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Adeleke O.E.,University of Ibadan | Inwezerua C.,University of Ibadan | Smith S.I.,Nigeria Institute of Medical Research
Scientific Research and Essays | Year: 2010

Twenty two different strains of Gram-negative bacteria, namely Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus mirabilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli and Haemophilus influenzae were tested for susceptibility to 10 different brands of ceftriaxone and cefuroxime. Some of the highly resistant strains were processed for antibiotic resistance curing and extraction of plasmid DNA. Of the 10 brands of ceftriaxone and cefuroxime, 2 brands of ceftriaxone were more effective on the Gram-negative bacteria than the remaining ceftriaxone and cefuroxime brands. The highly resistant strains were resistant not only to these 2 brands but also to tetracycline, amoxicillin, cotrimoxazole, nitrofurantoin, gentamicin, nalidixic acid and ofloxacin, used in antibiogram and as also evident in high minimum inhibitory concentrations recorded for the strains against the brands of ceftriaxone and cefuroxime. Some of the resistant strains were found to lose their resistance to curing following treatment with different concentrations of a mutagen, acridine orange. Of the 8 multiple drug resistant (MDR) strains of the bacteria selected for plasmid DNA, 5 strains and a sensitive strain of H. influenzae had single plasmid DNA copy ranging in size between 24 - 28 kb. The high level multiple drug resistance of the bacterial strains tested was due not only to variation in the brands of ceftriaxone and cefuroxime but more especially to R-plasmid mediation. © 2010 Academic Journals.


Faneye A.O.,University of Ibadan | Adeniji J.A.,University of Ibadan | Olusola B.A.,University of Ibadan | Motayo B.O.,University of Ibadan | Akintunde G.B.,Nigeria Institute of Medical Research
Viral Immunology | Year: 2015

This study investigated measles infection in vaccinated and unvaccinated children presenting with fever and maculopapular rash during measles outbreaks in the southern and western states of Nigeria. Measles, an acute viral illness caused by a virus in the family Paramyxoviridae, is a vaccine-preventable disease. Measles outbreak is common in Nigeria, despite the national immunization program. Children presenting with symptoms of measles infection in general hospitals and health centers in the states of southern and western Nigeria were recruited for this study. Vaccination history, clinical details, and 5mL of blood were obtained from the children. Their sera samples were screened for specific immunoglobulin M antibodies to measles virus. Of 234 children tested (124 [53.2%] female), 133 (56.8%) had previously been vaccinated against measles virus, while 93 (39.7%) had not been vaccinated. Vaccination information for eight children could not be retrieved. One hundred and forty-three (62.4%) had measles IgM antibodies. Of these, 79 (55.3%) had been vaccinated for measles, while 65 (44.7%) had not. Despite the ongoing vaccination program in Nigeria, a high number of children are still being infected with measles, despite their vaccination status. Therefore, there is need to identify the reason for the low level of vaccine protection. © Copyright 2015, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. 2015.


Folayan M.O.,Obafemi Awolowo University | Adaranijo A.,New HIV Vaccine and Microbicide Advocacy Society | Durueke F.,New HIV Vaccine and Microbicide Advocacy Society | Ajuwon A.,University of Ibadan | And 4 more authors.
Developing World Bioethics | Year: 2014

This paper describes a three-year project designed to build the capacity of members of research ethics committes to perform their roles and responsibilities efficiently and effectively. The project participants were made up of a cross-section of the membership of 13 Research Ethics Committees (RECs) functioning in Nigeria. They received training to develop their capacity to evaluate research protocols, monitor trial implementation, provide constructive input to trial staff, and assess the trial's success in promoting community engagement in the research. Following the training, technical assistance was provided to participants on an ongoing basis and the project's impacts were assessed quantitatively and qualitatively. Results indicate that sustained investment in capacity building efforts (including training, ongoing technical assistance, and the provision of multiple tools) improved the participants' knowledge of both the ethical principles relevant to biomedical research and how effective REC should function. Such investment was also shown to have a positive impact on the knowledge levels of other RECs members (those who did not receive training) and the overall operations of the RECs to which the participants belonged. Building the capacity of REC members to fulfill their roles effectively requires sustained effort and investment and pays off by enabling RECs to fulfill their essential mission of ensuring that trials are conducted safely and ethically. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.


