Tokyo, Japan
Tokyo, Japan

Time filter

Source Type

News Article | October 11, 2016
Site: www.rdmag.com

Researchers at the National Institute of Information and Communications Technology (NICT, President: Dr. Masao Sakauchi), in collaboration with researchers at the Nippon Telegraph and Telephone Corporation (NTT, Representative Member of the Board and President, Mr. Hiroo Unoura) and the Qatar Environment and Energy Research Institute (QEERI, Acting Executive Director: Dr. Marwan Khraisheh) have discovered qualitatively new states of a superconducting artificial atom dressed with virtual photons. The discovery was made using spectroscopic measurements on an artificial atom that is very strongly coupled to the light field inside a superconducting cavity. This result provides a new platform to investigate the interaction between light and matter at a fundamental level, helps understand quantum phase transitions and provides a route to applications of non-classical light such as Schrödinger cat states. It may contribute to the development of quantum technologies in areas such as quantum communication, quantum simulation and computation, or quantum metrology. This result will be published online in the October 10 (London time) issue of the journal Nature Physics. The indispensable technologies in modern life such as a time system measured by an atomic clock and a secure and energy-efficient communications system are based on the fundamental science of the interaction between light and matter at the single-photon level. The absorption and emission of light from any device is explained based on the interaction of light and atoms. A fundamental question in atomic physics, "How strong can the coupling of light and an atom be?" has not been answered in spite of years of research, because it is not easy to find appropriate methods to realize very strong coupling. It was predicted over forty years ago that if the coupling is extremely strong a qualitatively new lowest energy state (the ground state) of light and an atom should be realized. A debate soon started as to whether this prediction would still apply when realistic conditions are considered. A few years ago, our collaborator at QEERI, Dr. Sahel Ashhab, performed theoretical investigations and identified desirable conditions for achieving this new state using superconducting circuits. In the experiment, we used a microfabricated superconducting harmonic oscillator and a superconducting artificial atom (quantum bit or qubit) whose electronic states behave quantum mechanically, just like a natural atom. By carefully designing a superconducting persistent-current qubit interacting with an LC harmonic oscillator that has a large zero-point fluctuation current via a large shared Josephson inductance, we found the new ground state as predicted theoretically. The total energy of the qubit and the oscillator is the sum of the photon energy in the oscillator, the qubit energy, and the coupling energy binding the photons to the qubit. Taking advantage of the macroscopic quantum system, we could realize circuits with coupling energy larger than both the photon energy and the qubit energy. This situation is sometimes called 'deep strong coupling'. In addition, we have observed that the transitions between energy levels are governed by selection rules stemming from the symmetry of the entangled energy eigenstates, including the ground state. We plan to test whether deep strong coupling is possible or not using more than one superconducting artificial atom (qubit), which remains a question of debate. We will also try to actively manipulate this new molecular state of photons and artificial atoms, for example, to observe and control the dynamics of photon absorption and emission, and to demonstrate new methods of entanglement generation.


