natural resources management. -. do not adequately address the gamut of human-natural system interactions within the context of the complex biogeophysical cycles and processes of the planet. This is perhaps more so in the African regional context where the complex relationships between modern and traditional governance systems and global change dynamics are arguably more pronounced.The Earth System Governance (ESG) Analytical Framework encompasses diverse systems and actors involved in the regulation of societal activities and behaviors vis-à-vis earth system dynamics. The concept encompasses a myriad of public and private actors and actor networks at all levels of policy and decision-making. The existence of, and interaction among, these diverse actors and systems, however, is under-researched in the African context. Various research approaches taken to address crucial global environmental change (GEC) challenges in Africa have proven to be inadequate because they tend to overlook the complex interactions among the various local actors, players, and indigenous conditions and practices vis-à-vis GEC system drivers and teleconnections. Similarly, the regional peculiarities in terms of governance typologies and socio-cultural diversity highlight the need for nuanced understanding of the complex interactions and nexuses among multiple actors and interests and Earth system processes. However, this diversity and complexity has often been lost in generalized enquiries. We argue that examination of the governance-GEC nexus through the aid of the ESG Framework would provide a much broader and more helpful insight. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. Source

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