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PubMed | University of Chieti Pescara, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Catholic University of Rome, University of Cagliari and 4 more.
Type: Editorial | Journal: Journal of biological regulators and homeostatic agents | Year: 2015

Vitamins are natural components of foods and are organic compounds distinct from fat, carbohydrates and proteins. Vitamin A is the generic descriptor for compounds with the qualitative biological activity of retinol. Unlike beta-carotene, vitamin A is not an antioxidant and its benefit is related to possible boosting of immune reactions. The effect of vitamin A on immune function is wide-reaching and its deficiency appears to affect immunity in several ways. Innate and adaptive immune responses are affected in some way by lack of vitamin A. Retinoids seem to act on differentiation of lymphocytes, antibody production, phagocytosis of macrophages, NK, Treg, and T helper cell activity. In addition, in humans, signs of a vitamin A deficiency also include the dysregulation of cytokine/chemokine generation and release. However, excess of vitamin A has been demonstrated to have toxic effects in most species studied. Here we summarize some important effects of vitamin A in immunity and inflammation.


Kritas S.K.,Aristotle University of Thessaloniki | Saggini A.,University of Rome Tor Vergata | Cerulli G.,Nicolas Foundation | Caraffa A.,University of Perugia | And 7 more authors.
International Journal of Immunopathology and Pharmacology | Year: 2014

Microglia derive from mononuclear myeloid progenitors and are a major glial complement of the central nervous system. When microglia are activated they secrete inflammatory cytokines and toxic mediators which amplify the inflammatory response. In addition, the microglia inflammatory products are implicated in the neuronal destruction usually observed in various neurodegenerative diseases. Microglia cells express corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) receptors, and activation of microglia by CRH releases bioactive molecules which have a biological effect in the brain and regulate several neurological diseases. CRH plays a pivotal role in stress responses and is a key mediator of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical system. CRH is expressed in human mast cells, leading to autocrine effects and participates in inflammatory response together with neuropeptides, and stimulates mast cells. IL-33-activated mast cells release vascular endothelial growth factor in response to CRH and act synergistically to increase vascular permeability. CRH also up-regulates IL-18 expression by increasing intracellular reactive oxygen in microglia cells. Here we report the relationship between CRH, microglia and mental disorders. Copyright © by BIOLIFE, s a.s.


Spinas E.,University of Cagliari | Kritas S.K.,Aristotle University of Thessaloniki | Saggini A.,University of Rome Tor Vergata | Mobili A.,University of Chieti Pescara | And 7 more authors.
International journal of immunopathology and pharmacology | Year: 2014

Atherosclerosis is an inflammatory disease and hyperlipidaemia is one of the main risk factors for aging, hypertension and diabetes. Variance in plasma LDL cholesterol concentration may be associated with differences in cardiovascular disease risk and high levels of lipids are associated with increased risk of developing atherosclerosis. Macrophages, which generate pro-inflammatory cytokines, mainly interleukin-1 (IL-1) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-alpha), are deeply involved in atherosclerosis, as well as mast cells which generate several cytokines, including IL-6 and IFN-gamma, and chemokines such as eotaxin, MCP-1 and RANTES involved in monocyte recruitment and differentiation in the arterial wall. In addition, mast cells participate in lipid retention and vascular cell remodeling, and are mediators of innate and adaptive immunity during atherosclerosis. Mast cells which accumulate in the human arterial intima and adventitia during atherosclerotic plaque progression, release vasoactive and angiogenic compounds, and pro-inflammatory mediators, such as arachidonic acid metabolites, histamine, cytokines/chemokines, platelet activating factor (PAF) and proteolytic enzymes. Mast cells can be activated by pro-inflammatory stimuli, including cytokines, hypercholesterolemia, and hyperglycemia, and trigger the endothelial expression of adhesion molecules such as P-selection, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and chemokines which mediate the recruitment and adhesion of leukocytes. The participation of mast cells in atherosclerosis is still an enigma and it may be of therapeutic interest to clarify this process.


