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Nwizu S.E.,Deseret International Hospital Group | Njokanma O.F.,Lagos State University | Okoromah C.A.N.,University of Lagos | David N.A.,Nigerian Institute of Medical Research Yaba
West African Journal of Medicine | Year: 2011

BACKGROUND: Body mass index is often used to assess adiposity but it does not differentiate between fat and non-fat components of body mass. However, body fat composition may be assessed using bioelectrical impedance analysis. OBJECTIVE: The study aimed to relate body mass index to fat in the assessment of overweight and obesity among adolescent Nigerians. METHODS: Adolescent pupils aged 10years to 18years from randomly selected secondary schools in Lagos, Nigeria were studied. Body mass index was calculated while percentage body fat was measured using Tanita body ® fat scale model BF 681. Overweight and obesity were defined using age and sex specific criteria for body mass index and for body fat. RESULTS: There were 753 pupils {377(50.1%) males and 376(49.9%) females}. The overall mean body mass index for males and females were 18.1±2.72 and 18.9±3.41 (p < 0.05) respectively. The corresponding figures for body fat were 9.5±4.48 and 18.9±7.51 (p<0.05) respectively. About three quarters (76.2%) of the females who had body mass index in the overweight/obesity range had high body fat in comparison to 44.4% of males (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Body mass index is more related to body fat in adolescent females than in their male counterparts. Source


Anochie P.I.,Nigerian Institute of Medical Research | Onyeneke E.C.,St. Josephs Hospital | Asowata E.O.,University of Lagos | Afocha E.,Nigerian Institute of Medical Research Yaba | And 3 more authors.
GERMS | Year: 2013

Introduction Bacterial, viral and parasitic agents have been implicated and confirmed as causative agents of gastroenteritis in children with ages below 5 years old. The major role of rotavirus as causative agent is not widely recognized within the public health community, particularly in developing countries. This study examined the role of rotavirus as a causative agent of childhood gastroenteritis in infants and young children below 5 years of age in a General Hospital in Lagos, Nigeria. Methods Parents and caregivers of children admitted to the hospital were interviewed using a structured questionnaire. Viral RNA was extracted from the stool samples collected and analyzed using RT-PCR for genotyping and agarose gel electrophoresis for identification of rotavirus electrophoretypes. Results Out of the 71 samples analyzed, 16 (22.5%) were positive for rotavirus. A total of 12 (75%) males and 4 (25%) females were positive for rotavirus gastroenteritis with most cases (7, 43.8%) distributed to the 13-24 months age group, followed closely by the 1-6 months age group, with 6 cases, 37.5%. Rotavirus G2 genotype was the most prevalent strain in the hospital (10 patients, 62.5%) followed by G1 (6 patients, 37.5%). These were the only rotavirus genotypes detected in the hospital. © GERMS 2013. Source


Ezechi O.C.,Nigerian Institute of Medical Research Yaba | Ezechi O.C.,Lund University | Pettersson K.O.,Lund University | Okolo C.A.,University of Ibadan | And 2 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014

Introduction: Findings from studies that evaluated the effect of antiretroviral drug use on the development of cervical squamous intraepithelial lesion differed in their conclusions. This study investigated the association between HIV infection, antiretroviral drug use and cervical squamous intraepithelial lesion in a high HIV and cervical cancer burden setting-Nigeria. Methods: A cross sectional study among 1140 women of known HIV status enrolled in a randomised study to determine the test characteristics of visual inspection in detecting cytology diagnosed squamous intraepithelial lesion. Multivariate analysis was used to determine the association between HIV infection, antiretroviral drug use and the twin outcome variables of cervical squamous intraepithelial lesion (SIL) and High grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) while controlling for confounders. Results: Prevalence of cervical squamous intraepithelial lesion was 8.5%, with a higher prevalence of 14.3% in HIV positive compared to 3.3% in HIV negative women (aOR: 5.4; 95% CI: 2.9-8.8). Not using antiretroviral drugs was found to be associated with an increased risk of SIL (aOR: 2.1; 95% CI: 1.4-3.5) and HSIL (aOR: 2.6; 95% CI: 1.1-6.4). Participants who had a CD4 cell count <200 cells/mm3, were also found to be at increased risk for SIL (aOR: 1.9; 95% CI: 1.1-5.9) and HSIL (aOR: 5.7; 95% CI: 1.1-7.2). Conclusion: HIV infection and severe immunosuppression were found to be associated with increased risk of cervical squamous intraepithelial lesion but not viral load. For the first time, in the West African sub-region with specific HIV type and strains, we established the protective effect of antiretroviral drug use against the development of SIL. Integration of cervical cancer screening programme into HIV services and early initiation of antiretroviral drug in HIV positive women especially those with severe immune-suppression could therefore prove to be useful in preventing and controlling cervical cancer development in HIV positive women. © 2014 Ezechi et al. Source


Pam V.K.,University of Jos | Akpan J.U.,University of Lagos | Oduyebo O.O.,University of Lagos | Nwaokorie F.O.,Nigerian Institute of Medical Research Yaba | And 4 more authors.
International Journal of Molecular Epidemiology and Genetics | Year: 2012

Fluconazole resistance is an important type of resistance in Candida because in most countries, fluconazole is the drug of choice for vulvovaginal candidiasis. Candida species resist fluconazole by various mechanisms but there is paucity of data on these in our environment. Such mechanisms include among others, over-expression of the ERG11 gene, which codes for synthesis of the target enzymes in the fungus. The aim of this study was to screen Candida spp. resistant to fluconazole for the expression of ERG11 gene. Fluconazole susceptibility test was performed on 28 clinical strains of Candida species previously obtained from students of a School of Nursing in Lagos, Nigeria. They were identified by API Candida, CHROMagar candida and germ tube test. Using 25 mcg discs, fluconazole susceptibility was determined by the disc diffusion method and results were interpreted in accordance with the Clinical Laboratory Standard Institute (CLSI) criteria; sensitive (S), resistant (R) and susceptible dose dependent (SDD). The R and SDD isolates were subsequently evaluated for the presence of ERG11 gene. Of the 28 clinical isolates, 14 were identified as C. albicans and six as C. tropicalis. The remaining isolates were identified as C. glabrata (2), C. famata (2) C. kefyr (2) one each of C. parapsilosis and C. guilliermondii respectively. In this study, 18 were susceptible (S) to fluconazole, eight were SDD and two were resistant to the antifungal agent. Out of the 14 C. albicans isolates, 12 were susceptible, one showed high level resistance and similar number showed susceptible dose dependence. ERG11 was detected in three susceptible dose dependent Candida species. This analysis demonstrates that susceptible dose dependence should not be overlooked as it may be associated with the presence of ERG11 gene and resistance to fluconazole. There is a need to consider routine antifungal susceptibility testing for Candida species causing vulvovaginitis. Source


Egbuna K.N.,Nigerian Institute of Medical Research Yaba | Ajibaye O.,Nigerian Institute of Medical Research Yaba | Orok A.B.,Nigerian Institute of Medical Research Yaba | Okoh H.I.,Nigerian Institute of Medical Research Yaba | And 3 more authors.
Nigerian Journal of Parasitology | Year: 2011

This study was carried out in line with the National policy on bread to incorporate 10% cassava flour into wheat flour for all bread baked in Nigeria. The objective of this study was to investigate if the addition of 10% cassava flour or more could be accommodated without compromising the nutritive value of bread. The effect of fortifying with limiting amino-acids was also investigated. This study employed a feeding trial and bioassay of tissues from albino rats of Wistar strain, to evaluate the effect of supplementing various levels of wheat/cassava bread mix feed, with 0.1% L-lysine and 0.1% L-methionine. Nine different diet regimens were used with four rats in each diet group. Cassava (100%) diet group was used as the control; and the diets fortified with 0.1% L-lysine and 0.1% Lmethionine used as secondary control. The parameters measured as 'markers' of nutritive value included: body weight changes, food conversion ratio (FCR) and net protein utilisation (NPU). The effects of dietary intake of the various wheat/cassava supplemented diets on haematological indices such as mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration and biochemical indices such as cortisol, total protein and albumin in the plasma of fed rats were also determined. Results indicated that both 10% and 20% cassava input supported adequate nutritional and biochemical development of the fed rats, although fortification of the diets with 0.1% L-lysine and 0.1% L-methionine resulted in 10 - 20% improvement in all the nutritional indicators measured. Based on the results of this study, it was concluded that incorporation of 20% cassava flour into wheat bread supplemented with L-lysine and L-methionine is nutritionally better than, but haematologically and biochemically comparable to whole wheat bread in rats. Therefore, this findings lend support to the national policy on nutrient fortification and cassava incorporation into wheatbread for the general goal of improving food security in Nigeria. © Nigerian Journal of Parasitology. Source

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