News Article | November 29, 2016
Site: www.eurekalert.org

Tokyo, Japan and The Hague, Netherlands - 25 November 2016 - The ICSU World Data System (WDS) and the Data Seal of Approval (DSA) Board are pleased to announce the availability of their unified Requirements for Core Trustworthy Data Repository certification. A unified catalogue of requirements was developed through a DSA-WDS partnership Working Group within the Research Data Alliance (RDA). The group built on inherent complementarity between the criteria previously established by the two organizations to harmonize unified and universal requirements reflecting the core characteristics of trustworthy data repositories. After an extensive period of public commentary and after conducting test certifications, the two organizations are pleased to announce the availability of the first version of the Requirements for Core Trustworthy Data Repository certification. Prof Sandy Harrison, Chair of the WDS Scientific Committee, indicated that 'Research data repositories across the world and scientific domains will benefit from a single set of internationally recognized requirements to demonstrate their status as a Trustworthy Data Repository.' The DSA Board and the WDS Scientific Committee are working together to further align their certification procedures and ensure that the research community will have a single, clear reference point for seeking Core Trustworthy Data Repository certification. Hervé L'Hours, Chair of the DSA Board noted that 'As future members of WDS and applicants for the DSA Seal undertake certifications, we will continue to seek community feedback with a view to further clarify and extend the guidance provided.' The DSA was established as a trustworthy digital repository standard by a number of institutions committed to the long-term curation and preservation of research data. The 16 requirements ascertain that the research data is discoverable on the internet, accessible, usable, reliable and citable. The DSA Board grants the Data Seal of Approval to repositories that are committed to archiving and providing access to data in a sustainable way. WDS is a membership organization committed to improve the trustworthiness of scientific data services by fostering the compliance with international and agreed-upon community standards, increasing data accessibility and the sustainability of scientific data infrastructures. WDS promotes universal and equitable access to quality- assessed scientific data, data services, products, and information covering a broad range of disciplines from the Natural and Social Sciences, and Humanities. Accredited WDS Regular and Network Members have a national or international remit for scientific data stewardship while co-opted Partner and Associate Members support the WDS endeavour. The WDS International Programme Office is hosted in Japan by the National Institute of Information and Communications Technology (NICT).'


News Article | February 21, 2017
Site: www.eurekalert.org

The amount of effort required to do something influences what we think we see, finds a new UCL study suggesting we're biased towards perceiving anything challenging to be less appealing. "Our brain tricks us into believing the low-hanging fruit really is the ripest," says Dr Nobuhiro Hagura, who led the UCL team before moving to NICT in Japan. "We found that not only does the cost to act influence people's behaviour, but it even changes what we think we see." For the study, published in eLife, a total of 52 participants took part in a series of tests where they had to judge whether a cloud of dots on a screen was moving to the left or to the right. They expressed their decisions by moving a handle held in the left or right hand respectively. When the researchers gradually added a load to one of the handles, making it more difficult to move, the volunteers' judgements about what they saw became biased, and they started to avoid the effortful response. If weight was added to the left handle, participants were more likely to judge the dots to be moving rightwards as that decision was slightly easier for them to express. Crucially, the participants did not become aware of the increasing load on the handle: their motor system automatically adapted, triggering a change in their perception. "The tendency to avoid the effortful decision remained even when we asked people to switch to expressing their decision verbally, instead of pushing on the handles," Dr Hagura said. "The gradual change in the effort of responding caused a change in how the brain interpreted the visual input. Importantly, this change happened automatically, without any awareness or deliberate strategy." "Traditionally, scientists have assumed the visual system gives us perceptual information, and the motor system is a mere downstream output channel, which expresses our decision based on what we saw, without actually influencing the decision itself. Our experiments suggest an alternative view: the motor response that we use to report our decisions can actually influence the decision about what we have seen," he said. The researchers believe that our daily decisions could be modified not just through deliberate cognitive strategies, but also by designing the environment to make these decisions slightly more effortful. "The idea of 'implicit nudge' is currently popular with governments and advertisers," said co-author Professor Patrick Haggard (UCL Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience). "Our results suggest these methods could go beyond changing how people behave, and actually change the way the world looks. Most behaviour change focuses on promoting a desired behaviour, but our results suggest you could also make it less likely that people see the world a certain way, by making a behaviour more or less effortful. Perhaps the parent who places the jar of biscuits on a high shelf actually makes them look less tasty to the toddler playing on the floor." The study was performed under an international collaboration between UCL, NICT (Japan) and Western University (Canada). The researchers were funded by the European Research Council, the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, and the James S. McDonnell Foundation.