PubMed | Pescara Hospital, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, University of Chieti Pescara, University of Rome Tor Vergata and 5 more.
Type: Editorial | Journal: Journal of biological regulators and homeostatic agents | Year: 2014

Mast cells are ubiquitous in the body and multifunctional immune cells; they are known to be primary responders in allergic reactions, orchestrating strong responses to minute amounts of allergens. Mature mast cells perform important beneficial roles in host defense, both in IgE-dependent immune responses to certain parasites and in natural immunity to bacterial infection. In IgE-associated biological responses, the crosslinking of FcεRI-bound IgE with multivalent antigens initiate the activation of mast cells by promoting aggregation of FceRI. This cross-linking receptor-bound IgE by multivalent Ag initiates a cascade of intracellular reactions leading to mediator release such as proinflammatory mediators, chemokines and cytokines. Luteolin belongs to a flavone group of compounds called flavonoids, it has anti-oxidant properties, inhibits some cancer cell proliferation and exerts a regulatory effect on mast cell-mediated inflammatory diseases and allergy. Here we report the impact of luteolin on mast cell activation.


PubMed | Pescara Hospital, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Nicolas Foundation, University of Rome Tor Vergata and 2 more.
Type: Editorial | Journal: International journal of immunopathology and pharmacology | Year: 2014

Mast cells (MCs) derive from a distinct precursor in the bone marrow and are predominantly found in tissues at the interface between the host and the external environment where they can secrete mediators without overt degranulation. Mast cells mature under local tissue microenvironmental factors and are necessary for the development of allergic reactions, through crosslinking of their surface receptors for IgE (FcRI), leading to degranulation and the release of vasoactive, pro-inflammatory and nociceptive mediators that include histamine, pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines and proteolytic enzymes. Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disease characterized by inflammatory demylination within the central nervous system. MCs are involved in the pathogenesis of MS by generating various vasoactive mediators and cytokines and participate in the destruction of the myelin sheath and the neuronal cells. The process of the development of demyelinating plaques in MS is probably linked with the rupture of the blood-brain barrier by MC products. The effects of natalizumab, which is a very effective drug in reducing the annualized relapse rate and other relapse-based endpoints, are discussed. Here, we report the relationship between MCs and MS.


PubMed | Pescara Hospital, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Nicolas Foundation, University of Rome Tor Vergata and 2 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: International journal of immunopathology and pharmacology | Year: 2014

Microglia derive from mononuclear myeloid progenitors and are a major glial complement of the central nervous system. When microglia are activated they secrete inflammatory cytokines and toxic mediators which amplify the inflammatory response. In addition, the microglia inflammatory products are implicated in the neuronal destruction usually observed in various neurodegenerative diseases. Microglia cells express corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) receptors, and activation of microglia by CRH releases bioactive molecules which have a biological effect in the brain and regulate several neurological diseases. CRH plays a pivotal role in stress responses and is a key mediator of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical system. CRH is expressed in human mast cells, leading to autocrine effects and participates in inflammatory response together with neuropeptides, and stimulates mast cells. IL-33-activated mast cells release vascular endothelial growth factor in response to CRH and act synergistically to increase vascular permeability. CRH also up-regulates IL-18 expression by increasing intracellular reactive oxygen in microglia cells. Here we report the relationship between CRH, microglia and mental disorders.


PubMed | University of Chieti Pescara, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Nicolas Foundation, University of Rome Tor Vergata and 4 more.
Type: Editorial | Journal: Journal of biological regulators and homeostatic agents | Year: 2014

Human mast cells (first described in 1879 by Paul Ehrlich) develop from committed precursors in the bone marrow expressing the differentiation marker CD34+ and distinct from the three other myeloid cells. Mast cells are present in various tissues especially near blood vessels, epithelia and nerves and they are activated by cross-linking of FcεRI, but also by a number of neuropeptides. NGF mediates a number of inflammatory and autoimmune states in conjunction with an increased accumulation of mast cells which appear to be involved in neuroimmune interactions and tissue inflammation. Here we report some relationships between mast cells and nerve growth factor (NGF).


