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Arezzo, Italy

Tete S.,University of Chieti Pescara | Nicoletti M.,University of Chieti Pescara | Saggini A.,University of Rome Tor Vergata | Maccauro G.,Catholic University of Rome | And 14 more authors.
International Journal of Immunopathology and Pharmacology | Year: 2012

Cancer cells invade surrounding tissues and metastasize to distant sites. Diet high in fat is a strong link to, and perhaps causes, a high incidence of tumours. Trans-fatty acid might impair the function and it could be involved in the development of cancer. Cholesterol is also strongly suspected to be involved in the development of tumours, therefore it is important for everyone to eat well, especially for people with cancer to prevent the body tissues from breaking down and helping to rebuild the normal tissue that may have been affected by the treatments. Factors secreted by adipocytes and macrophages such as TNF-alpha and other inflammatory proteins are involved in inflammation in cancer. In addition, MCSF which up-regulates adipocyte tissue is also important for the stimulation of fat cell proliferation and is expressed by human adipocytes. Many cytokines, such as IL-I, IL-6, IL-8, IL-32, IL-33 and MCP-I, are biomarkers for cancer and chronic diseases along with transcription factors NFkB and AP-I; these last two factors are important bioactive substances on the molecular mechanism of the control of genes which in turn affect cellular metabolism. In this paper we revisit the interrelationship between cancer and metabolism. © by BIOLIFE, s.a.s.

Kritas S.K.,Aristotle University of Thessaloniki | Saggini A.,University of Rome Tor Vergata | Cerulli G.,Nicolas Foundation | Caraffa A.,University of Perugia | And 7 more authors.
International Journal of Immunopathology and Pharmacology | Year: 2014

Microglia derive from mononuclear myeloid progenitors and are a major glial complement of the central nervous system. When microglia are activated they secrete inflammatory cytokines and toxic mediators which amplify the inflammatory response. In addition, the microglia inflammatory products are implicated in the neuronal destruction usually observed in various neurodegenerative diseases. Microglia cells express corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) receptors, and activation of microglia by CRH releases bioactive molecules which have a biological effect in the brain and regulate several neurological diseases. CRH plays a pivotal role in stress responses and is a key mediator of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical system. CRH is expressed in human mast cells, leading to autocrine effects and participates in inflammatory response together with neuropeptides, and stimulates mast cells. IL-33-activated mast cells release vascular endothelial growth factor in response to CRH and act synergistically to increase vascular permeability. CRH also up-regulates IL-18 expression by increasing intracellular reactive oxygen in microglia cells. Here we report the relationship between CRH, microglia and mental disorders. Copyright © by BIOLIFE, s a.s.

Kritas S.K.,Aristotle University of Thessaloniki | Saggini A.,University of Rome Tor Vergata | Cerulli G.,Nicolas Foundation | Caraffa A.,University of Perugia | And 7 more authors.
Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents | Year: 2014

Serotonin (5-HT) is an important neurotransmitter that acts in both central and peripheral nervous system, and has an impact on cell proliferation, migration and apoptosis. 5HT exerts its effects via several receptors. Treatment with anti-5-HT receptors diminish the severity of contact allergy in experimental animals, an effect mediated by mast cells; while an agonist reduces the stress level and relieves pruritus in patients with atopic dermatitis. Mast cells are important for both innate and adaptive immunity and they are activated by cross-linking of FcεRI molecules, which are involved in the binding of multivalent antigens to the attached IgE molecules, resulting in a variety of responses including the immediate release of potent inflammatory mediators. Serotonin is present in murine mucosal mast cells and some authors reported that human mast cells may also contain serotonin, especially in subjects with mastocytosis. Here we report the interrelationship between mast cells, serotonin and its receptor inhibitor. Copyright © by BIOLIFE, s.a.s.

Kritas S.K.,Aristotle University of Thessaloniki | Saggini A.,University of Rome Tor Vergata | Cerulli G.,Nicolas Foundation | Speziali A.,Nicolas Foundation | And 7 more authors.
European Journal of Inflammation | Year: 2014

Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease of the lung and its pathophysiology is initiated by mast cell activation in response to the antigen binding to IgE receptor as well as by TH2 cell activation. Mast cells are well established effector cells in asthma where they exacerbate the inflammatory response, playing a key role in early phase, degranulating and increasing histamine. Human mast cells possess high affinity IgE receptors and are ubiquitous but predominantly localized in mucosal and connective tissue and are distributed along blood vessels. There are two types of mast cells: connective tissue mast cells (TC) and mucosal mast cells (T mast cells). TC mast cells contain more heparin, whereas T mast cells contain more chondroitin sulfate. In asthma, mast cell activation can trigger degranulation, releasing secretory granule complex and preformed mediators, such as histamine and proteases, along with the synthesis of leukotrines and prostaglandins, and induction of cytokines and chemokines. Leukotrine inhibitors and omalizumab, which inhibits IgE, both relieve the asthma exacerbation when administered to humans and permit to reduce the use of other drugs. The release of cytokines by mast cells, such as TNF-alpha, IL-1, IL-6 and IL-33, participate in the pathogenesis of asthma. Stress worsens asthma, and this effect is also mediated by mast cell activation through the release of cytokines. Administration of IL-33 in experimental animals provokes pathological effects in the mucosal tissues and augments antibody IgE and IgA in blood vessels. Here, we report the impact of mast cell biology in asthma pathogenesis. Copyright © by BIOLIFE, s.a.s.

Kritas S.K.,Aristotelian University | Caraffa A.,University of Perugia | Antinolfi P.,University of Perugia | Saggini A.,University of Rome Tor Vergata | And 9 more authors.
European Journal of Inflammation | Year: 2014

IgE is an important marker for allergy and plays a central role in the induction of allergic diseases through its binding of the high affinity receptor on mast cells. Mast cells can influence B cell survival, proliferation and differentiation into CD138+ cells. Among TH2 cytokines, interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-13 are responsible for class-switching in B cells which resolves in production of allergen-specific IgE antibodies that bind to specific receptor on mast cells. IgE synthesis by B cells is regulated by CD40 ligand, IL-4 and interferon-gamma, therefore inhibition of B cell antigen-specific IgE may prevent the cleavage of CD23 from B cells, having a therapeutic impact which also includes the removal of circulating free IgE, omalizumab, corticosteroids, mast cell stabilizers, leukotriene receptor antagonist, and others. B cell differentiation into IgE-producing cells requires two signals provided by TH2 cells and IL-4, however IL-4, IL-1 and IL-10 as well as several hormones are critical for the development of TH2 cells, while cytokines, such as interferon (IFN)-alpha, IFN-gamma, IL-12 and transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta play a negative role. However, the exact mechanism of this process has not yet been defined. Copyright © by BIOLIFE, s.a.s.

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