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Kaduna, Nigeria

Moses G.,Nigerian Defense Academy
Jordan Journal of Civil Engineering | Year: 2015

Physical and chemical as well as batch adsorption and column tests were carried out on foundry sand treated with up to 8% bagasse ash and compacted with British Standard heavy (BSH) energy. Specimens were permeated with solid waste (MSW) leachate sourced from a waste landfill. Batch equilibrium studies carried out on five foundry sand - bagasse ash mixtures prepared at stepped bagasse ash treatments of 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8% by dry weight of soil in a 1:4 foundry sand-solution ratio were used to assess the adsorption of ions present in the municipal solid waste leachate. Tests results show trends of chemical sorption by the foundry sand-bagasse ash mixtures in the order sodium, potassium, calcium and magnesium (Na+> K+> Ca2+ > Mg2+). Higher bagasse ash treatment of foundry sand recorded higher retardation factors and lower diffusion coefficients with an increased sorption of the contaminant species. In general, higher bagasse ash treatment of foundry sand has significant advantages over the untreated foundry sand and will better serve as landfill liner material. © 2015 JUST. All Rights Reserved. Source


Osinubi K.J.,Ahmadu Bello University | Liman A.S.,Federal Capital Development Authority | Moses G.,Nigerian Defense Academy
Geotechnical Special Publication | Year: 2014

A series of physical and chemical (as well as batch adsorption) tests were carried out on compacted residual lateritic soil treated with up to 10 % cement kiln dust (CKD), an industrial waste, to evaluate the attenuative capacity of the mixture when used as a liner material. Batch adsorption tests were carried out to determine the sorption capacities of CKD-treated lateritic soil. Specimens were prepared at stepped CKD concentrations of 0, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5 and 10.0 % by dry weight of soil in a 1:4 lateritic soil-solution ratio. Assessments of the adsorption of ions present in the municipal solid waste leachates used were carried out. Tests results gave trends of chemical sorption by the lateritic soil - cement kiln dust mixtures in the order, potassium, calcium and sodium (i.e., K+ > Ca2+> Na+). A 2.5 % CKD treatment of lateritic soil recorded peak retardation factor and increased sorption of the selected contaminant species. In general, CKD treatment of lateritic soil, which is a beneficial disposal of an industrial waste, has significant advantages over the untreated lateritic soil and, therefore, can be used as landfill liner material. © 2014 American Society of Civil Engineers. Source


Osinubi K.J.,Ahmadu Bello University | Moses G.,Nigerian Defense Academy
Electronic Journal of Geotechnical Engineering | Year: 2012

Foundry sand mixed with up to 8% bagasse ash by weight of dry soil was evaluated for use as a suitable hydraulic barrier material. Tests were carried out on the foundry sand - bagasse ash mixtures to determine the index properties and compaction characteristics. The relationship between hydraulic conductivity of the mixtures compacted using the British Standard light (BSL) energy (relative compaction = 100%) with molding water content, bagasse ash content and unit weight were determined. Furthermore, specimens were sequentially permeated with water and municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill leachate to determine the hydraulic conductivity values of the foundry sand - bagasse ash mixtures. Test results show that the regulatory minimum hydraulic conductivity (k) value of 1 × 10 -9 m/s or lower required for a material to be used in waste containment application can be achieved when foundry sand is treated with 4 % bagasse ash, prepared at molding water content in the range 11.2 - 15.4% and compacted to a unit weight of at least 17.56 kN/m 3. Results for specimen permeated with MSW leachate showed that foundry sand treated with 4% bagasse ash met the regulatory minimum value for barrier materials. Generally hydraulic conductivity values of specimens treated with MSW decreased by factors in the range 1.12-5.71, but above 6% bagasse ash treatment the value increased by a factor of 1.32, which practically is considered insignificant. The study showed that foundry sand treated with 4% bagasse ash can be used as a barrier material in municipal waste containment facilities. Source


Osinubi K.J.,Ahmadu Bello University | Moses G.,Nigerian Defense Academy | Liman A.S.,Federal Capital Development Authority
Geotechnical and Geological Engineering | Year: 2015

The paper evaluates the suitability of lateritic soil treated with up to 10 % cement kiln dust (CKD) by dry weight of soil for the construction of waste containment facilities compacted at three energy levels. Laboratory tests were carried out on specimens prepared at molding water contents −2, 0, +2 and +4 % of the optimum moisture content and compacted with British standard light, West African standard or ‘Intermediate’ and British standard heavy (BSH) energies. Index, hydraulic conductivity, volumetric shrinkage and unconfined compression tests were carried out. Results obtained show improvement in index properties with CKD treatment. Regulatory criteria of maximum hydraulic conductivity value of 1 × 10−9 m/s, minimum unconfined compressive strength of 200 kN/m2 and maximum volumetric shrinkage strain (VSS) of 4 % were satisfied with a minimum 7.5 % CKD treatment when specimens were compacted at BSH energy level. The overall acceptable zone for the treated soil was achieved with 10 % CKD treatment for specimens prepared at molding water content range of 13.5–21.3 % and compacted with BSH energy. © 2014, Springer International Publishing Switzerland. Source


Osinubi K.J.,Ahmadu Bello University | Moses G.,Nigerian Defense Academy
Geotechnical Special Publication | Year: 2011

Laboratory tests were conducted on foundry waste sand treated with up to 8 bagasse ash (a pozzolana) by dry weight of soil to assess its suitability for use in a waste containment application. Specimens were prepared at molding water contents - 2, 0, +2 and +4 of the optimum moisture content using British Standard light, BSL (standard Proctor) compactive effort. Index properties, hydraulic conductivity (k), volumetric shrinkage strain (VSS) and unconfined compressive strength (UCS) tests were carried out. Results obtained showed no significant change in index properties. However, hydraulic conductivity values recorded for 2 and 4 bagasse ash treatment met the regulatory 1 × 10 -9m/s requirement. Specimens treated with a minimum of 4 bagasse ash met the minimum UCS value of 200 kN/m2 requirement. VSS values recorded met the regulatory requirement of less than 4 for specimens treated with a minimum 2 bagasse ash content. The overall acceptable zone for bagasse ash treated foundry sand for use in waste containment application was achieved with 4 bagasse ash content. However, the molding water range 11.2 - 12.6. is too narrow for practical purpose. It is recommended that the activity of bentonite in foundry sand be recovered rather than addition of bagasse ash. © ASCE 2011. Source

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