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Majekodunmi A.O.,University of Edinburgh | Fajinmi A.,Nigerian Institute for Trypanosomiasis Research | Dongkum C.,Nigerian Institute for Trypanosomiasis Research | Picozzi K.,University of Edinburgh | And 2 more authors.
Parasites and Vectors | Year: 2013

Background: Trypanosomiasis is a widespread disease of livestock in Nigeria and a major constraint to the rural economy. The Jos Plateau, Nigeria was free from tsetse flies and the trypanosomes they transmit due to its high altitude and the absence of animal trypanosomiasis attracted large numbers of cattle-keeping pastoralists to inhabit the plateau. The Jos Plateau now plays a significant role in the national cattle industry, accommodating approximately 7% of the national herd and supporting 300,000 pastoralists and over one million cattle. However, during the past two decades tsetse flies have invaded the Jos Plateau and animal trypanosomiasis has become a significant problem for livestock keepers. Methods. In 2008 a longitudinal two-stage cluster survey on the Jos Plateau. Cattle were sampled in the dry, early wet and late wet seasons. Parasite identification was undertaken using species-specific polymerase chain reactions to determine the prevalence and distribution bovine trypanosomiasis. Logistic regression was performed to determine risk factors for disease. Results: The prevalence of bovine trypanosomiasis (Trypanosoma brucei brucei, Trypanosoma congolense savannah, Trypanosoma vivax) across the Jos Plateau was found to be high at 46.8% (39.0 - 54.5%) and significant, seasonal variation was observed between the dry season and the end of the wet season. T. b. brucei was observed at a prevalence of 3.2% (1% - 5.5%); T. congolense at 27.7% (21.8% - 33.6%) and T. vivax at 26.7% (18.2% - 35.3%). High individual variation was observed in trypanosomiasis prevalence between individual villages on the Plateau, ranging from 8.8% to 95.6%. Altitude was found to be a significant risk factor for trypanosomiasis whilst migration also influenced risk for animal trypanosomiasis. Conclusions: Trypanosomiasis is now endemic on the Jos Plateau showing high prevalence in cattle and is influenced by seasonality, altitude and migration practices. Attempts to successfully control animal trypanosomiasis on the Plateau will need to take into account the large variability in trypanosomiasis infection rates between villages, the influence of land use, and husbandry and management practices of the pastoralists, all of which affect the epidemiology of the disease. © 2013 Majekodunmi et al.


Majekodunmi A.O.,University of Edinburgh | Fajinmi A.,Nigerian Institute for Trypanosomiasis Research | Dongkum C.,Nigerian Institute for Trypanosomiasis Research | Picozzi K.,University of Edinburgh | And 3 more authors.
Parasites and Vectors | Year: 2013

Background: African Animal Trypanosomiasis (AAT) is a widespread disease of livestock in Nigeria and presents a major constraint to rural economic development. The Jos Plateau was considered free from tsetse flies and the trypanosomes they transmit due to its high altitude and this trypanosomiasis free status attracted large numbers of cattle-keeping pastoralists to the area. The Jos Plateau now plays a major role in the national cattle industry in Nigeria, accommodating approximately 7% of the national herd, supporting 300,000 pastoralists and over one million cattle. During the past two decades tsetse flies have invaded the Jos Plateau and animal trypanosomiasis has become a significant problem for livestock keepers. Here we investigate the epidemiology of trypanosomiasis as a re-emerging disease on the Plateau, examining the social factors that influence prevalence and seasonal variation of bovine trypanosomiasis. Methods. In 2008 a longitudinal two-stage cluster survey was undertaken on the Jos Plateau. Cattle were sampled in the dry, early wet and late wet seasons. Parasite identification was undertaken using species-specific polymerase chain reactions to determine the prevalence and distribution of bovine trypanosomiasis. Participatory rural appraisal was also conducted to determine knowledge, attitudes and practices concerning animal husbandry and disease control. Results: Significant seasonal variation between the dry season and late wet season was recorded across the Jos Plateau, consistent with expected variation in tsetse populations. However, marked seasonal variations were also observed at village level to create 3 distinct groups: Group 1 in which 50% of villages followed the general pattern of low prevalence in the dry season and high prevalence in the wet season; Group 2 in which 16.7% of villages showed no seasonal variation and Group 3 in which 33.3% of villages showed greater disease prevalence in the dry season than in the wet season. Conclusions: There was high seasonal variation at the village level determined by management as well as climatic factors. The growing influence of management factors on the epidemiology of trypanosomiasis highlights the impact of recent changes in land use and natural resource competition on animal husbandry decisions in the extensive pastoral production system. © 2013 Majekodunmi et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Fajinmi A.O.,Nigerian Institute for Trypanosomiasis Research | Daneji A.I.,University of Nigeria | Gweba M.,Zonal Veterinary Center
Research Journal of Parasitology | Year: 2011