PubMed | University Hospital of Tuebingen, Nigeria Institute of Medical Research, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology and University Hospital Muenster
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of microbiology, immunology, and infection = Wei mian yu gan ran za zhi | Year: 2015

This longitudinal study on Staphylococcus aureus colonization in Nigerian human immunodeficiency virus patients (n=187) found a trend towards a higher proportion of persistent S. aureus carriage in patients with advanced human immunodeficiency virus infection, low CD4+ cell counts, and a predominance of isolates belonging to ST8/spa-CC064 in persistent carriers.


PubMed | University of Ibadan and Nigeria Institute of Medical Research
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Viral immunology | Year: 2015

This study investigated measles infection in vaccinated and unvaccinated children presenting with fever and maculopapular rash during measles outbreaks in the southern and western states of Nigeria. Measles, an acute viral illness caused by a virus in the family Paramyxoviridae, is a vaccine-preventable disease. Measles outbreak is common in Nigeria, despite the national immunization program. Children presenting with symptoms of measles infection in general hospitals and health centers in the states of southern and western Nigeria were recruited for this study. Vaccination history, clinical details, and 5mL of blood were obtained from the children. Their sera samples were screened for specific immunoglobulin M antibodies to measles virus. Of 234 children tested (124 [53.2%] female), 133 (56.8%) had previously been vaccinated against measles virus, while 93 (39.7%) had not been vaccinated. Vaccination information for eight children could not be retrieved. One hundred and forty-three (62.4%) had measles IgM antibodies. Of these, 79 (55.3%) had been vaccinated for measles, while 65 (44.7%) had not. Despite the ongoing vaccination program in Nigeria, a high number of children are still being infected with measles, despite their vaccination status. Therefore, there is need to identify the reason for the low level of vaccine protection.


PubMed | University of Lagos and Nigeria Institute of Medical Research
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Asian Pacific journal of tropical biomedicine | Year: 2014

To analyse the genetic diversity of Plasmodium falciparum (P. falciparum) using msp-1 and msp-2 as antigenic markers.Parasite DNA was extracted from 100 blood samples collected from P. falciparum-positive patients confirmed by microscopy, and followed by PCR-genotyping targeting the msp-1 (block2) and msp-2 (block 3) allelic families.All the families of msp-1 (K1, MAD20 and R033) and msp-2 (FC27 and 3D7) locus were observed. Results revealed that K1 (60/100) was the most predominant genotype of msp-1 allelic family followed by the genotypes of MAD20 (50/100) and R033 (45/100). In the msp-2 locus, FC27 genotype (62/100) showed higher frequency than 3D7 genotype (55/100). The allelic families were detected either alone or in combination with other families. However, no R033/MAD20 combination was observed. Multiplicity of infection (MOI) with msp-1 was higher in the locality of Ikorodu (1.50) than in Lekki (1.39). However, MOI with msp-2 was lower in the locality of Ikorodu (1.14) than in Lekki (1.76). There was no significant difference in the mean MOI between the two study areas (P=0.427).The observation of limited diversity of malaria parasites may imply that the use of antigenic markers as genotyping tools for distinguishing recrudescence and re-infections with P. falciparum during drug trials is subjective.


PubMed | World Health Organization, Federal Ministry of Health, Foundation for Charity and Community Health Nigeria, University of Nigeria and 6 more.
Type: | Journal: Malaria journal | Year: 2016

Nigeria has the largest number of malaria-related deaths, accounting for a third of global malaria deaths. It is important that the country attains universal coverage of key malaria interventions, one of which is the policy of universal testing before treatment, which the country has recently adopted. However, there is a dearth of data on its implementation in formal private health facilities, where close to a third of the population seek health care. This study identified the level of use of malaria rapid diagnostic testing (RDT), compliance with test results and associated challenges in the formal private health facilities in Nigeria.A cross-sectional study that involved a multi-stage, random sampling of 240 formal private health facilities from the countrys six geo-political zones was conducted from July to August 2014. Data were collected using health facility records, healthcare workers interviews and an exit survey of febrile patients seen at the facilities, in order to determine fever prevalence, level of testing of febrile patience, compliance with test results, and health workers perceptions to RDT use.Data from the 201 health facilities analysed indicated a fever prevalence of 38.5% (112,521/292,430). Of the 2077 exit interviews for febrile patients, malaria testing was ordered in 73.8% (95% CI 71.7-75.7%). Among the 1270 tested, 61.8% (719/1270) were tested with microscopy and 38.2% (445/1270) with RDT. Compliance to malaria test result [administering arteminisin-based combination therapy (ACT) to positive patients and withholding ACT from negative patients] was 80.9% (95% CI 78.7-83%). Compliance was not influenced by the age of patients or type of malaria test. The health facilities have various cadres of the health workers knowledgeable on RDT with 70% knowing the meaning, while 84.5% knew what it assesses. However, there was clearly a preference for microscopy as only 20% reported performing only RDT.In formal private health facilities in Nigeria there is a high rate of malaria testing for febrile patients, high level of compliance with test results but relatively low level of RDT utilization. This calls for improved engagement of the formal private health sector with a view to achieving universal coverage targets on malaria testing.


