Nichols College is a private, four-year private, not-for-profit, coeducational college located in Dudley, Massachusetts. Founded in 1815 as Nichols Academy, the school has a long history in Massachusetts. Nichols’ mission is to transform today’s students into tomorrow’s leaders through a dynamic, career-focused business and professional education. Nichols offers twelve specializations in its business program, five majors in its liberal arts program, and an Educator Preparation Program for middle and secondary education. The College offers associate’s, bachelor’s, and master’s degrees as well as certificate programs. Wikipedia.
Clarke J.G.,Brown University |
Stein L.A.R.,University of Rhode Island |
Martin R.A.,Brown University |
Martin S.A.,University of Massachusetts Medical School |
And 6 more authors.
JAMA Internal Medicine | Year: 2013
Importance: Millions of Americans are forced to quit smoking as they enter tobacco-free prisons and jails, but most return to smoking within days of release. Interventions are needed to sustain tobacco abstinence after release from incarceration. Objective: To evaluate the extent to which the WISE intervention (Working Inside for Smoking Elimination), based on motivational interviewing (MI) and cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), decreases relapse to smoking after release from a smoke-free prison. Design: Participants were recruited approximately 8 weeks prior to their release from a smoke-free prison and randomized to 6 weekly sessions of either education videos (control) or the WISE intervention. Setting: A tobacco-free prison in the United States. Participants: A total of 262 inmates (35% female). Main Outcome Measure: Continued smoking abstinence was defined as 7-day point-prevalence abstinence validated by urine cotinine measurement. Results: At the 3-week follow-up, 25% of participants in the WISE intervention (31 of 122) and 7% of the control participants (9 of 125) continued to be tobacco abstinent (odds ratio [OR], 4.4; 95% CI, 2.0-9.7). In addition to the intervention, Hispanic ethnicity, a plan to remain abstinent, and being incarcerated for more than 6 months were all associated with increased likelihood of remaining abstinent. In the logistic regression analysis, participants randomized to the WISE intervention were 6.6 times more likely to remain tobacco abstinent at the 3-week follow up than those randomized to the control condition (95% CI, 2.5-17.0). Nonsmokers at the 3-week follow-up had an additional follow-up 3 months after release, and overall 12% of the participants in the WISE intervention (14 of 122) and 2% of the control participants (3 of 125) were tobacco free at 3 months, as confirmed by urine cotinine measurement (OR, 5.3; 95% CI, 1.4-23.8). Conclusions and Relevance: Forced tobacco abstinence alone during incarceration has little impact on postrelease smoking status. A behavioral intervention provided prior to release greatly improves cotinine-confirmed smoking cessation in the community. Trial Registration: clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01122589. ©2013 American Medical Association. All rights reserved.
Pelto M.,Nichols College |
Capps D.,Denali National Park and Preserve |
Clague J.J.,Simon Fraser University |
Pelto B.,University of Massachusetts Amherst
Hydrological Processes | Year: 2013
Brady Glacier is a large Alaskan tidewater glacier that is beginning a period of substantial retreat. Examination of 27 Landsat and MODIS images from the period 2003 to 2011 indicates that Brady Glacier has a mean equilibrium line altitude (ELA) of 745m and accumulation area ratio (AAR) of 0.40. The zero balance ELA is 600m and equilibrium AAR 0.65. The negative mass balance associated with the increased ELA has triggered thinning of 20-100m over most of the glacier below the ELA from 1948 to 2010. The thinning has caused substantial retreat of seven calving distributary termini of the glacier. Thinning and retreat have led to an increase in the width of and water depth at the calving fronts. In contrast, the main terminus has undergone only minor retreat since 1948. In 2010, several small proglacial lakes were evident at the terminus. By 2000, a permanent outlet river issuing from Trick Lake had developed along the western glacier margin. Initial lake development at the terminus combined with continued mass losses will lead to expansion of the lakes at the main terminus and retreat by calving. The glacier bed is likely below sea level along the main axis of Brady Glacier to the glacier divide. Retreat of the main terminus in the lake will likely lead to a rapid calving retreat similar to Bear, Excelsior, Norris, Portage and Yakutat glaciers. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Pelto M.S.,Nichols College
Cryosphere | Year: 2010
Temperate alpine glacier survival is dependent on the consistent presence of an accumulation zone. Frequent low accumulation area ratio values, below 30%, indicate the lack of a consistent accumulation zone, which leads to substantial thinning of the glacier in the accumulation zone. This thinning is often evident from substantial marginal recession, emergence of new rock outcrops and surface elevation decline in the accumulation zone. In the North Cascades 9 of the 12 examined glaciers exhibit characteristics of substantial accumulation zone thinning; marginal recession or emergent bedrock areas in the accumulation zone. The longitudinal profile thinning factor, f, which is a measure of the ratio of thinning in the accumulation zone to that at the terminus, is above 0.6 for all glaciers exhibiting accumulation zone thinning characteristics. The ratio of accumulation zone thinning to cumulative mass balance is above 0.5 for glacier experiencing substantial accumulation zone thinning. Without a consistent accumulation zone these glaciers are forecast not to survive the current climate or future additional warming. The results vary considerably with adjacent glaciers having a different survival forecast. This emphasizes the danger of extrapolating survival from one glacier to the next.