A survey for the prevalence of trypanosomes species and the anemic status of trade cattle presented for slaughtering at Sokoto main abattoir, Northwest Nigeria was conducted between January and June, 2008. Blood samples were collected at ante-mortem via jugular vein and examined by Standard Trypanosome Detection Methods (STDM). Anaemic status was determined by Packed Cell Volume (PCV) and FAMACHA® Anaemic Guide technique while Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) technique was used to detect the presence of Trypanosoma brucei group. Out of 500 samples analyzed by STDM, 9 (1.8%) were positive out of which 6 (66.7%) had Trypanosoma viuax. The PCR technique detected 22 (4.4%) positive cases of Trypanosoma brucei group while 45 (9.0%) cattle were anaemic using the PCV and FAMACHA® techniques, respectively and White Fulani breed had the highest infection rate with 5 (55.6%) cases. These findings are significant as the study area has earlier been declared as tsetse free zone, transhumant activities as practice largely by the cattle herders maybe responsible for these detections. Presence of other mechanical vectors may lead to rapid spread of the infection which may have adverse effects on productivity of the animals with resultant economic losses. The detection of the T. brucei group in the examined trade cattle may also portend danger to public health as some ruminants and pigs have been incriminated as reservoir hosts of the Human African Trypanosomosis (HAT) agents in some parts of Africa. Statewide surveillance is therefore, needed to establish the true prevalence of the infection in all domesticated animals in the study area. © 2011 Academic Journals Inc.


PubMed | University Utrecht, Nigerian Institute for Trypanosomiasis Research, University of Edinburgh, National Veterinary Research Institute and French National Institute for Agricultural Research
Type: | Journal: Parasites & vectors | Year: 2016

Ticks and tick-borne diseases undermine cattle fitness and productivity in the whole of sub-Saharan Africa, including Nigeria. In this West African country, cattle are challenged by numerous tick species, especially during the wet season. Consequently, several TBDs are known to be endemic in Nigerian cattle, including anaplasmosis, babesiosis, cowdriosis and theilerioris (by Theileria mutans and Theileria velifera). To date, all investigations on cattle TBDs in Nigeria have been based on cytological examinations and/or on serological methods. This study aimed to ascertain the occurrence of tick-borne pathogens of veterinary and zoonotic importance in cattle in Nigeria using molecular approaches.In October 2008, 704 whole blood samples were collected from indigenous cattle in the Plateau State, Nigeria. Analysis for tick-borne pathogens was conducted by means of PCR-based reverse line blotting (RLB) and sequencing targeting a panel of five genera of microorganisms (i.e. Babesia, Theileria, Anaplasma, Ehrlichia and Rickettsia spp.).In total, 561/704 (82.6%) animals were found infected, with 465 (69.6%) of them being infected by two or more microorganisms, with up to 77 possible combinations of pathogens detected. Theileria mutans was the most prevalent microorganism (66.3%), followed by Theileria velifera (52.4%), Theileria taurotragi (39.5%), Anaplasma marginale (39.1%), Anaplasma sp. (Omatjenne) (34.7%), Babesia bigemina (7.9%), Anaplasma centrale (6.3%), Anaplasma platys (3.9%), Rickettsia massiliae (3.5%), Babesia bovis (2.0%) and Ehrlichia ruminantium (1.1%). Calves were found significantly less infected than juvenile and adult cattle.This study provides updated, molecular-based information on cattle TBDs in Nigeria. The molecular approach employed allowed the diagnosis of numerous positive cases including carrier statuses, multiple infections and novel pathogen detections within the indigenous cattle population. Moreover, the RLB method here described enabled the detection of veterinary agents not only pertaining to bovine health, including also those of zoonotic importance. The high prevalence recorded for T. mutans, T. velifera, A. marginale, T. taurotragi and Anaplasma sp. (Omatjenne), suggests they may be endemically established in Nigeria, whereas the lower prevalence recorded for other microorganisms (i.e. A. centrale and B. bovis) highlights a less stable epidemiological scenario, requiring further investigations.