PubMed | Morehouse School of Medicine, Nigeria Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Program, Médecins Sans Frontières, Nigeria Center for Disease Control and 10 more.
Type: | Journal: International journal of infectious diseases : IJID : official publication of the International Society for Infectious Diseases | Year: 2016

The Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak in Nigeria began when an infected diplomat from Liberia arrived in Lagos, the most populous city in Africa, with subsequent transmission to another large city.First-, second-, and third-generation contacts were traced, monitored, and classified. Symptomatic contacts were managed at Ebola treatment centers as suspected, probable, and confirmed EVD cases using standard operating procedures adapted from the World Health Organization EVD guidelines. Reverse transcription PCR tests confirmed EVD. Socio-demographic, clinical, hospitalization, and outcome data of the July-September 2014 Nigeria EVD cohort were analyzed.The median age of the 20 EVD cases was 33 years (interquartile range 26-62 years). More females (55%), health workers (65%), and persons <40 years old (60%) were infected than males, non-health workers, and persons aged 40 years. No EVD case management worker contracted the disease. Presenting symptoms were fever (85%), fatigue (70%), and diarrhea (65%). Clinical syndromes were gastroenteritis (45%), hemorrhage (30%), and encephalopathy (15%). The case-fatality rate was 40% and there was one mental health complication. The average duration from symptom onset to presentation was 32 days among survivors and 52 days for non-survivors. The mean duration from symptom onset to discharge was 155 days for survivors and 112 days for non-survivors. Mortality was higher in the older age group, males, and those presenting late.The EVD outbreak in Nigeria was characterized by the severe febrile gastroenteritis syndrome typical of the West African outbreak, better outcomes, rapid containment, and no infection among EVD care-providers. Early case detection, an effective incident management system, and prompt case management with on-site mobilization and training of local professionals were key to the outcome.


Nwokoye N.N.,Nigeria Institute of Medical Research | Egwari L.O.,Covenant University | Olubi O.O.,Lagos State University
Journal of Laryngology and Otology | Year: 2015

Background: Otitis media is a more frequent occurrence in children, and the disease may progress from an acute to chronic state if appropriate and timely intervention is not initiated. Methods: A total of 212 children aged 6 months to 10 years were examined and treated for otitis media, in a 13-month hospital-based study. Results: Acute otitis media was diagnosed in 130 (61.3 per cent) of the patients. There were 82 (38.7 per cent) chronic suppurative otitis media cases. The incidence of acute otitis media and chronic suppurative otitis media in the first year of life was 54.6 per cent and 45.1 per cent respectively. Chronic suppurative otitis media patients were assigned to one of three treatment groups. Recovery occurred in 70.4 per cent of amoxicillin-treated patients, in 88.9 per cent of amoxicillin-clavulanic acid treated patients and in 96.4 per cent of culture and antibiotic sensitivity test patients. Relapses were seen only in the amoxicillin (five cases) and amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (two cases) groups. Conclusion: The success rate in patients treated with antibiotics makes this option mandatory for an established diagnosis. © JLO (1984) Limited 2015.


PubMed | Lagos State University, Covenant University and Nigeria Institute of Medical Research
Type: Clinical Study | Journal: The Journal of laryngology and otology | Year: 2015

Otitis media is a more frequent occurrence in children, and the disease may progress from an acute to chronic state if appropriate and timely intervention is not initiated.A total of 212 children aged 6 months to 10 years were examined and treated for otitis media, in a 13-month hospital-based study.Acute otitis media was diagnosed in 130 (61.3 per cent) of the patients. There were 82 (38.7 per cent) chronic suppurative otitis media cases. The incidence of acute otitis media and chronic suppurative otitis media in the first year of life was 54.6 per cent and 45.1 per cent respectively. Chronic suppurative otitis media patients were assigned to one of three treatment groups. Recovery occurred in 70.4 per cent of amoxicillin-treated patients, in 88.9 per cent of amoxicillin-clavulanic acid treated patients and in 96.4 per cent of culture and antibiotic sensitivity test patients. Relapses were seen only in the amoxicillin (five cases) and amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (two cases) groups.The success rate in patients treated with antibiotics makes this option mandatory for an established diagnosis.

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