Ilechie C.O.,Nigerian Institute for Oil Palm Research |
Ibhadode A.O.A.,University of Benin |
Abikoye B.O.,University of Benin
Advanced Materials Research | Year: 2012
The oil palm (elaeis guneensis) is a very important economic crop in West Africa where it is native. The fruit bunch contains 23 to 30% oil and is the highest yielding of all vegetable oil crops. Palm oil is the second most important vegetable oil in world consumption and the first to be commercialized internationally. Africa and indeed Nigerian was the world's highest producer of palm oil prior to 1961. Today, Nigeria is the fourth largest producer after Indonesia, Malaysia and Thailand. One of the main reasons given for this fall is lack of efficient mechanized processing equipment for the small-scale producers who produce over 80% of the country's palm oil. Their methods of production are labour intensive, batch, tedious, inefficient, and produce poor quality oil, have low throughput, unable to extract palm kernel alongside palm oil and so productivity is low and products (palm oil and palm kernel) lack competitiveness. This work has developed a mechanized oil palm fruit processing mill with six fully integrated systems for extracting good quality palm oil and palm kernel, while utilizing process wastes as the main source of heat energy. Each system/unit is expected to operate at the best quoted system efficiency. Tests are ongoing to determine and confirm these efficiencies. © (2012) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.
Gold I.L.,Nigerian Institute for Oil Palm Research |
Ukhun M.E.,University of Benin |
Akoh C.C.,University of Georgia
JAOCS, Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society | Year: 2011
The physico-chemical characteristics of blends of palm olein and palm kernel oil which were further modified by chemical interesterification were studied. The slip melting points of non-interesterified blends were 19.7, 16.2, 14.5, 14.5 and 14.4 °C while those of the chemically interesterified blends were 17.7, 16.2, 19.8, 18.7 and 18.7 °C at 40, 30, 20, 10 and 0% palm kernel oil, respectively. Chemical interesterification lowered the solid fat content of the pure samples and blends across different temperatures except 90% palm olein at 15 °C where the solid fat content was higher than for non-interesterified samples. Palm kernel oil, palm olein and their blends before and after chemical interesterification, crystallized mainly in the β' form. However, chemical interesterification modified the microstructure from a combination of fat particles with void regions of crystalline materials to fat particles without regions of void crystalline materials. Palm olein and palm kernel oil blends are mainly used for food preparation in Nigeria. This study has shown that there are no significant differences in the physical and chemical properties of non-chemically interesterified and chemically interesterified blends of palm olein and palm kernel oil. This implies that blending of palm olein and palm kernel oil without chemical interesterification can provide the fluidity desirable at ambient temperatures for food applications in the tropics. © AOCS 2011.
Nwagwu W.,University of Ibadan |
Egbon O.,Nigerian Institute for Oil Palm Research
Electronic Library | Year: 2011
Purpose - This paper seeks to analyse publications on Nigeria indexed in Arts and Humanities Citation Index (AHCI) and Social Science Citation Index (SSCI) of Thomson Scientific databases respectively to understand the international perspective of aspects of research publication dynamics in both fields. Design/methodology/approach - Data covering the period 2002-2007 were collected from the SSCI and AHCI of the Web of Science, an online service of Thomson Scientific in June 2008. Findings - SSCI and AHCI indexed a total of 716 publications on Nigeria, 634 and 82 respectively. Paper production in each of these fields rose during 2002 to 2004 and 2005 respectively, and then started dropping. The publications received a total of 1,371 citations; the 82 AHCI documents received only six citations, while the 634 SSCI publications received 1,366 citations, equivalent to means of 0.06 and 2.15 citations per AHCI and SSCI document respectively. Only 6.1 per cent of the AHCI documents were cited compared with 46.7 per cent of SSCI publications; but citation of social science papers was consistently on the increase, while citation of arts and humanities publications, flattened in 200 humanities, was consistently on the increase. In both fields, article type of papers written in English dominated. Research limitations/implications - This research covers only a period of six years; a fuller picture would be obtained with a longer period. Practical implications - Publications in sources listed in international databases could illustrate the extent to which Nigerian scholars have addressed issues of global relevance. Originality/value - The paper uncovers the international status and perspective of Nigerian publications in social science and arts and humanities disciplines. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited.