News Article | October 26, 2016
Site: www.eurekalert.org

The National Institute of Information and Communications Technology (NICT, President: Dr. Masao Sakauchi) has succeeded in the development of flexible optical design method for superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors (SSPDs or SNSPDs). This technique enables SSPDs with a broadband high detection efficiency reject a specific wavelength, and is effective for multidisciplinary applications in fields such as the quantum cryptography, fluorescence spectroscopy, and remote sensing that require high efficiency over a precise spectral range and strong signal rejection at other wavelengths. This achievement appeared in the Scientific Reports (Nature Publishing Group) on October 24, 2016. The reported results have been partially obtained as a part of JST-SENTAN program and AMED-SENTAN program from April 2015. We have developed SSPDs on dielectric multilayers and their optical design method, which enable us to design a variety of wavelength dependences of optical absorptance by optimizing the dielectric multilayer. In order to achieve the high detection efficiency in SSPDs, it is crucial to optimize the optical absorptance for a target wavelength. In the conventional SSPDs, a simple cavity structure consisting of dielectric resonant layers with a mirror layer has been used. This structure is relatively simple and can effectively achieve high absorptance at the target wavelength, and the wavelength dependencies of absorptance show a single peak structure. However, in this structure, it is difficult to realize the SSPDs with high efficiency over a carefully controlled spectral range, with rejection at other wavelengths to reduce the noises. By adopting a new SSPD structure with dielectric multilayers, it became possible to design desired wavelength dependences of the optical absorptance. As materials of dielectric multilayer, silicon dioxide (SiO2) and titanium oxide (TiO2) were used, and the niobium nitride (NbN) superconducting nanowire was put on the dielectric multilayer. The wavelength dependences of the optical absorptance in the nanowire could be designed by optimizing the layer number and thicknesses of each layer in the dielectric multilayer. We developed the SSPDs based on the optimized design, and experimentally demonstrated that the wavelength dependences of the detection efficiency follow the calculated results well. Regarding the optical design method, in order to optimize the wavelength dependence of the absorptance effectively, we perform two-step simulation of the optical multilayer calculation and the finite element analysis. In support of the SSPD measurements, the NICT team collaborated with Osaka University, Japan and the University of Glasgow, Scotland through the NICT internship scheme. The developed SSPD with the dielectric multilayer and the optical design method can be applied for wide wavelength region between ultraviolet and mid-infrared, and thus provides an important basis for development of application of SSPD to quantum cryptography, fluorescence spectroscopy, and remote sensing.


News Article | February 21, 2017
Site: www.chromatographytechniques.com

The amount of effort required to do something influences what we think we see, finds a new UCL study suggesting we're biased towards perceiving anything challenging to be less appealing. "Our brain tricks us into believing the low-hanging fruit really is the ripest," says Nobuhiro Hagura, who led the UCL team before moving to NICT in Japan. "We found that not only does the cost to act influence people's behavior, but it even changes what we think we see." For the study, published in eLife, a total of 52 participants took part in a series of tests where they had to judge whether a cloud of dots on a screen was moving to the left or to the right. They expressed their decisions by moving a handle held in the left or right hand respectively. When the researchers gradually added a load to one of the handles, making it more difficult to move, the volunteers' judgements about what they saw became biased, and they started to avoid the effortful response. If weight was added to the left handle, participants were more likely to judge the dots to be moving rightwards as that decision was slightly easier for them to express. Crucially, the participants did not become aware of the increasing load on the handle: their motor system automatically adapted, triggering a change in their perception. "The tendency to avoid the effortful decision remained even when we asked people to switch to expressing their decision verbally, instead of pushing on the handles," Hagura said. "The gradual change in the effort of responding caused a change in how the brain interpreted the visual input. Importantly, this change happened automatically, without any awareness or deliberate strategy." "Traditionally, scientists have assumed the visual system gives us perceptual information, and the motor system is a mere downstream output channel, which expresses our decision based on what we saw, without actually influencing the decision itself. Our experiments suggest an alternative view: the motor response that we use to report our decisions can actually influence the decision about what we have seen," he said. The researchers believe that our daily decisions could be modified not just through deliberate cognitive strategies, but also by designing the environment to make these decisions slightly more effortful. "The idea of 'implicit nudge' is currently popular with governments and advertisers," said co-author Patrick Haggard (UCL Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience). "Our results suggest these methods could go beyond changing how people behave, and actually change the way the world looks. Most behavior change focuses on promoting a desired behavior, but our results suggest you could also make it less likely that people see the world a certain way, by making a behavior more or less effortful. Perhaps the parent who places the jar of biscuits on a high shelf actually makes them look less tasty to the toddler playing on the floor."