Pelto M.,Nichols College |
Kavanaugh J.,University of Alberta |
McNeil C.,U.S. Geological Survey
Earth System Science Data | Year: 2013
The annual surface mass balance records of the Lemon Creek Glacier and Taku Glacier observed by the Juneau Icefield Research Program are the longest continuous glacier annual mass balance data sets in North America. Annual surface mass balance (Ba) measured on Taku Glacier averaged +0.40 m a-1 from 1946-1985, and -0.08 m a-1 from 1986-2011. The recent annual mass balance decline has resulted in the cessation of the long-term thickening of the glacier. Mean Ba on Lemon Creek Glacier has declined from -0.30 m a-1 for the 1953-1985 period to -0.60 m a-1 during the 1986-2011 period. The cumulative change in annual surface mass balance is -26.6 m water equivalent, a 29 m of ice thinning over the 55 yr. Snow-pit measurements spanning the accumulation zone, and probing transects above the transient snow line (TSL) on Taku Glacier, indicate a consistent surface mass balance gradient from year to year. Observations of the rate of TSL rise on Lemon Creek Glacier and Taku Glacier indicate a comparatively consistent migration rate of 3.8 to 4.1 m d-1. The relationship between TSL on Lemon Creek Glacier and Taku Glacier to other Juneau Icefield glaciers (Norris, Mendenhall, Herbert, and Eagle) is strong, with correlations exceeding 0.82 in all cases.©Author(s) 2013.
Pelto M.,Nichols College
Cryosphere | Year: 2011
On Taku Glacier, Alaska a combination of field observations of snow water equivalent (SWE) from snowpits and probing in the vicinity of the transient snowline (TSL) are used to quantify the mass balance gradient. The balance gradient derived from the TSL and SWE measured in snowpits at 1000 m from 1998-2010 ranges from 2.6-3.8 mm m -1. Probing transects from 950 m-1100 m directly measure SWE and yield a slightly higher balance gradient of 3.3-3.8 mm m -1. The TSL on Taku Glacier is identified in MODIS and Landsat 4 and 7 Thematic Mapper images for 31 dates during the 2004-2010 period to assess the consistency of its rate of rise and reliability in assessing ablation for mass balance assessment. For example, in 2010, the TSL was 750 m on 28 July, 800 m on 5 August, 875 m on 14 August, 925 m on 30 August, and 975 m on 20 September. The mean observed probing balance gradient was 3.3 mm m -1, combined with the TSL rise of 3.7 m day -1 yields an ablation rate of 12.2 mm day -1 from mid-July to mid-Sept, 2010. The TSL rise in the region from 750-1100 m on Taku Glacier during eleven periods each covering more than 14 days during the ablation season indicates a mean TSL rise of 3.7 m day -1, the rate of rise is relatively consistent ranging from 3.1 to 4.4 m day -1. This rate is useful for ascertaining the final ELA if images or observations are not available near the end of the ablation season. The mean ablation from 750-1100 m during the July-September period determined from the TSL rise and the observed balance gradient is 11-13 mm day -1 on Taku Glacier during the 2004-2010 period. The potential for providing an estimate of bn from TSL observations late in the melt season from satellite images combined with the frequent availability of such images provides a means for efficient mass balance assessment in many years and on many glaciers. © 2011 Author(s).