Nigerian Defense Academy

Kaduna, Nigeria

Nigerian Defense Academy

Kaduna, Nigeria
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Osinubi K.J.,Ahmadu Bello University | Liman A.S.,Federal Capital Development Authority | Moses G.,Nigerian Defense Academy
Geotechnical Special Publication | Year: 2014

A series of physical and chemical (as well as batch adsorption) tests were carried out on compacted residual lateritic soil treated with up to 10 % cement kiln dust (CKD), an industrial waste, to evaluate the attenuative capacity of the mixture when used as a liner material. Batch adsorption tests were carried out to determine the sorption capacities of CKD-treated lateritic soil. Specimens were prepared at stepped CKD concentrations of 0, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5 and 10.0 % by dry weight of soil in a 1:4 lateritic soil-solution ratio. Assessments of the adsorption of ions present in the municipal solid waste leachates used were carried out. Tests results gave trends of chemical sorption by the lateritic soil - cement kiln dust mixtures in the order, potassium, calcium and sodium (i.e., K+ > Ca2+> Na+). A 2.5 % CKD treatment of lateritic soil recorded peak retardation factor and increased sorption of the selected contaminant species. In general, CKD treatment of lateritic soil, which is a beneficial disposal of an industrial waste, has significant advantages over the untreated lateritic soil and, therefore, can be used as landfill liner material. © 2014 American Society of Civil Engineers.


Osinubi K.J.,Ahmadu Bello University | Moses G.,Nigerian Defense Academy | Liman A.S.,Federal Capital Development Authority
Geotechnical and Geological Engineering | Year: 2015

The paper evaluates the suitability of lateritic soil treated with up to 10 % cement kiln dust (CKD) by dry weight of soil for the construction of waste containment facilities compacted at three energy levels. Laboratory tests were carried out on specimens prepared at molding water contents −2, 0, +2 and +4 % of the optimum moisture content and compacted with British standard light, West African standard or ‘Intermediate’ and British standard heavy (BSH) energies. Index, hydraulic conductivity, volumetric shrinkage and unconfined compression tests were carried out. Results obtained show improvement in index properties with CKD treatment. Regulatory criteria of maximum hydraulic conductivity value of 1 × 10−9 m/s, minimum unconfined compressive strength of 200 kN/m2 and maximum volumetric shrinkage strain (VSS) of 4 % were satisfied with a minimum 7.5 % CKD treatment when specimens were compacted at BSH energy level. The overall acceptable zone for the treated soil was achieved with 10 % CKD treatment for specimens prepared at molding water content range of 13.5–21.3 % and compacted with BSH energy. © 2014, Springer International Publishing Switzerland.


Oriola F.O.P.,Nigerian Defense Academy | Saminu A.,Nigerian Defense Academy
Electronic Journal of Geotechnical Engineering | Year: 2012

Laboratory test was conducted on lateritic soil treated with various concentration of textile effluent waste water (0, 25, 50 and 100%) by dry weight of soil to assess its influence on the engineering properties of road pavement material. Specimens were compacted using the energies of the British Standard Light (BSL) and West African Standard (WAS) or "intermediate". The laterite soil classified as A-7-6 or CL using the America Association of Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) and Unified Soil Classification System (USCS), respectively. Natural soil treated with textile effluent waste water (TEWW) gave a peak 7 day UCS value of 875kN/m 2 and 1033kN/m 2 at 100% TEWW concentration at BSL and WAS energy level respectively. This values fall short of 1710 kN/m 2 specified for base materials stabilization using OPC. However, this value meets the requirement of 687-1373 kN/m 2 specified for sub-base materials. The peak resistance to loss in strength recorded for BSL and WAS were 25.3 and 26.8% (i.e. loss in strength) was attained at 0% TEWW concentration at both energy levels. This resistance to loss in strength values falls short of the acceptable conventional minimum of 80%. Finally, the strength and durability test conducted failed to meet the minimum specified values for base, sub-base and sub-base material.