Majekodunmi A.O.,University of Edinburgh | Majekodunmi A.O.,University of Ghana | Dongkum C.,Nigerian Institute for Trypanosomiasis Research | Langs T.,National Veterinary Research Institute | And 2 more authors.
Tropical Animal Health and Production | Year: 2016

This study investigated the productivity and management of sheep and cattle kept by Fulani pastoralists of Bokkos local government area on the Jos Plateau, North-Central Nigeria. Despite the challenges related to insecurity and restricted access to natural resources, results show large breeding herds with above average productivity and reproductive performance. The management strategy was focused on providing both milk and increased cattle numbers for pastoralists and beef to satisfy the high market demand. High natural herd growth and moderate offtake rates allowed households to maintain herd sizes with a small net increase in cattle numbers. Sheep productivity in these herds was characterised by high births, high mortality and high offtake, leading to overall negative herd growth. The use of hired herders is on the rise in response to natural resource conflict, insecurity and reduced family labour availability due to alternative livelihood strategies. Disease and related mortality remain significant constraints to productivity which could be addressed by increased access to quality veterinary care. However, any further increases in livestock numbers would put additional strain on already inadequate natural resources. © 2016 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht


PubMed | Nigerian Institute for Trypanosomiasis Research, University of Edinburgh and National Veterinary Research Institute
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Tropical animal health and production | Year: 2016

This study investigated the productivity and management of sheep and cattle kept by Fulani pastoralists of Bokkos local government area on the Jos Plateau, North-Central Nigeria. Despite the challenges related to insecurity and restricted access to natural resources, results show large breeding herds with above average productivity and reproductive performance. The management strategy was focused on providing both milk and increased cattle numbers for pastoralists and beef to satisfy the high market demand. High natural herd growth and moderate offtake rates allowed households to maintain herd sizes with a small net increase in cattle numbers. Sheep productivity in these herds was characterised by high births, high mortality and high offtake, leading to overall negative herd growth. The use of hired herders is on the rise in response to natural resource conflict, insecurity and reduced family labour availability due to alternative livelihood strategies. Disease and related mortality remain significant constraints to productivity which could be addressed by increased access to quality veterinary care. However, any further increases in livestock numbers would put additional strain on already inadequate natural resources.


PubMed | University Utrecht, University of Pretoria, University of Edinburgh, University of Bari and 2 more.
Type: | Journal: Veterinary parasitology | Year: 2016

In April 2008, whole blood samples were collected from 36 dromedary camels in Sokoto, North-western Nigeria. Following PCR and reverse line blotting, twenty-two samples (61%) resulted positive for Ehrlichia/Anaplasma spp. and three (8%) for Theileria/Babesia spp., with three (8%) cases of co-infections being found. Both sequence and BLAST analyses identified Ehrlichia/Anaplasma spp. and Theileria/Babesia spp. positive cases as Anaplasma platys and Theileria ovis, respectively. This is the first report of the detection of A. platys and T. ovis in camels from sub-Saharan Africa. The epidemiological relevance of this finding is enhanced by the close living of these animals with both dogs and small ruminants. The high prevalence detected for A. platys suggests a possible role of camels as carriers of this infection.


Auta A.,University of Jos | Banwat S.B.,University of Jos | David S.,University of Jos | Dangiwa D.A.,University of Jos | And 2 more authors.
Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research | Year: 2013

