Norwegian Institute of Bioeconomy Research NIBIO As


Norwegian Institute of Bioeconomy Research NIBIO As

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Gawronski S.W.,Warsaw University of Life Sciences | Gawronska H.,Warsaw University of Life Sciences | Lomnicki S.,Louisiana State University | Sbo A.,Norwegian Institute of Bioeconomy Research NIBIO As | Vangronsweld J.,Hasselt University
Advances in Botanical Research | Year: 2017

Air pollution has become a global problem and affects nearly all of us. Most of the pollution is of anthropogenic origin and therefore we are obliged to improve this situation. In solving this problem basically our only partners are plants with their enormous biologically active surface area. Plants themselves are also victims of air pollution but because they are sedentary they developed very efficient defence mechanisms, which can also be exploited to improve the humanosphere. For their life processes plants require intensive gas exchange, during which air contaminants are accumulated on leaf surfaces or absorbed into the tissues. Some of the pollutants are included by plants in their own metabolism while others are sequestered. In some plant species, the processes of removing pollutants from the air is conducted in a very efficient way and therefore they are used in the environmental friendly biotechnology called phytoremediation. For urban areas, outdoor phytoremediation is recommended while indoor phytoremediation can be applied in our homes and workplaces. Because in near future purifying outdoor air to protect human health and well-being does not look the most promising, an important and increasing role will be played by indoor phytoremediation. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd.

Chastagner G.A.,Washington State University | Riley K.,Washington State University | Coats K.P.,Washington State University | Eikemo H.,Norwegian Institute of Bioeconomy Research NIBIO As | Talgo V.,Norwegian Institute of Bioeconomy Research NIBIO As
Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research | Year: 2017

The impact of Delphinella shoot blight (Delphinella abietis) and Grovesiella canker (Grovesiella abieticola) on subalpine (Abies lasiocarpa) and corkbark fir (A. lasiocarpa var. arizonica) in a provenance trial in Idaho (ID) was evaluated in 2013. Both pathogens were previously reported from North America on fir species. D. abietis had been found on subalpine fir in USA, but not in ID, and G. abieticola on grand fir (Abies grandis) in ID, but not on subalpine or corkbark fir. D. abietis kills current-year needles and in severe cases buds and shoots, and G. abieticola results in dead shoots and branches and can eventually kill whole trees. Significant differences between provenances in susceptibility to D. abietis and G. abieticola were observed in the provenance trial in ID. In general, subalpine fir was more susceptible to both diseases than corkbark fir. In 2013, D. abietis was also found on subalpine fir in the Puget Sound area of Washington State and G. abieticola was seen on white fir (Abies concolor), but neither disease was detected in native stands of subalpine fir in Washington State. Morphological features of both fungi were described from samples collected in the provenance trial in ID in May 2016. © 2017 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group

Stensvand A.,Norwegian Institute of Bioeconomy Research NIBIO As | Stensvand A.,Norwegian University of Life Sciences | Borve J.,Norwegian Institute of Bioeconomy Research NIBIO As | Talgo V.,Norwegian Institute of Bioeconomy Research NIBIO As
Plant Disease | Year: 2017

Production of inoculum of Colletotrichum acutatum from both previously infected and overwintered tissue, as well as newly developed plant tissue of sour cherry (Prunus cerasus), was studied in southern Norway. Plant parts were sampled from commercial, private, or research orchards, and incubated for 2 to 14 days (time depended on tissue type) in saturated air at 20°C. In early spring, abundant sporulation was found on scales of overwintered buds and shoots. A mean of 35% infected buds in four cultivars was observed, with a maximum of 72% of the buds infected in one of the samples. Over 3 years, the seasonal production of overwintered fruit and peduncles of cv. Fanal infected the previous year was investigated. In all three years, the infected plant material was placed in the trees throughout the winter and the following growing season; in two of the years, fruit and peduncles were also placed on the ground in the autumn or the following spring. Old fruit and peduncles formed conidia throughout the season, with a peak in May and June. Spore numbers declined over the season, but the decline was more rapid for plant material on the ground than in the trees. On average over 2 years, 68.7, 24.0, or 7.3% of the inoculum came from fruit placed in the trees, placed on the ground in spring, or placed on the ground the preceding autumn, respectively. The number of fruit and peduncles attached to the trees in a planting of cv. Hardangerkirsebær was followed from February to July one year, and although there was a decline over time, fruit and/or their peduncles were still attached in substantial numbers in July, thus illustrating their potential as sources of inoculum. In observations over 2 years in a heavily infected orchard of cv. Stevnsbær, 75 and 47% of flowers and newly emerged fruit, respectively, were infected. Artificially inoculated flowers and fruit produced conidia until harvest, with a peak in mid-July. It may be concluded that previously infected and overwintered, as well as newly emerged tissue of sour cherry, may serve as sources of inoculum of C. acutatum throughout the growing season. © 2017 The American Phytopathological Society.

