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Alese B.K.,Federal University of Technology Akurre | Ibidunmoye E.O.,Federal University of Technology Akurre | Haruna D.I.,Nigerian Building and Road Research Institute | Thompson A.F.,Federal University of Technology Akurre | Otasowie I.,Federal University of Technology Akurre
Lecture Notes in Engineering and Computer Science | Year: 2014

The interactive behavior between the attacker and the defender in a network environment is similar to information warfare where both attacker and defender may have several available strategies to achieve maximum gratification. The process of positioning security within a network environment is synonymous to a decision-making process. Security decision-making involves the allocation of scarce network security resources to counter or mitigate security attacks. To ensure effective security, security decision-makers must ensure that the resources are allocated and deployed in the most optimum manner. Game theory provides a quantitative framework for the analysis and modeling of such network security cases. Game-theoretic models view network security scenarios as an optimization game comprising of multiple players notably the attackers (malicious users) and the defenders (system administrators) and has become a major source of attraction in security research. These types of games are referred to as security games. Security games and their solutions are potential tools for security decision making and algorithm development as well as for predicting attacker behavior. In this paper, we first explore the fundamentals of game-theory with respect to security, and then presents a two-player zero-sum game model of the interaction between malicious users and network administrators. A description of the major components of such game is presented and a solution technique for solving such game scenario is proposed. We then describe how expected results can be analyzed to show the optimality of resulting strategies and how they may be employed by system administrators to better protect the network. Source

Amuda M.O.H.,International Islamic University Malaysia | Oladoye A.M.,University of Lagos | Agunsoye J.,University of Lagos | Farombi O.,University of Lagos | Subair W.,Nigerian Building and Road Research Institute
Advanced Materials Research | Year: 2011

The effect of solidification parameters such as casting temperature, cooling rate in silica bound molding sand and modifier additions on microstructure -sensitive properties of Al-Cu binary alloy is presented. The study revealed that casting at high cooling rate and low casting temperatures with sufficient addition of ferro-silicon not exceeding the limited concentration for solubility improve mechanical properties of castings. The study also indicated that higher casting temperature expanded the liquidus-solidus solidification line leading to multiple phase formation which in-turn affect the final microstructure. It is equally established that optimized mechanical properties are generated at casting temperature of 700°C, rapid cooling rate and addition of modifiers in amount up to 200g.The microstructure in this condition consists of equiaxed grains with spot presence of CuAl2 intermetallics which probably is responsible for the increased tensile strength and marginal change in ductility. © (2011) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland. Source

Yusuf U.S.,Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University | Slim M.D.,Nigerian Building and Road Research Institute | Uchechukwu E.A.,Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University
Advances in Civil Engineering | Year: 2016

The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of iron ore tailings (IOT) on hydraulic conductivity of compacted laterite. The IOT conforms to ASTM C 618-15 Type F designations. In the present study, soil was admixed with 0-20% IOT and compacted at moulding water content ranging from 10 to 25% using four types of compactive efforts. Hydraulic conductivities of the compacted soil-IOT mixtures were determined using deionized water and municipal solid waste leachate as the permeant fluids, respectively. Deionized water was the reference permeant fluid. Results of this study showed that hydraulic conductivity decreased with increase in IOT content as a result of improvement in mechanical properties of the soil. Permeation of the soil-IOT mixtures with leachate caused the hydraulic conductivity to drop to less than 1 × 10-9 m/s especially at higher compactive efforts. Also, bioclogging of the soil pores due to accumulation of biomass from bacteria and yeast present in the leachate tends to significantly reduce the hydraulic conductivity. From an economic point of view, it has been found from the results of this study that soil specimens treated with up to 20% IOT and compacted at the British Standard Light (BSL) compactive effort met the maximum regulatory hydraulic conductivity of less than or equal to 1 × 10-9 m/s for hydraulic barrier system. © 2016 Umar Sa'eed Yusuf et al. Source

Akinpelu M.,University of Ibadan | Dahunsi B.I.O.,University of Ibadan | Olafusi O.,University of Ibadan | Awogboro O.,University of Ibadan | Quadri A.,Nigerian Building and Road Research Institute
ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences | Year: 2013

The continuous increase in road traffic couple with an insufficient degree of maintenance due to shortage of funds has caused an accelerated and continuous deterioration of the road network in Nigeria. To alleviate this process, several types of measures are reported to be effective, for instance, securing funds for maintenance, improved roadway design, use of better quality of materials and the use of more effective construction methods. Improving the quality of materials used in road construction had been shown to improve road service performance in the wake of the increase usage. Practical experience over the last four decades have shown that the modification of the bituminous binder with polymer additives offers several benefits in asphalt concrete and has been tested in a number of countries around the World. The use of polythene materials for pure water sachet in the country has received a great boost due to its abundant supply and high resistance to insects, fungi, animals, as well as molds, mildew, rot and many chemicals. However the disposal of the waste polythene materials in large quantities has been a problem all over the country. This study was therefore designed to investigate the effect of polythene as contained in pure water sachet in the asphalt concrete properties. Polythene was added in grinded state as binder modifier. It was introduced to the mixture by melting it in the bitumen used in preparing the asphalt concrete mix. Marshall Mix design method was used, first to determine the optimum bitumen binder content and then further to test the modified mixture properties. In total, 17 samples were prepared (10 samples were used to determine the binder content and the remaining samples were used to investigate the effect of modifying the asphalt mixtures). The optimum asphalt content was 7.0%. Six proportions of polyethylene by weight of the optimum binder content were selected to be tested (2.5, 5.0, 7.5, 10, 12.5 and 15%). The properties tested include bulk density, stability and flow of the concrete mix. The obtained optimum proportion of the modifier is 12.5% by the weight of the optimum bitumen content. It is found to increase the stability, reduce the density and slightly reduce the flow of asphalt concrete specimen. Findings from this study suggest that polythene modifier offers better engineering properties and its usage as bitumen modifier could serve as a means of managing the waste menace. © 2006-2013 Asian Research Publishing Network (ARPN). Source

Arinze E.E.,Michael Okpara University of Agriculture | Obiora F.I.,Nigerian Building and Road Research Institute
Electronic Journal of Geotechnical Engineering | Year: 2014

This research work looks at the causes of road pavement failure on three critical locations along Umuahia-Okigwe expressway with emphasis on the geotechnical properties of sub-base and base course of the road payment. Laboratory tests on the sample labeled A,B,C showed that the liquid limit, plastic limit and plasticity index ranges from 17.8%-32.4%, 15-33%-1863%, 1.17%-15.77% respectively. The soil samples were found to fall into groups A-2-6, A-2-4 and A-2-4 respectively according ASHHTO classification. The specific gravity and CBR ranges from 2.60-2.80 and 3%-4% respectively. The compaction characteristics of the soil sample have the maximum Dry Density (MDD) and Optimum Moisture Content ranging from 2.06-2.13Mg/m3 and 8.21-10.45% respectively. The sample collected however, satisfiessome specification by Nigerian Federal Ministry of Works such as Maximum dry density, optimum moisture content expect C.B.R and Atterberg limits that fall below the specification. © 2014 ejge. Source

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