News Article | February 22, 2017
Site: www.biosciencetechnology.com

The amount of effort required to do something influences what we think we see, finds a new UCL study suggesting we're biased towards perceiving anything challenging to be less appealing. "Our brain tricks us into believing the low-hanging fruit really is the ripest," says Dr. Nobuhiro Hagura, who led the UCL team before moving to NICT in Japan. "We found that not only does the cost to act influence people's behavior, but it even changes what we think we see." For the study, published in eLife, a total of 52 participants took part in a series of tests where they had to judge whether a cloud of dots on a screen was moving to the left or to the right. They expressed their decisions by moving a handle held in the left or right hand respectively. When the researchers gradually added a load to one of the handles, making it more difficult to move, the volunteers' judgements about what they saw became biased, and they started to avoid the effortful response. If weight was added to the left handle, participants were more likely to judge the dots to be moving rightwards as that decision was slightly easier for them to express. Crucially, the participants did not become aware of the increasing load on the handle: their motor system automatically adapted, triggering a change in their perception. "The tendency to avoid the effortful decision remained even when we asked people to switch to expressing their decision verbally, instead of pushing on the handles," Dr. Hagura said. "The gradual change in the effort of responding caused a change in how the brain interpreted the visual input. Importantly, this change happened automatically, without any awareness or deliberate strategy." "Traditionally, scientists have assumed the visual system gives us perceptual information, and the motor system is a mere downstream output channel, which expresses our decision based on what we saw, without actually influencing the decision itself. Our experiments suggest an alternative view: the motor response that we use to report our decisions can actually influence the decision about what we have seen," he said. The researchers believe that our daily decisions could be modified not just through deliberate cognitive strategies, but also by designing the environment to make these decisions slightly more effortful. "The idea of 'implicit nudge' is currently popular with governments and advertisers," said co-author Professor Patrick Haggard (UCL Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience). "Our results suggest these methods could go beyond changing how people behave, and actually change the way the world looks. Most behavior change focuses on promoting a desired behavior, but our results suggest you could also make it less likely that people see the world a certain way, by making a behavior more or less effortful. Perhaps the parent who places the jar of biscuits on a high shelf actually makes them look less tasty to the toddler playing on the floor."


Harai H.,NICT
IEICE Transactions on Communications | Year: 2012

This paper presents recent progress made in the development of an optical packet and circuit integrated network. From the viewpoint of end users, this is a single network that provides both high-speed, inexpensive services and deterministic-delay, low-data-loss services according to the users' usage scenario. From the viewpoint of network service providers, this network provides large switching capacity with low energy requirements, high flexibility, and efficient resource utilization with a simple control mechanism. The network we describe here will contribute to diversification of services, enhanced functional flexibility, and efficient energy consumption, which are included in the twelve design goals of Future Networks announced by ITU-T (International Telecommunication Union - Telecommunication Standardization Sector). We examine the wavebandbased network architecture of the optical packet and circuit integrated network. Use of multi-wavelength optical packet increases the switch throughput while minimizing energy consumption. A rank accounting method provides a solution to the problem of inter-domain signaling for end-to-end lightpath establishment. Moving boundary control for packet and circuit services makes for efficient resource utilization. We also describe related advanced technologies such as waveband switching, elastic lightpaths, automatic locator numbering assignment, and biologically-inspired control of optical integrated network. © 2012 The Institute of Electronics, Information and Communication Engineers.