Ekebafe M.O.,Nigerian Institute for Oil Palm Research |
Ekebafe L.O.,Auchi Polytechnic |
Ugbesia S.O.,Auchi Polytechnic
Science Progress | Year: 2015
Research has shown that the carbon content of wastes decreases during composting with an increase in the nitrogen content. This indicates that the increased microbial activity in the process results in an increased mineralisation rate of organic nitrogen. A formula containing biochar in the form of terra preta, biochar bokashi, biochar glomalin, biochar hydrogel and biochar mokusaku-eki could further enhance the stability of the system and its effectiveness as a soil ameliorant. It could increase the cation exchange capacity, reuse crop residue, reduce runoff, reduce watering, reduce the quantity of fertiliser, increase crop yield, build and multiply soil biodiversity, strengthen and rebuild our soil food web, sequester atmospheric carbon in a carbon negative process, increase soil pH, restructure poor soils, and reduce carbon dioxide/methane/ nitrous oxide/ammonia emissions from gardens and fields. This paper considers these claims and also the wider environmental implications of the adoption of these processes. The intention of this overview is not just to summarise current knowledge of the subject, but also to identify gaps in knowledge that require further research. © 2015, Science Reviews 2000 Ltd. All rights reserved.
Eziashi E.,Nigerian Institute for Oil Palm Research |
Omamor I.,Nigerian Institute for Oil Palm Research
African Journal of Biotechnology | Year: 2010
Phytoplasmas are minute cell, wall-less prokaryotes with a diameter less than 1 micrometer ranging from 200 to 800 μm. They have cytoplasma, ribosome and strands of nucleus materials. They arose from gram-positive Clostridium-like bacterial ancestor of the lactobacillus lineage, which appears to have suffered extreme genome reductions when compared with their gram-positive relatives. The inability to culture phytoplasmas in any axenic media and the low concentration in phloem of infected plants are obstacles for efficient diagnosis. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification is the most important tool for detecting phytoplasmas in plant and insect hosts. Real-time PCR method has so many advantages over the conventional PCR. Recent reports across coconut growing regions tell increase in the incidence of lethal yellowing disease (LYD). Palms with greater than 25% leaf discoloration due to LYD should be removed. Fields replanted with the tolerant varieties must be monitored using molecular technique. The overview crises of more than 100 years after the incidence of phytoplasmas and more than 50 years of research efforts to control LYD of coconut palms world wide are presented. © 2010 Academic Journals.
Eke C.R.,Nigerian Institute for Oil Palm Research |
Emoghene B.,Nigerian Institute for Oil Palm Research |
Asemota O.,Nigerian Institute for Oil Palm Research
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2013
Nigeria has a national date palm development programme geared towards improving the standard of living for rural farmers. It is also to gradually transform the nation from importing large quantities of date fruits to one of near self sufficiency in date production. An important part of the programme is the production of planting materials to meet farmers' demand both in numbers and high quality. Three different methods of micro-propagation have been used: indirect somatic embryogenesis and direct somatic embryogenesis and organogenesis. Indirect somatic embryogenesis has been the more successful. With this method, planting materials have been produced and transferred to the field for testing. The direct somatic embryogenesis and organogenesis methods have so far not been as successful. Results obtained were influenced by such factors as the type explants, culture media, growth regulators and other environmental factors. The experiments on the provision of large number of planting materials are continuing. © ISHS 2013.