Osinubi K.J.,Ahmadu Bello University | Moses G.,Nigerian Defense Academy
Electronic Journal of Geotechnical Engineering | Year: 2012

Foundry sand mixed with up to 8% bagasse ash by weight of dry soil was evaluated for use as a suitable hydraulic barrier material. Tests were carried out on the foundry sand - bagasse ash mixtures to determine the index properties and compaction characteristics. The relationship between hydraulic conductivity of the mixtures compacted using the British Standard light (BSL) energy (relative compaction = 100%) with molding water content, bagasse ash content and unit weight were determined. Furthermore, specimens were sequentially permeated with water and municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill leachate to determine the hydraulic conductivity values of the foundry sand - bagasse ash mixtures. Test results show that the regulatory minimum hydraulic conductivity (k) value of 1 × 10 -9 m/s or lower required for a material to be used in waste containment application can be achieved when foundry sand is treated with 4 % bagasse ash, prepared at molding water content in the range 11.2 - 15.4% and compacted to a unit weight of at least 17.56 kN/m 3. Results for specimen permeated with MSW leachate showed that foundry sand treated with 4% bagasse ash met the regulatory minimum value for barrier materials. Generally hydraulic conductivity values of specimens treated with MSW decreased by factors in the range 1.12-5.71, but above 6% bagasse ash treatment the value increased by a factor of 1.32, which practically is considered insignificant. The study showed that foundry sand treated with 4% bagasse ash can be used as a barrier material in municipal waste containment facilities.


Moses G.K.,Nigerian Defense Academy | Saminu A.,Nigerian Defense Academy
Electronic Journal of Geotechnical Engineering | Year: 2012

Laboratory test was conducted on black cotton soil treated with up to 16% Cement Kiln Dust (CKD) by dry weight of soil to assess its suitability for use as road pavement material. Specimens were compacted using the energies of the British Standard Light (BSL) and West African Standard (WAS) or "intermediate". The expansive black cotton soil classified as A-7-6 (16) or CL using the America Association of Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) and Unified Soil Classification System (USCS), respectively, Soils under these groups are of poor engineering benefit. The UCS values for the untreated soil are 178 and 381kN/m 2 at energy levels of BSL and WAS respectively. CKD treated black cotton soil gave a peak 7 day UCS value of 394kN/m 2 and 410kN/m 2 at 12% and 8% CKD content at BSL and WAS energy level respectively. These values fall short of the 1710 kN/m 2 specified for base materials stabilization using OPC. And this value also fails to meet the requirement of 687-1373 kN/m 2 for sub-base material. The CBR recorded an improvement in the strength from 2% and 3% for the natural soil for BSL and WAS compactive effort to attain a peak C.B.R. of 12% at 12% CKD and 16% at 12% CKD treatment for BSL and WAS compactive effort respectively. However, soil -CKD mixtures failed to meet the minimum CBR value of 30% specified for use as sub-base course material when determined at MDD and OMC. The peak resistance to loss in strength recorded for BSL and WAS were 13.2 and 16.1% (i.e. loss in strength) was attained at 16% CKD content at both energy levels. The resistance to loss in strength values all fell short of the acceptable conventional minimum of 80%.


Moses G.,Nigerian Defense Academy
Jordan Journal of Civil Engineering | Year: 2015

Physical and chemical as well as batch adsorption and column tests were carried out on foundry sand treated with up to 8% bagasse ash and compacted with British Standard heavy (BSH) energy. Specimens were permeated with solid waste (MSW) leachate sourced from a waste landfill. Batch equilibrium studies carried out on five foundry sand - bagasse ash mixtures prepared at stepped bagasse ash treatments of 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8% by dry weight of soil in a 1:4 foundry sand-solution ratio were used to assess the adsorption of ions present in the municipal solid waste leachate. Tests results show trends of chemical sorption by the foundry sand-bagasse ash mixtures in the order sodium, potassium, calcium and magnesium (Na+> K+> Ca2+ > Mg2+). Higher bagasse ash treatment of foundry sand recorded higher retardation factors and lower diffusion coefficients with an increased sorption of the contaminant species. In general, higher bagasse ash treatment of foundry sand has significant advantages over the untreated foundry sand and will better serve as landfill liner material. © 2015 JUST. All Rights Reserved.