Harada H.,NICT
IEICE Transactions on Communications | Year: 2014

This paper summarizes the current status of regulations, standardization efforts and trials around the world regarding white space (WS) communications, especially television band WS (TVWS). After defining WS communication systems configurations and function and the categories of white space database, the TVWS regulations in United States, United Kingdom, and Japan are summarized. Then regarding status of standardization for TVWS devices, IEEE 802 and IEEE 1900 standards are summarized. Finally ongoing pilot projects and trials of WS communications in the world are summarized, and trends and future direction of research on WS communication systems are summarized. Copyright © 2014 The Institute of Electronics, Information and Communication Engineers.


News Article | September 14, 2016
Site: phys.org

In the face of increasing bandwidth demands, ground-breaking research between the University of Bristol and the National Institute of Information and Communication Technology (NICT) in Japan, has demonstrated solutions for network infrastructure to address the looming network capacity crunch.


News Article | February 2, 2016
Site: www.scientificcomputing.com

Data centers, such as the ones used by Google and Facebook, are the fundamental backbone for a range of services and applications including cloud and fog computing, big data, Internet of Things (IoT), social networking, weather forecasting, earthquake and tsunami prediction and cyber security. As such, they are a hidden, yet integral part of modern life and human progress. New research has unlocked 80 THz of fiber-optic bandwidth that will enable future exascale data centers and transform 5G networks. The research on optical communication technologies, wavelength division multiplexing and networks form the backbone of every wired network across the whole Internet. Work until now has been focused and limited to utilizing ~11 THz of bandwidth (C and L Band) centered at 193 THz. Optical networks based on this frequency have been able to support up to 230 channels at 50 GHz spacing. Due to constant growth of networked infrastructures, from internet of everything to data centers, the fiber capacity is reaching its limits. The collaboration between the University of Bristol’s Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Keio University and numerous Japanese industrial partners, have designed, developed and prototyped a pioneering all-optical router that can unlock 80 THz of bandwidth across a newly defined frequency band named T-Band (thousand band) and O-Band (original band). The adjacent bands span from 1.0 μm (300 THz) to 1.36 μm (220 THz) and are able to support 1600 channels at 50 GHz spacing. Dr. Georgios Zervas, Senior Lecturer in Optical and High Performance Networks in the Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, said: “The technology and system proposed and prototyped will unlock the new frequency band and networks to support future exascale data centers, ‘zero-latency’ tactile optical internet, internet of everything, smart cities, fog computing and big data infrastructure among others. This is the outcome of a recent collaboration between Bristol, Keio and other Japanese institutions that brings together people with complementary yet common vision and pioneering concepts.” The technology fabricated and tested is based on cascaded arrayed waveguide gratings (AWGs) and is designed to potentially construct a 1600 x 1600 wavelength router that can guide data at the speed of light. Also, specially designed quantum dot chips are used for light sources, which were originally developed by NICT, Japan. This single passive optical system can route immense information offering manifold increase from current systems. It can single-handedly interconnect over one million end points such as, broadband home users, IoT devices, data center servers, while offering at least ten Gb/s per end point. Critically it is also future-proof, since it’s transparent to any communication signal, and it can also potentially consume zero power due to its passive nature. Hiroyuki Tsuda, Professor of Faculty of Science and Technology at Keio University, added: “The enabling technologies for the new frequency band are the quantum dot-based optical devices and the silica planar lightwave circuits designed for the new band. “The collaboration between the University of Bristol who has extensive knowledge of the network architecture, and our Japanese research group with device technologies will create an ultra-high capacity, power-saving optical network system, in particular, for data centers.” Citation: 'Full-mesh T- and O-band wavelength router based on arrayed waveguide gratings' by Nazirul A. Idris, Ryogo Kubo, Georgios Zervas, Hiroyuki Tsuda et al is published in Optics Express [open access]

Loading NICT collaborators
Loading NICT collaborators