Cherubini F.,Norwegian University of Science and Technology | Vezhapparambu S.,Norwegian University of Science and Technology | Bogren W.,Norwegian Institute of Bioeconomy Research NIBIO As | Astrup R.,Norwegian Institute of Bioeconomy Research NIBIO As | Stromman A.H.,Norwegian University of Science and Technology
International Journal of Remote Sensing | Year: 2017

Land surface albedo is a key parameter of the Earth’s climate system. It has high variability in space, time, and land cover and it is among the most important variables in climate models. Extensive large-scale estimates can help model calibration and improvement to reduce uncertainties in quantifying the influence of surface albedo changes on the planetary radiation balance. Here, we use satellite retrievals of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) surface albedo (MCD43A3), high-resolution land-cover maps, and meteorological records to characterize climatological albedo variations in Norway across latitude, seasons, land-cover type (deciduous forests, coniferous forests, and cropland), and topography. We also investigate the net changes in surface albedo and surface air temperature through site pair analysis to mimic the effects of land-use transitions between forests and cropland and among different tree species. We find that surface albedo increases at increasing latitude in the snow season, and cropland and deciduous forests generally have higher albedo values than coniferous forests, but for few days in spring. Topography has a large influence on MODIS albedo retrievals, with values that can change up to 100% for the same land-cover class (e.g. spruce in winter) under varying slopes and aspect of the terrain. Cropland sites have surface air temperature higher than adjacent forested sites, and deciduous forests are slightly colder than adjacent coniferous forests. By integrating satellite measurements and high-resolution vegetation maps, our results provide a large semi-empirical basis that can assist future studies to better predict changes in a fundamental climate-regulating service such as surface albedo. © 2017 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.

Arukwe A.,Norwegian University of Science and Technology | Carteny C.C.,Norwegian University of Science and Technology | Eggen T.,Norwegian Institute of Bioeconomy Research NIBIO As
Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health - Part A: Current Issues | Year: 2016

There is limited knowledge on the toxicological, physiological, and molecular effects attributed to organophosphate (OP) compounds currently used as flame retardants or additives in consumer products. This study investigated the effects on oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation in juvenile Atlantic salmon liver and brain samples after exposure to two OP compounds, tris(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate (TBOEP) and tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP). In this study, groups of juvenile Atlantic salmon were exposed using a semistatic experimental protocol over a 7-d period to 3 different concentrations (0.04, 0.2, or 1 mg/L) of TBOEP and TCEP. When toxicological factors such as bioaccumulation and bioconcentration, and chemical structural characteristics and behavior, including absorption to solid materials, are considered, these concentrations represent environmentally relevant concentrations. The concentrations of the contaminants were derived from levels of their environmental occurrence. The expression of genes related to oxidative stress—glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione S-transferase (GST)—and to lipid peroxidation—peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR)—were determined using quantitative (real-time) polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The presence of PPAR proteins was also investigated using immunochemical methods. Levels of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) in liver were used as a measure of lipid peroxidation. Overall, our data show an increase in lipid peroxidation, and this was associated with an augmented expression of genes from the glutathione family of responses. Interestingly, PPAR expression in liver after exposure to TBOEP and TCEP was consistently decreased compared to controls, while expression in brain did not show a similar trend. The results suggest that OP contaminants may induce oxidative stress and thus production of reactive oxygen substances (ROS), and modulate lipid peroxidation processes in organisms. © 2016 Taylor & Francis.

PubMed | Norwegian University of Life Sciences and Norwegian Institute of Bioeconomy Research NIBIO As
Type: | Journal: Toxicology in vitro : an international journal published in association with BIBRA | Year: 2016

The marine toxin yessotoxin (YTX) can induce programmed cell death through both caspase-dependent and -independent pathways in various cellular systems. It appears to stimulate different forms of cellular stress causing instability among cell death mechanisms and making them overlap and cross-talk. Autophagy is one of the key pathways that can be stimulated by multiple forms of cellular stress which may determine cell survival or death. The present work evaluates a plausible link between ribotoxic stress and autophagic activity in BC3H1 cells treated with YTX. Such treatment produces massive cytoplasmic compartments as well as double-membrane vesicles termed autophagosomes which are typically observed in cells undergoing autophagy. The observed autophagosomes contain a large amount of ribosomes associated with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Western blotting analysis of Atg proteins and detection of the autophagic markers LC3-II and SQSTM1/p62 by flow cytometry and immunofluorescence verified autophagic activity during YTX-treatment. The present work supports the idea that autophagic activity upon YTX exposure may represent a response to ribotoxic stress.

