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Ilechie C.O.,Nigerian Institute for Oil Palm Research | Ibhadode A.O.A.,University of Benin | Abikoye B.O.,University of Benin
Advanced Materials Research | Year: 2012

The oil palm (elaeis guneensis) is a very important economic crop in West Africa where it is native. The fruit bunch contains 23 to 30% oil and is the highest yielding of all vegetable oil crops. Palm oil is the second most important vegetable oil in world consumption and the first to be commercialized internationally. Africa and indeed Nigerian was the world's highest producer of palm oil prior to 1961. Today, Nigeria is the fourth largest producer after Indonesia, Malaysia and Thailand. One of the main reasons given for this fall is lack of efficient mechanized processing equipment for the small-scale producers who produce over 80% of the country's palm oil. Their methods of production are labour intensive, batch, tedious, inefficient, and produce poor quality oil, have low throughput, unable to extract palm kernel alongside palm oil and so productivity is low and products (palm oil and palm kernel) lack competitiveness. This work has developed a mechanized oil palm fruit processing mill with six fully integrated systems for extracting good quality palm oil and palm kernel, while utilizing process wastes as the main source of heat energy. Each system/unit is expected to operate at the best quoted system efficiency. Tests are ongoing to determine and confirm these efficiencies. © (2012) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.

Ekebafe M.O.,Nigerian Institute for Oil Palm Research | Ekebafe L.O.,Auchi Polytechnic | Ugbesia S.O.,Auchi Polytechnic
Science Progress | Year: 2015

Research has shown that the carbon content of wastes decreases during composting with an increase in the nitrogen content. This indicates that the increased microbial activity in the process results in an increased mineralisation rate of organic nitrogen. A formula containing biochar in the form of terra preta, biochar bokashi, biochar glomalin, biochar hydrogel and biochar mokusaku-eki could further enhance the stability of the system and its effectiveness as a soil ameliorant. It could increase the cation exchange capacity, reuse crop residue, reduce runoff, reduce watering, reduce the quantity of fertiliser, increase crop yield, build and multiply soil biodiversity, strengthen and rebuild our soil food web, sequester atmospheric carbon in a carbon negative process, increase soil pH, restructure poor soils, and reduce carbon dioxide/methane/ nitrous oxide/ammonia emissions from gardens and fields. This paper considers these claims and also the wider environmental implications of the adoption of these processes. The intention of this overview is not just to summarise current knowledge of the subject, but also to identify gaps in knowledge that require further research. © 2015, Science Reviews 2000 Ltd. All rights reserved.

Obahiagbon F.I.,Nigerian Institute for Oil Palm Research
American Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology | Year: 2012

The Oil palm is as old as creation. Every part of the tree is useful economically and for domestic purposes. The oil Palm (Elaeis guineesis jacq.) is believed and accepted to have originated from West Africa. In Nigeria, it is cultivated in the South East Zone and the Niger Delta areas. The mesocarp of its fruit yields Palm oil which is orange-red in colour, due to the presence of the carotenoids. The kernel contains the second oil called the Palm Kernel Oil (PKO). The major and minor components of the palm oil play numerous health functions in humans. Some metabolites which play notable roles in the biosynthesis of triglycerides and products of lipolytic activities have been detected in the palm oil. Arising from the wide array of the components of palm oil, researches have been conducted which involved studies with the humans and animals. Results obtained from the researches have been of immense contribution to human health and products that could be developed from the palm oil. Additionally, the palm yields a nutritious sap when tapped. The components of the palm sap play significant roles in human physiology. This review paper is set to produce an update on some aspects of the oil palm, the products and their implications in human health. © 2012 Academic Journals Inc.

Gold I.L.,Nigerian Institute for Oil Palm Research | Ukhun M.E.,University of Benin | Akoh C.C.,University of Georgia
JAOCS, Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society | Year: 2011

The physico-chemical characteristics of blends of palm olein and palm kernel oil which were further modified by chemical interesterification were studied. The slip melting points of non-interesterified blends were 19.7, 16.2, 14.5, 14.5 and 14.4 °C while those of the chemically interesterified blends were 17.7, 16.2, 19.8, 18.7 and 18.7 °C at 40, 30, 20, 10 and 0% palm kernel oil, respectively. Chemical interesterification lowered the solid fat content of the pure samples and blends across different temperatures except 90% palm olein at 15 °C where the solid fat content was higher than for non-interesterified samples. Palm kernel oil, palm olein and their blends before and after chemical interesterification, crystallized mainly in the β' form. However, chemical interesterification modified the microstructure from a combination of fat particles with void regions of crystalline materials to fat particles without regions of void crystalline materials. Palm olein and palm kernel oil blends are mainly used for food preparation in Nigeria. This study has shown that there are no significant differences in the physical and chemical properties of non-chemically interesterified and chemically interesterified blends of palm olein and palm kernel oil. This implies that blending of palm olein and palm kernel oil without chemical interesterification can provide the fluidity desirable at ambient temperatures for food applications in the tropics. © AOCS 2011.

Nwagwu W.,University of Ibadan | Egbon O.,Nigerian Institute for Oil Palm Research
Electronic Library | Year: 2011

Purpose - This paper seeks to analyse publications on Nigeria indexed in Arts and Humanities Citation Index (AHCI) and Social Science Citation Index (SSCI) of Thomson Scientific databases respectively to understand the international perspective of aspects of research publication dynamics in both fields. Design/methodology/approach - Data covering the period 2002-2007 were collected from the SSCI and AHCI of the Web of Science, an online service of Thomson Scientific in June 2008. Findings - SSCI and AHCI indexed a total of 716 publications on Nigeria, 634 and 82 respectively. Paper production in each of these fields rose during 2002 to 2004 and 2005 respectively, and then started dropping. The publications received a total of 1,371 citations; the 82 AHCI documents received only six citations, while the 634 SSCI publications received 1,366 citations, equivalent to means of 0.06 and 2.15 citations per AHCI and SSCI document respectively. Only 6.1 per cent of the AHCI documents were cited compared with 46.7 per cent of SSCI publications; but citation of social science papers was consistently on the increase, while citation of arts and humanities publications, flattened in 200 humanities, was consistently on the increase. In both fields, article type of papers written in English dominated. Research limitations/implications - This research covers only a period of six years; a fuller picture would be obtained with a longer period. Practical implications - Publications in sources listed in international databases could illustrate the extent to which Nigerian scholars have addressed issues of global relevance. Originality/value - The paper uncovers the international status and perspective of Nigerian publications in social science and arts and humanities disciplines. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited.

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