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Pouilly-lès-Feurs, France

Moretton C.,Nigay SA | Cretier G.,CNRS Analytical Sciences Lab | Nigay H.,Nigay SA | Rocca J.-L.,CNRS Analytical Sciences Lab
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2011

4-Methylimidazole (4MeI) is a nitrogen compound formed during the manufacture of class III and IV caramel colors. The European Commission has limited its content to 250 ppm. Two methods were compared to perform 4MeI quantification in caramels. The first one, currently used and considered to be the reference method, consists of a hot extraction of caramel color with dichloromethane and an analysis of the acetyl derivative of the extract by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The second method is based on the heart-cutting two-dimensional liquid chromatography technique (LC-LC) to directly separate 4MeI from the other components present in caramel color sample (diluted in water) in <30 min. The accuracy profile validation method and the comparison between the results obtained with the two methods show that the new and completely automated LC-LC method is usable to quantify 4MeI in caramels. © 2011 American Chemical Society. Source


Paravisini L.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Paravisini L.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Paravisini L.,University of Burgundy | Paravisini L.,Nigay SA | And 14 more authors.
Food Research International | Year: 2014

Odor of food constitutes one of the main drivers of the consumers' acceptance. Its characterization thus represents a main challenge for the food industry. Gas chromatography/olfactometry (GC/O) constitutes an intersection between physico-chemical and sensory studies by using the human nose as a detector to evaluate the odor properties of volatile compounds. As GC/O does not make possible the evaluation of mixture of odorants, we propose an original approach to evaluate the impact of compounds on the typicality of caramel aroma by considering their odor qualities in mixtures. Indeed, the present study relies on the main hypothesis that the qualitative properties are as important as quantitative one with regard to the typicality.First, previously identified odorant compounds were distributed into eight odor categories using a classification wheel established from our GC/O descriptors. Each category was reconstituted separately and then a Whole Mixture was obtained by mixing all categories in specific proportions and validated by sensory analyses. Second, the impact of specific odor notes on the caramel typicality was studied individually by omission and addition tests and a 24 factorial design was built to investigate their interactions in complex mixtures.The caramel typicality results from a complex balance between fruity, vegetal, sharp, nutty and caramel notes arising from the presence of carboxylic acids, aldehydes, oxygenated heterocyclic compounds, ketones and carbocyclic compounds. This study brings new clues to understand the contribution of the caramel volatile compounds to its odor while proposing a promising experimental approach to understand the contribution of volatile compounds to the odor of complex products. © 2014. Source


Paravisini L.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Paravisini L.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Paravisini L.,University of Burgundy | Paravisini L.,Nigay SA | And 12 more authors.
Flavour and Fragrance Journal | Year: 2012

Aromatic caramel results from the heat treatment of sugars under specific temperature conditions. Because of its richness in aroma compounds and its pleasant organoleptic properties, caramel is widely used in the food industry. However, the composition of the volatile odorant fraction has not been completely elucidated. The aim of this work was thus to identify the volatile odorant compounds responsible for caramel sensory properties using a multivariate statistical technique. Four aromatic caramels differing in terms of their carbohydrate composition and cooking process were chosen. Odorant compounds were screened by gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) and identified by GC-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). GC-O data were processed using a detection frequency method. A total of 76 odorant zones were detected and 49 aroma compounds identified, some of them being reported for the first time in caramel. In parallel, descriptive sensory profiles of the caramels were performed with a panel of ten trained assessors. Odour properties appeared to be closely related to the cooking properties of the caramel. The relationship between the intensities of sensory descriptors and the 76 odorant zones was modelled by partial least squares regression (PLS-R). The first PLS-R component explained 93% of the variance in sensory descriptors and 39% in GC-O data. Sensory descriptors were mainly separated on the first axis, opposing sweet-like descriptors (cooked-syrup, fruity, honey) to burnt sugar descriptors (strong, pungent, roasted). Heterocycles, carbocyclic compounds and acids appeared to be the principal odorants for burnt sugars. They were mainly described by empyreumatic notes in GC-O and correlated to burnt sugar descriptors in the PLS model. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Source


Paravisini L.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Paravisini L.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Paravisini L.,University of Burgundy | Paravisini L.,Nigay SA | And 12 more authors.
Food Chemistry | Year: 2015

The first aim of our study was to improve characterisation of the volatile fraction of aromatic caramel by applying heart-cutting multidimensional gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry and olfactometry (MDGC-MS-O) on targeted odorant fractions. The second aim was to compare the volatile composition of two caramel samples, which differed in terms of their carbohydrate composition and cooking process. MDGC analyses enabled identification of 37 compounds (17 with the addition of pure standard) in the burnt sugar caramel, 20 of which were reported for the first time in caramel. Fifteen compounds were identified as odour-active and described using a range of attributes such as floral, roasted, spicy and almond. Furans, lactones and acids resulting from the thermal breakdown of sugars predominated in the volatile fraction of the burnt sugar caramel, due to the harsher cooking conditions. Finally, these results have enabled a clearer understanding of aromatic caramel as well as the identification of new compounds which might make an important contribution to its aroma. © 2014 Published by Elsevier Ltd. Source

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