PubMed | Pescara Hospital, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Nicolas Foundation, University of Rome Tor Vergata and 2 more.
Type: Editorial | Journal: Journal of biological regulators and homeostatic agents | Year: 2014

Serotonin (5-HT) is an important neurotransmitter that acts in both central and peripheral nervous system, and has an impact on cell proliferation, migration and apoptosis. 5HT exerts its effects via several receptors. Treatment with anti-5-HT receptors diminish the severity of contact allergy in experimental animals, an effect mediated by mast cells; while an agonist reduces the stress level and relieves pruritus in patients with atopic dermatitis. Mast cells are important for both innate and adaptive immunity and they are activated by cross-linking of FceRI molecules, which are involved in the binding of multivalent antigens to the attached IgE molecules, resulting in a variety of responses including the immediate release of potent inflammatory mediators. Serotonin is present in murine mucosal mast cells and some authors reported that human mast cells may also contain serotonin, especially in subjects with mastocytosis. Here we report the interrelationship between mast cells, serotonin and its receptor inhibitor.


PubMed | University of Chieti Pescara, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Nicolas Foundation, University of Rome Tor Vergata and 4 more.
Type: Editorial | Journal: Journal of biological regulators and homeostatic agents | Year: 2014

It is well established that mast cells, which are found in the tissues in the proximity of small blood vessels and post-capillary venules, play a key role in the early phase of IgE-mediated allergic reactions. A greatly expanded understanding of the biology of IL-3 has emerged since the early 1980s. IL-3 is a specific factor that stimulates the growth of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells of a variety of lineages and can promote the proliferation of certain classes of lymphocytes distinct from those that are dependent on IL-2. IL-3 has been identified among the most important cytokines for regulation of mast cell growth and differentiation, migration and effector function activities of many hematopoietic cells. IL-3 termed multi colony-stimulating-factor (multi-CSF) or mast cell growth factor (MCGF) is a haematopoietic growth factor which stimulates the formation of colonies for erythroid, megakaryocytic, granulocytic and monocytic lineages. It is predominantly produced by activated T cells, natural killer (NK) cells and mast cells and supports the growth-promoting effects of SCF on mast cell precursors. IL-3 causes severe hypersensivity reactions and plays a pivotal role in exacerbating the inflammatory response in vivo. Here we report the interrelationship between IL-3 and mast cells.


Padua R.,Don Carlo Gnocchi Onlus Foundation | Padua R.,Nicolas Foundation | Padua L.,Don Carlo Gnocchi Onlus Foundation | Padua L.,Catholic University | And 4 more authors.
Musculoskeletal Surgery | Year: 2010

The patient-oriented measures, represented by self-administered questionnaire, have become an important aspect of clinical outcome assessment. To be used with different language groups and in different countries, questionnaires must be translated and adapted to new cultural characteristics and then validated by a widely accepted process to evaluate reliability and validity, fundamental characteristic for each measure. The aim of the study is to perform the cross-cultural adaptation and to assess the Italian version instrument reliability and validity. The study design is a cross-cultural adaptation and cross-sectional study of a sample of patients affected by shoulder disorder with a subsample followed prospectively for retest reliability. The American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons Standardized Shoulder Assessment Form was culturally adapted for Italian-speaking people, following the simplified Guillemin criteria. Reliability and validity were assessed in a cross-sectional study of 50 consecutive patients affected by shoulder disorder. A sub-sample of 20 patients was followed prospectively for retest reliability. The results were compared with other validated patient-oriented measures. The ASES scales showed a high correlation with other patient-oriented measures, as hypothesized, and it also showed good values with regard to reproducibility, consistency and validity, to the original versions published in English. These findings suggest that the evaluation capacities of the Italian version of ASES are equivalent to those of English language version. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.

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