Obahiagbon F.I.,Nigerian Institute for Oil Palm Research
American Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology | Year: 2012
The Oil palm is as old as creation. Every part of the tree is useful economically and for domestic purposes. The oil Palm (Elaeis guineesis jacq.) is believed and accepted to have originated from West Africa. In Nigeria, it is cultivated in the South East Zone and the Niger Delta areas. The mesocarp of its fruit yields Palm oil which is orange-red in colour, due to the presence of the carotenoids. The kernel contains the second oil called the Palm Kernel Oil (PKO). The major and minor components of the palm oil play numerous health functions in humans. Some metabolites which play notable roles in the biosynthesis of triglycerides and products of lipolytic activities have been detected in the palm oil. Arising from the wide array of the components of palm oil, researches have been conducted which involved studies with the humans and animals. Results obtained from the researches have been of immense contribution to human health and products that could be developed from the palm oil. Additionally, the palm yields a nutritious sap when tapped. The components of the palm sap play significant roles in human physiology. This review paper is set to produce an update on some aspects of the oil palm, the products and their implications in human health. © 2012 Academic Journals Inc.
Oviasogie P.O.,Nigerian Institute for Oil Palm Research |
Aisueni N.O.,Nigerian Institute for Oil Palm Research |
Brown G.E.,Nigerian Institute for Oil Palm Research
African Journal of Agricultural Research | Year: 2010
The preparation, utilization, handling and storage of oil palm composted biomass were reviewed in the present study. The preparation of the compost was found generally to be catalyzed by microorganisms aiding the decomposition and stabilization of organic material. The heat produced during the microbial build up helps to produce a final product that is stable, free of pathogens and viable plant seeds, and can be beneficially applied to the land. Compost has numerous agronomic and horticultural uses. It can be used as a soil amendment, fertilizer supplement, top dressing for pastures and hay crops, mulch for homes and gardens, and a potting mix component. The use of compost aids in increasing the water and nutrient retention of the soil, provides a porous medium for roots to grow in, increases the organic matter and decreases the bulk density or penetration resistance of soils as well as controlling disease pathogens. Composting process tends to concentrate many chemical constituents and alter physical characteristics thus, the testing for specific parameters is important before handling and use which can be compared with the typical ranges of test parameters in quality compost. This review revealed that composting is receiving increased attention as an alternative manure management practice. Composting enhances the usefulness of organic by-products as fertilizers, privately and commercially. © 2010 Academic Journals.
Asemota O.,Nigerian Institute for Oil Palm Research |
Conaire B.,British Petroleum
African Journal of Agricultural Research | Year: 2010
Oil palm seedlings were subjected to water stress by suspension of watering. At 9 days of stress, water potentials had decreased to -2.4 Mpa. Moisture stress under these conditions provoked about 20% damage to the cellular membranes, as measured by electrolyte leakage. Relative water content and protein content of moisture stressed plants were reduced compared to well watered seedlings. Although the direct target of this damage in the membranes, (proteins or lipids), has not been examined in this study, observed decrease in extractable leaf protein could suggest some relation between some parameters which decreased with increased stress such as membrane integrity damage and protein loss. There were measurable differences between progenies in the parameters studied. The implication is that progenies were affected to different degrees by drought and such differences could be exploited for selecting drought tolerant genotypes. © 2010 Academic Journals.
PubMed | Nigerian Institute for Oil Palm Research
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Science progress | Year: 2013
The application of superabsorbent polymers (SAPs) and/or biochars to stressed lands offer solutions to several critical ecological, energy and economic challenges posed by degraded lands due to human activities. These substances are like, artificial humus as they are hydrophilic and contain carboxylic groups (SAPs) which enable them to bind cations and water and sequester carbon from air to reverse global warming (biochars). Several research studies using these substances point to their ability to increase the plant-available water in the soil which enables the plants to survive longer with water shortage, increase soil fertility and agricultural yields, improve soil structure, aeration and water penetration, reduce use of synthetic fertilisers and pesticides, reduce nitrous oxide and methane emission from soil, reduce nitrate and farm chemicals leaching into watersheds, convert green and brown wastes into valuable resources, and reduce the evapotranspiration rate of the plants. SAPs and biochars induce a significantly higher growth rate in plants; they bind heavy metals and mitigate their action on plants as well as mitigate the effects of salinity. This paper reviews what is known about these claims and considers the wider environmental implications of the adoption of these processess. The intention is not just to summarise the current knowledge but also to identify gaps that require further research.