PubMed | Norwegian Institute of Bioeconomy Research NIBIO As, Natural Resources Institute Finland LUKE and Finnish Environment Institute
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2016

Boreal forests contain 30% of the global forest carbon with the majority residing in soils. While challenging to quantify, soil carbon changes comprise a significant, and potentially increasing, part of the terrestrial carbon cycle. Thus, their estimation is important when designing forest-based climate change mitigation strategies and soil carbon change estimates are required for the reporting of greenhouse gas emissions. Organic matter decomposition varies with climate in complex nonlinear ways, rendering data aggregation nontrivial. Here, we explored the effects of temporal and spatial aggregation of climatic and litter input data on regional estimates of soil organic carbon stocks and changes for upland forests. We used the soil carbon and decomposition model Yasso07 with input from the Norwegian National Forest Inventory (11275 plots, 1960-2012). Estimates were produced at three spatial and three temporal scales. Results showed that a national level average soil carbon stock estimate varied by 10% depending on the applied spatial and temporal scale of aggregation. Higher stocks were found when applying plot-level input compared to country-level input and when long-term climate was used as compared to annual or 5-year mean values. A national level estimate for soil carbon change was similar across spatial scales, but was considerably (60-70%) lower when applying annual or 5-year mean climate compared to long-term mean climate reflecting the recent climatic changes in Norway. This was particularly evident for the forest-dominated districts in the southeastern and central parts of Norway and in the far north. We concluded that the sensitivity of model estimates to spatial aggregation will depend on the region of interest. Further, that using long-term climate averages during periods with strong climatic trends results in large differences in soil carbon estimates. The largest differences in this study were observed in central and northern regions with strongly increasing temperatures.

Gundersen V.,Norwegian Institute for Nature Research | Clarke N.,Norwegian Institute of Bioeconomy Research NIBIO As | Dramstad W.,Norwegian Institute of Bioeconomy Research NIBIO As | Fjellstad W.,Norwegian Institute of Bioeconomy Research NIBIO As
Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research | Year: 2016

Increased forest biomass production for bioenergy will have various consequences for landscape scenery, depending on both the landscape features present and the character and intensity of the silvicultural and harvesting methods used. We review forest preference research carried out in Finland, Sweden and Norway, and discuss these findings in relation to bioenergy production in boreal forest ecosystems. Some production methods and related operations incur negative reactions among the public, e.g. stump harvesting, dense plantation, soil preparation, road construction, the use of non-native species, and partly also harvest of current non-productive forests. Positive visual effects of bioenergy production tend to be linked to harvesting methods such as tending, thinning, selective logging and residue harvesting that enhance both stand and landscape openness, and visual and physical accessibility. Relatively large differences in findings between studies underline the importance of local contextual knowledge about landscape values and how people use the particular landscape where different forms of bioenergy production will occur. This scientific knowledge may be used to formulate guiding principles for visual management of boreal forest bioenergy landscapes. © 2015 Taylor & Francis.

Bele B.,Norwegian Institute of Bioeconomy Research NIBIO As | Johansen L.,Norwegian Institute of Bioeconomy Research NIBIO As | Norderhaug A.,Norwegian Institute of Bioeconomy Research NIBIO As
Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica A: Animal Sciences | Year: 2015

The objective of this pilot study was to compare resource use in a mountainous summer farming landscape between old and modern dairy cow breeds during a five-day period. The modern breed used a larger part of the landscape than the old breed, most likely due to differences in habitat patterns. The old breed group preferred semi-natural pastures, while the modern breed preferred overgrown semi-natural meadows, intermediate fen, intermediate wooded fen, and grass-rich sub-alpine birch woodland. Both breeds spent most time grazing grasses, but the modern breed showed a higher frequency of grasses and Vaccinium myrtillus in its diet, while the old breed showed a higher frequency of bushes and trees. The pilot study shows some trends supplementing and strengthening earlier results on how modern and traditional cattle breeds are differing in their impact on vegetation based on their use of space and their different diets. © 2015 Taylor & Francis.

Debella-Gilo M.,Norwegian Institute of Bioeconomy Research NIBIO As
International Journal of Remote Sensing | Year: 2016

A method of extracting bare-earth points from photogrammetric point clouds by partially using an existing lower resolution digital terrain model (DTM) is presented. The bare-earth points are extracted based on a threshold defined by local slope. The local slope is estimated from the lower resolution DTM. A gridded DTM is then interpolated from the extracted bare-earth points. