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Chigor V.N.,University of Nigeria | Umoh V.J.,Ahmadu Bello University | Smith S.I.,Nigerian Institute of Medical Research
African Journal of Biotechnology | Year: 2010

Concerns about the persistence of Escherichia coli O157 in irrigation waters and its transmission to fresh produce makes investigation of irrigation waters imperative. The prevalence of this pathogen and seasonal levels of water quality parameters in Kubanni River were studied, using standard methods, over a 10-month period. Detection rate for E. coli O157 confirmed by slide agglutination was 2.1%. Faecal coliform counts (FCC) exceeded acceptable limits and was significantly higher in the dry season than during the rainy season (p<0.05). Remarkably, nitrate level was significantly higher in the rainy season than dry season (p<0.05). A significant (p<0.05) correlation was established between FCC and each of nitrate (r = 0.25), biochemical oxygen demand (r = 0.51) and electrical conductivity (r = 0.55). It was concluded that the Kubanni River represents a potential public health risk, being unfit for fresh produce irrigation. Perhaps, this is the first report on the isolation of E. coli O157 from water sources in Nigeria. © 2010 Academic Journals. Source


Iwalokun B.A.,Nigerian Institute of Medical Research
Saudi journal of kidney diseases and transplantation : an official publication of the Saudi Center for Organ Transplantation, Saudi Arabia | Year: 2012

Studies have identified microalbuminuria (MA) and asymptomatic bacteruria (ASB) as co-morbid factors in sickle cell anemia (SCA). However, the relationship between these comorbid factors remains unclear and data are lacking for Nigerian patients. This study determined the prevalence of MA and ASB in a cohort of patients with SCA in a steady state, in Lagos, Nigeria. Early morning mid-stream urine samples were collected in sterile bottles from 103 patients comprising 48 males and 55 females with a mean age of 10.4 years. Aerobic culture and colony count of organisms was done using conventional methods. Serum creatinine and hematological indices, including irreversibly sickled cells (ISC), were also assayed. Of the 103 urine samples screened, 23 (22.3%) had albuminuria (ALB), and consisted of nine males and 14 females (P > 0.05); 16.5% of the cases had MA (P <0.05). Age at onset of MA was seven years, and children accounted for 23.5% of all cases with ALB (P >0.05). The prevalence of confirmed ASB was 14.6%, with females accounting for 14 of 19 probable ASB cases (P <0.05). Univariate regression analysis demonstrated a significant (P <0.05) association between age at onset of MA, hemoglobin level, reticulocyte count, ISC and occurrence of ASB, but with only ISC evolving as an independent predictor. Twenty-eight bacterial isolates predominated by Escherichia coli (39.3%; P <0.05), of whom 89.3% were multi-drug resistant, were recovered from the ASB urine samples. In conclusion, both MA and ASB are common in Nigerian SCA patients, with the former occurring from the first decade of life. Source


Smith S.I.,Nigerian Institute of Medical Research
The West Indian medical journal | Year: 2011

This study was carried out to screen the use of Helicobacter pylori stool antigen (HpSA) tests for diagnosis and monitoring of H pylori in Nigeria. Seven hundred and forty participants were enrolled after informed consent was obtained, while 83 came back for a post-eradication test. The stool samples were taken from the patients at endoscopy and tested for HpSA. The proportion of patients that were positive at the pretest, 520 (70.3%) was significantly higher (Fisher's exact p = 0.001) than those positive at the post-test, 44 (53%). There was a significant difference (F = 4.106, p = 0.043) between the mean age of those that came for the pretest (40.0 +/- 14.5 years) and those that came for the post-test, 43.6 +/- 11.6 years. More males than females had the tendency to come back for a post-eradication test. Although potential bias was introduced during this study, HpSA using monoclonal antibody could still be used for diagnosis and monitoring of H pylori in Nigeria. Source


Ezechi O.C.,Nigerian Institute of Medical Research
African journal of reproductive health | Year: 2013

While the effect of HIV infection on some maternal outcomes is well established, for some others there is conflicting information on possible association with HIV. In this study we investigated pregnancy and neonatal outcome of HIV positive women in large HIV treatment centre over a period of 84 months. They were managed according to the Nigerian PMTCT protocol. Adverse obstetric and neonatal outcome were observed in 48.3% HIV positives compared 30.3% to the negatives (OR: 2.08; CI: 1.84-2.34). Low birth weight ( OR:2.95; CI:1.95-3.1), preterm delivery (OR:2.05; CI:1.3-3.1), perinatal death (OR:1.9;CI:1.3-3.2), and spontaneous abortion (OR:1.37; CI:1.1-2.3) were factors found to be independently associated with HIV. Low CD4 count (OR: 2.45; CI: 1.34- 4.56) and opportunistic infections (OR: 2.11; CI: 1.56-3.45) were to be associated with adverse obstetric and neonatal outcome. This study confirms the association of HIV, severe immunosuppression and opportunistic infection and adverse obstetric and neonatal outcome. Source


Oluyemi A.,General Hospital | Anomneze E.,Health Gates Consultancy and Medical Services | Smith S.,Nigerian Institute of Medical Research | Fasanmade O.,University of Lagos
BMC Research Notes | Year: 2012

Background: There appears to exist a potentially important interplay between diabetes mellitus (DM) and Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection. Findings from previous studies have been conflicting. Only a few studies have examined the topic in a sub-Saharan African population. This study sought to determine the prevalence of H. pylori infection among Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients in Lagos, Nigeria. Findings: H. pylori infection was detected in 18% of T2DM patients and 13% of controls but there was no statistical significance in this difference (p = 0.52). The prevalence of H. pylori was neither associated with the known duration of T2DM nor was it associated with age, gender, body mass index (BMI), smoking status. T2DM was not shown to be a risk factor independently associated with risk for H. pylori infection (OR = 0.87, 95% CI = 0.58-1.31, p = 0.57). Conclusions: The lack of a statistical significant difference between the H. pylori infection rates in T2DM patients and controls suggests that the infection is not increased in T2DM. Larger studies need to be conducted to confirm the study findings. © 2012 Oluyemi et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

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