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Moller A.P.,University Paris - Sud | Solonen T.,Luontotutkimus Solonen Oy | Byholm P.,University of Helsinki | Huhta E.,Finnish Forest Research Institute | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Avian Biology | Year: 2012

Predators impose strong selection on their prey, regulate prey populations and engage in coevolutionary interactions with their prey. The intensity of selection and the strength of coevolutionary interactions will depend on how stringent predators are in their choice of prey. We estimated susceptibility of different species of birds to predation by two common raptors, the northern goshawk Accipiter gentilis and the Eurasian sparrowhawk A. nisus, in an agricultural landscape in Denmark and boreal forests in Finland. We estimated susceptibility to predation as the deviation of the log 10-transformed observed frequency of prey of different species from the log 10-transformed expectation based on population density during the breeding season. We found a high degree of consistency in susceptibility to predation by the goshawk in two areas in Finland. More importantly, there was significant consistency in susceptibility to predation between Denmark and Finland, albeit the degree of consistency in the goshawk was higher than in the sparrowhawk. There was considerable overlap in susceptibility to predation between goshawk and sparrowhawk in Denmark, but not in Finland, implying differences in intensity of interspecific competition as reflected by a much higher extent of goshawk predation on sparrowhawks in Denmark than in Finland. Our findings suggest that hawks impose similar selection pressures on their prey populations, and that the degree of consistency has implications for intensity of interspecific killing. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Avian Biology © 2012 Nordic Society Oikos.

Schaefer D.,Nielsen | Hooker N.H.,Ohio State University | Stanton J.L.,Saint Josephs University
Journal of Food Science | Year: 2016

American grocery shoppers face an array of front of pack (FOP) nutrition and health claims when making food selections. Such systems have been categorized as summary or nutrient specific. Either type should help consumers make judgments about the nutrition quality of a product. This research tests if the type or quantity of FOP claims are indeed good indicators of objective nutrition quality. Claim and nutrition information from more than 2200 breakfast cereals and prepared meals launched between 2006 and 2010 were analyzed using binary and multinomial logistic regression models. Results suggest that no type or number of front of pack claims could distinguish "healthy" foods. However, some types and frequencies of FOP claims were significant predictors of higher or lower levels of certain key nutrients. Given the complex and crowded label environment in which these FOP claims reside, one may be concerned that such cues are not closely related to objective measures of nutrition quality. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®.

Van Camp D.,Nielsen | Hooker N.H.,Saint Josephs University | Lin C.-T.J.,U.S. Food and Drug Administration
Public Health Nutrition | Year: 2012

Objective Impact of mandatory trans fat labelling on US snack food introductions is examined.Design Using label information, lipid ingredients and fat profiles are compared pre- and post-labelling.Setting Key products in the US snack food industry contribute significant amounts of artificial trans fat. Industry efforts to reformulate products to lower trans fat may alter the overall fat profile, in particular saturates.Subjects Composition data for more than 5000 chip and cookie products introduced for sale between 2001 (pre-labelling) and 2009 (post-labelling) were analysed.Results One-way ANOVA was used to test for significant changes in saturated fat content per serving and the ratio of saturated to total fat. The shares of chip and cookie introductions containing partially hydrogenated vegetable oil declined by 45 and 42 percentage points, respectively. In cookies, there was an increase of 049 (98 % CI 001, 098) g in the average saturated fat content per 30 g serving and an increase of 9 (98 % CI 3, 15) % in the average ratio of saturated to total fat. No statistically significant changes in fat content were observed in chips.Conclusions This research suggests that, holding other factors constant, the policy has resulted in a decreased use of partially hydrogenated vegetable oil in chip products without a corresponding increase in saturated fat content, but led to significantly higher levels of saturated fat and ratio of saturated fat to total fat in cookie products. © 2012 The Authors.

Nielsen | Date: 2013-03-22

Fertilizers. Herbicides, insecticides, pesticides and fungicides for home, garden and lawn use and for professional use.

Nielsen | Date: 2001-09-27


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