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Adeleke O.E.,University of Ibadan | Inwezerua C.,University of Ibadan | Smith S.I.,Nigeria Institute of Medical Research
Scientific Research and Essays | Year: 2010

Twenty two different strains of Gram-negative bacteria, namely Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus mirabilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli and Haemophilus influenzae were tested for susceptibility to 10 different brands of ceftriaxone and cefuroxime. Some of the highly resistant strains were processed for antibiotic resistance curing and extraction of plasmid DNA. Of the 10 brands of ceftriaxone and cefuroxime, 2 brands of ceftriaxone were more effective on the Gram-negative bacteria than the remaining ceftriaxone and cefuroxime brands. The highly resistant strains were resistant not only to these 2 brands but also to tetracycline, amoxicillin, cotrimoxazole, nitrofurantoin, gentamicin, nalidixic acid and ofloxacin, used in antibiogram and as also evident in high minimum inhibitory concentrations recorded for the strains against the brands of ceftriaxone and cefuroxime. Some of the resistant strains were found to lose their resistance to curing following treatment with different concentrations of a mutagen, acridine orange. Of the 8 multiple drug resistant (MDR) strains of the bacteria selected for plasmid DNA, 5 strains and a sensitive strain of H. influenzae had single plasmid DNA copy ranging in size between 24 - 28 kb. The high level multiple drug resistance of the bacterial strains tested was due not only to variation in the brands of ceftriaxone and cefuroxime but more especially to R-plasmid mediation. © 2010 Academic Journals. Source


Faneye A.O.,University of Ibadan | Adeniji J.A.,University of Ibadan | Olusola B.A.,University of Ibadan | Motayo B.O.,University of Ibadan | Akintunde G.B.,Nigeria Institute of Medical Research
Viral Immunology | Year: 2015

This study investigated measles infection in vaccinated and unvaccinated children presenting with fever and maculopapular rash during measles outbreaks in the southern and western states of Nigeria. Measles, an acute viral illness caused by a virus in the family Paramyxoviridae, is a vaccine-preventable disease. Measles outbreak is common in Nigeria, despite the national immunization program. Children presenting with symptoms of measles infection in general hospitals and health centers in the states of southern and western Nigeria were recruited for this study. Vaccination history, clinical details, and 5mL of blood were obtained from the children. Their sera samples were screened for specific immunoglobulin M antibodies to measles virus. Of 234 children tested (124 [53.2%] female), 133 (56.8%) had previously been vaccinated against measles virus, while 93 (39.7%) had not been vaccinated. Vaccination information for eight children could not be retrieved. One hundred and forty-three (62.4%) had measles IgM antibodies. Of these, 79 (55.3%) had been vaccinated for measles, while 65 (44.7%) had not. Despite the ongoing vaccination program in Nigeria, a high number of children are still being infected with measles, despite their vaccination status. Therefore, there is need to identify the reason for the low level of vaccine protection. © Copyright 2015, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. 2015. Source


Folayan M.O.,Obafemi Awolowo University | Adaranijo A.,New HIV Vaccine and Microbicide Advocacy Society | Durueke F.,New HIV Vaccine and Microbicide Advocacy Society | Ajuwon A.,University of Ibadan | And 4 more authors.
Developing World Bioethics | Year: 2014

This paper describes a three-year project designed to build the capacity of members of research ethics committes to perform their roles and responsibilities efficiently and effectively. The project participants were made up of a cross-section of the membership of 13 Research Ethics Committees (RECs) functioning in Nigeria. They received training to develop their capacity to evaluate research protocols, monitor trial implementation, provide constructive input to trial staff, and assess the trial's success in promoting community engagement in the research. Following the training, technical assistance was provided to participants on an ongoing basis and the project's impacts were assessed quantitatively and qualitatively. Results indicate that sustained investment in capacity building efforts (including training, ongoing technical assistance, and the provision of multiple tools) improved the participants' knowledge of both the ethical principles relevant to biomedical research and how effective REC should function. Such investment was also shown to have a positive impact on the knowledge levels of other RECs members (those who did not receive training) and the overall operations of the RECs to which the participants belonged. Building the capacity of REC members to fulfill their roles effectively requires sustained effort and investment and pays off by enabling RECs to fulfill their essential mission of ensuring that trials are conducted safely and ethically. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Source


Nwokoye N.N.,Nigeria Institute of Medical Research | Egwari L.O.,Covenant University | Olubi O.O.,Lagos State University
Journal of Laryngology and Otology | Year: 2015

Background: Otitis media is a more frequent occurrence in children, and the disease may progress from an acute to chronic state if appropriate and timely intervention is not initiated. Methods: A total of 212 children aged 6 months to 10 years were examined and treated for otitis media, in a 13-month hospital-based study. Results: Acute otitis media was diagnosed in 130 (61.3 per cent) of the patients. There were 82 (38.7 per cent) chronic suppurative otitis media cases. The incidence of acute otitis media and chronic suppurative otitis media in the first year of life was 54.6 per cent and 45.1 per cent respectively. Chronic suppurative otitis media patients were assigned to one of three treatment groups. Recovery occurred in 70.4 per cent of amoxicillin-treated patients, in 88.9 per cent of amoxicillin-clavulanic acid treated patients and in 96.4 per cent of culture and antibiotic sensitivity test patients. Relapses were seen only in the amoxicillin (five cases) and amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (two cases) groups. Conclusion: The success rate in patients treated with antibiotics makes this option mandatory for an established diagnosis. © JLO (1984) Limited 2015. Source


Fasina T.M.,University of Lagos | Ejiah F.N.,University of Lagos | Dueke-Eze U.,University of Lagos | Idika N.,Nigeria Institute of Medical Research
International Journal of Biological Chemistry | Year: 2013

The biological activity of Schiff bases have been of interest in the design of new antimicrobial agents, however relationship between molecular structure and biological activity had been little studied. This study seeks to investigate the role of subtle electronic effect arising from substituent variation on the biological activity of salicyladimines. The effect of substituent variation on the antimicrobial activity of Schiff bases was therefore studied using aminophenol and aminothiophenol compounds. Four Schiff bases derived from condensation of 2-aminophenol or 2-aminothiophenol with 5-bromosalicylaldehyde and 5-nitrosalicyladehyde were synthesized and characterized by IR, NMR and elemental analysis. Electronic absorption spectra of the compounds were recorded in dioxane and methanol as solvents. The presence of absorption bands above 400 nm for the aminophenol compounds reveals the existence of keto-enol tautomerisim. In vitro antimicrobial screening against Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27853), Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923), Enterococcus feacalis (ATCC 29212) in N,N'-dimethylformamide (DMF) and 1,4-dioxane as solvents show dependence of biological activity on the nature of substituent and solvent. The Schiff bases were active against gram positive bacteria and more potent in DMF with the bromine substituted imines exhibiting higher activity. © 2013 Academic Journals Inc. Source

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