Purpose: To assess the knowledge and attitude of consumers in Jos, Nigeria towards the use of antibiotics. Methods: A cross-sectional questionnaire survey involving 430 clients of registered community pharmacy outlets located in some communities in Jos, Nigeria was conducted in November, 2011. Data collected were analysed using SPSS version 16 and logistic regression was used to determine independent predictors of low antibiotic knowledge. Results: About 56.5 % of respondents reported using an antibiotic within a month preceding the survey, with a prevalence of 22.3 % of self-medication use of antibiotics among respondents. The antibiotic knowledge assessment test revealed that 30.5% of respondents had low knowledge; while 40.9% and 28.6 % of respondents had intermediate and high knowledge levels respectively. Respondents' educational level was the only demographic predictor (p < 0.01) of low antibiotic knowledge found, as those with primary level of education were more likely (OR = 13.224; CI = 3.296-53.052) to have low antibiotic knowledge than those with tertiary education. Respondents showed negative attitude (< 50 % positive response rate) in about 60 % of the attitude statements they responded to. The most common negative attitudes demonstrated by respondents were their expectation to be prescribed an antibiotic for cold (66.3 %) and taking an antibiotic when they have cold to get better quickly (60.9 %). However, respondents demonstrated positive attitudes in looking at the expiry dates of antibiotics before using them (93.3 %), and taking antibiotics according to the instructions on the label (84.2 %). Conclusion: The study showed that inadequate antibiotic knowledge and negative attitudes towards antibiotics use exists among consumers. © Pharmacotherapy Group, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Benin, Benin City, 300001 Nigeria. All rights reserved.


Lorusso V.,University of Edinburgh | Picozzi K.,University of Edinburgh | De Bronsvoort B.M.C.,Roslin Institute | Majekodunmi A.,University of Edinburgh | And 4 more authors.
Parasites and Vectors | Year: 2013

Background: Ticks and tick-borne diseases (TBDs) undermine cattle fitness and productivity in the whole of sub-Saharan Africa, including Nigeria. The aim of this study was to document the composition of tick species, assessing the burden of infestation, in traditionally managed cattle in an area of central Nigeria where acaricides have not been used historically. Methods. The study was carried out in September 2010 in 9 villages belonging to three neighbouring local government areas in Plateau State, Nigeria. In each village all visible adult ticks were collected from at least 15 cattle (mean number = 25). Collected ticks were preserved in 70% ethanol to be counted and morphologically identified to the species level. Results: A total of 5011 ixodid ticks (1935 males and 3076 females) were collected from 228 cattle, comprising 14 calves, 33 juveniles, and 181 adults. Three tick genera (i.e., Amblyomma, Hyalomma, and Rhipicephalus, including the Boophilus sub-genus) and 11 species were identified. The most prevalent species was Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) decoloratus (41.4%), followed by Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus (15.4%), Rhipicephalus guilhoni (12.0%), Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) geigyi (7.6%), Hyalomma truncatum (7.4%), Amblyomma variegatum (6.3%), Rhipicephalus simus Group (4.0%), Rhipicephalus turanicus (1.2%), Rhipicephalus sanguineus (0.3%), Hyalomma rufipes (0.2%), and Rhipicephalus lunulatus (n = 1). Mean tick loads recorded were relatively high (22 ± 1.4), in spite of the practice of hand removal of ticks traditionally undertaken by the Fulani pastoralists in the area. Calves bore a significantly lower tick burden than adults (p = 0.004). Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus was not found in the area, suggesting that the eastbound expansion of this tick species in West Africa, has not yet reached central Nigeria. Conclusions: This study ascertained the presence of a broad variety of cattle tick species, most of which are of veterinary importance. The presence of each tick species is correlated with the potential occurrence of tick-borne pathogens and suggestions for tick control in the area are considered. Results should assist the diagnosis of related TBDs in cattle as well as the strategic planning of cost-effective tick control. © 2013 Lorusso et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


PubMed | Nigerian Institute for Trypanosomiasis Research
Type: Comparative Study | Journal: The Onderstepoort journal of veterinary research | Year: 2011

The infection of Yankassa rams with three important trypanosome species affecting livestock, namely, Trypanosoma congolense, T. vivax and T. bruceiproduced both acute and chronic fatal conditions. Chronic infections were induced in the three infections by the application of subcurative doses of diaminazene aceturate (Berenil). Pathological changes in the infected animals included splenomegaly and hepatomegaly which were more pronounced in acute than in chronic T. congolense infection. However, these changes were more severe in chronic than in acute T. vivax infection. While splenomegaly was more pronounced in chronic T. bruceiinfection than in acute, hepatomegaly and lymphadenopathy were more severe in acute than in the chronic condition. The increases in size of the spleen, lymph nodes and liver were associated with congestion, increases in cell density related to increased immunological reactions in the spleen and lymph nodes as well as increase in numbers, size and activity of the phagocytic cells in these organs.

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