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Auta A.,University of Jos | Banwat S.B.,University of Jos | David S.,University of Jos | Dangiwa D.A.,University of Jos | And 2 more authors.
Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research | Year: 2013

Purpose: To assess the knowledge and attitude of consumers in Jos, Nigeria towards the use of antibiotics. Methods: A cross-sectional questionnaire survey involving 430 clients of registered community pharmacy outlets located in some communities in Jos, Nigeria was conducted in November, 2011. Data collected were analysed using SPSS version 16 and logistic regression was used to determine independent predictors of low antibiotic knowledge. Results: About 56.5 % of respondents reported using an antibiotic within a month preceding the survey, with a prevalence of 22.3 % of self-medication use of antibiotics among respondents. The antibiotic knowledge assessment test revealed that 30.5% of respondents had low knowledge; while 40.9% and 28.6 % of respondents had intermediate and high knowledge levels respectively. Respondents' educational level was the only demographic predictor (p < 0.01) of low antibiotic knowledge found, as those with primary level of education were more likely (OR = 13.224; CI = 3.296-53.052) to have low antibiotic knowledge than those with tertiary education. Respondents showed negative attitude (< 50 % positive response rate) in about 60 % of the attitude statements they responded to. The most common negative attitudes demonstrated by respondents were their expectation to be prescribed an antibiotic for cold (66.3 %) and taking an antibiotic when they have cold to get better quickly (60.9 %). However, respondents demonstrated positive attitudes in looking at the expiry dates of antibiotics before using them (93.3 %), and taking antibiotics according to the instructions on the label (84.2 %). Conclusion: The study showed that inadequate antibiotic knowledge and negative attitudes towards antibiotics use exists among consumers. © Pharmacotherapy Group, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Benin, Benin City, 300001 Nigeria. All rights reserved. Source


Bulus T.,Kaduna State University | Ahmed A.B.,Kaduna State University | Sani Z.M.,Kaduna State University | Sa'id H.,Kaduna State University | Samdi S.M.,Nigerian Institute for Trypanosomiasis Research
Archives of Clinical Microbiology | Year: 2012

Objective: The paper report an attempt to adapt a "5CG-desiccator" as a simple and less expensive in vitro cultivation system for T. brucei brucei. Methods: The ability of 5CG-desiccator to sustain the growth and survival of T. brucei brucei was investigated using different media in various gaseous environment and concentrations, different glucose supplementation, different temperature and pH using haemocytometer counts of parasite density. The morphology and infectivity of the cultured trypanosomes were also studied. Results: Optimization study revealed that the parasite grow better in 20% horse or goat serum when supplemented with 0.1-1% (w/v) glucose at 27°C and when the pH of the culture medium ranges between 7.2 to 8.0. Cultured parasites from this system were infective to laboratory mice, morphologically identical to bloodstream forms, and could be subcultured in 96-wells microtiter plate. Conclusion: We conclude that this approach will prove invaluable in field work and in the micro assessment of EC50 /IC50 values of plant-derived extracts. © iMedPub. Source


Abubakar A.,Nigerian Institute for Trypanosomiasis Research | Iliyasu B.,Nigerian Institute for Trypanosomiasis Research | Ojiegbu F.N.,Nigerian Institute for Trypanosomiasis Research | Igweh A.C.,Nigerian Institute for Trypanosomiasis Research | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Medicinal Plants Research | Year: 2011

The antitrypanosomal efficacy of different doses of Cucumis metuliferus pulp extract was investigated in rabbits. Parasitaemia, Packed Cell Volume (PCV), percentage organ/body weight ratio and survival period were monitored. Treatment was by oral administration and it commenced at the establishment of infection that lasted between 1 to 3 weeks. Parasitaemia fluctuated and was kept low in all the treated groups. However, the results showed significant increase in both PCV and body weight (P<0.05) in rabbits treated at 500 and 1000 mg/kg body weight. Treatment with 500 mg/kg body weight for 7 consecutive days gave the highest survival period of 47 days beyond 28 days for the untreated control group. Post mortem examination (following the termination of the study) generally revealed pale carcasses, hepatomegaly and splenomegaly. However, treatment for three weeks with 500 and 1000 mg/kg body weight alleviated hepatomegaly and splenomegaly significantly (P<0.05). Consequently, a more detailed investigation of the potentials of C. metuliferus for antitrypanosomiasis drug discovery is recommended to pave way for the development of drugs for the effective treatment of African trypanosomiasis. © 2011 Academic Journals. Source


Fajinmi A.O.,Nigerian Institute for Trypanosomiasis Research | Daneji A.I.,University of Nigeria | Gweba M.,Zonal Veterinary Center
Research Journal of Parasitology | Year: 2011

A survey for the prevalence of trypanosomes species and the anemic status of trade cattle presented for slaughtering at Sokoto main abattoir, Northwest Nigeria was conducted between January and June, 2008. Blood samples were collected at ante-mortem via jugular vein and examined by Standard Trypanosome Detection Methods (STDM). Anaemic status was determined by Packed Cell Volume (PCV) and FAMACHA® Anaemic Guide technique while Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) technique was used to detect the presence of Trypanosoma brucei group. Out of 500 samples analyzed by STDM, 9 (1.8%) were positive out of which 6 (66.7%) had Trypanosoma viuax. The PCR technique detected 22 (4.4%) positive cases of Trypanosoma brucei group while 45 (9.0%) cattle were anaemic using the PCV and FAMACHA® techniques, respectively and White Fulani breed had the highest infection rate with 5 (55.6%) cases. These findings are significant as the study area has earlier been declared as tsetse free zone, transhumant activities as practice largely by the cattle herders maybe responsible for these detections. Presence of other mechanical vectors may lead to rapid spread of the infection which may have adverse effects on productivity of the animals with resultant economic losses. The detection of the T. brucei group in the examined trade cattle may also portend danger to public health as some ruminants and pigs have been incriminated as reservoir hosts of the Human African Trypanosomosis (HAT) agents in some parts of Africa. Statewide surveillance is therefore, needed to establish the true prevalence of the infection in all domesticated animals in the study area. © 2011 Academic Journals Inc. Source


Lorusso V.,University of Edinburgh | Picozzi K.,University of Edinburgh | De Bronsvoort B.M.C.,Roslin Institute | Majekodunmi A.,University of Edinburgh | And 4 more authors.
Parasites and Vectors | Year: 2013

Background: Ticks and tick-borne diseases (TBDs) undermine cattle fitness and productivity in the whole of sub-Saharan Africa, including Nigeria. The aim of this study was to document the composition of tick species, assessing the burden of infestation, in traditionally managed cattle in an area of central Nigeria where acaricides have not been used historically. Methods. The study was carried out in September 2010 in 9 villages belonging to three neighbouring local government areas in Plateau State, Nigeria. In each village all visible adult ticks were collected from at least 15 cattle (mean number = 25). Collected ticks were preserved in 70% ethanol to be counted and morphologically identified to the species level. Results: A total of 5011 ixodid ticks (1935 males and 3076 females) were collected from 228 cattle, comprising 14 calves, 33 juveniles, and 181 adults. Three tick genera (i.e., Amblyomma, Hyalomma, and Rhipicephalus, including the Boophilus sub-genus) and 11 species were identified. The most prevalent species was Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) decoloratus (41.4%), followed by Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus (15.4%), Rhipicephalus guilhoni (12.0%), Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) geigyi (7.6%), Hyalomma truncatum (7.4%), Amblyomma variegatum (6.3%), Rhipicephalus simus Group (4.0%), Rhipicephalus turanicus (1.2%), Rhipicephalus sanguineus (0.3%), Hyalomma rufipes (0.2%), and Rhipicephalus lunulatus (n = 1). Mean tick loads recorded were relatively high (22 ± 1.4), in spite of the practice of hand removal of ticks traditionally undertaken by the Fulani pastoralists in the area. Calves bore a significantly lower tick burden than adults (p = 0.004). Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus was not found in the area, suggesting that the eastbound expansion of this tick species in West Africa, has not yet reached central Nigeria. Conclusions: This study ascertained the presence of a broad variety of cattle tick species, most of which are of veterinary importance. The presence of each tick species is correlated with the potential occurrence of tick-borne pathogens and suggestions for tick control in the area are considered. Results should assist the diagnosis of related TBDs in cattle as well as the strategic planning of cost-effective tick control. © 2013 Lorusso et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

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