Salihu L.,Nigerian Defense Academy | Babatunde O.A.,Nigerian Defense Academy | Lawal A.B.,Nigerian Defense Academy
Der Pharma Chemica | Year: 2013

Water samples were randomly collected within the months of July and August 2011 from hand-dug wells in Sabon Tasha, Kaduna metropolis, Nigeria. Physicochemical parameters (pH, TDS, DO, TSS, Temperature, Conductivity, Turbidity, Hardness, Chloride and Sulphate,) of the samples were analyzed using standard methods. The results show that the pH values were lower than the WHO acceptable range for drinking water, while all other parameters were within the acceptable limits. The concentrations of Ni, Fe, Pb, Mn and Cd in these samples were also determined as soluble and particulate metals using flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. The mean concentrations of Cd in both soluble and particulate phases (0.004343 and 0.0048mg/l respectively) were above WHO maximum limit for drinking water, while those of Fe, Pb, Ni and Mn (0.00087-0.0038mg/l for soluble and 0.00115-0.0063mg/l for particulate) were below the limits.


Shuaibu A.,University Putra Malaysia | Shuaibu A.,Nigerian Defense Academy | Rahman M.M.,University Putra Malaysia | Onimisi M.Y.,Nigerian Defense Academy
Journal of Computational and Theoretical Nanoscience | Year: 2015

In this work, we investigate the vibrational properties of diatomic KCl lattice, the dispersion relation, density of states and the specific heat capacity were obtained using a quantum approach analytically, a simulated FOTRAN-90 code program was used to evaluate these properties numerically. The frequencies of the three normal modes at equal intervals of k = ±n π/a (wave vector), along the three symmetry directions [001], [011] and [111] of KCl lattice were calculated. The subroutine was designed to give the output in numerical values that can be drawn graphically using any form of graphical tools, and the result obtained shows an excellent agreement with the many results obtained from other means. Copyright © 2015 American Scientific Publishers All rights reserved.


Moses G.,Nigerian Defense Academy | Afolayan J.O.,Nigerian Defense Academy
Geotechnical and Geological Engineering | Year: 2013

Foundry sand, an industrial waste, was treated with up to 12 % cement kiln dust content at comparative energy levels of British standard light, West African standard or "intermediate" (WAS) and British standard heavy (BSH) efforts at molding water contents -2, 0, 2, 4 and 6 % of optimum moisture content. Samples were extruded from the compaction molds and allowed to air dry in the laboratory in order to assess the effect of desiccation-induced shrinkage on the material for use as a hydraulic barrier in waste containment application. Results recorded show that volumetric shrinkage strain (VSS) values were large within the first 5 days of drying; VSS values increased with higher molding water content, water content relative to the optimum moisture content. VSS generally increased with higher initial degree of saturation for all compactive efforts, irrespective of the level of cement kiln dust (CKD) treatment. A compaction plane of acceptable zones for VSS based on the regulatory value is ≤4 %. The influence of CKD treatment generally showed a decrease in the desiccation-induced volumetric shrinkage strain with increasing CKD content. This is largely due to the pozzolanic input of CKD. Finally, only the BSH compactive effort gave successful results of volumetric shrinkage strain at CKD treatment content of between 4 and 8 %, while 12 % CKD content produced successful volumetric shrinkage strain results at WAS and BSH compactive effort, respectively. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.


Osinubi K.J.,Ahmadu Bello University | Moses G.,Nigerian Defense Academy
Geotechnical Special Publication | Year: 2011

Laboratory tests were conducted on foundry waste sand treated with up to 8 bagasse ash (a pozzolana) by dry weight of soil to assess its suitability for use in a waste containment application. Specimens were prepared at molding water contents - 2, 0, +2 and +4 of the optimum moisture content using British Standard light, BSL (standard Proctor) compactive effort. Index properties, hydraulic conductivity (k), volumetric shrinkage strain (VSS) and unconfined compressive strength (UCS) tests were carried out. Results obtained showed no significant change in index properties. However, hydraulic conductivity values recorded for 2 and 4 bagasse ash treatment met the regulatory 1 × 10 -9m/s requirement. Specimens treated with a minimum of 4 bagasse ash met the minimum UCS value of 200 kN/m2 requirement. VSS values recorded met the regulatory requirement of less than 4 for specimens treated with a minimum 2 bagasse ash content. The overall acceptable zone for bagasse ash treated foundry sand for use in waste containment application was achieved with 4 bagasse ash content. However, the molding water range 11.2 - 12.6. is too narrow for practical purpose. It is recommended that the activity of bentonite in foundry sand be recovered rather than addition of bagasse ash. © ASCE 2011.

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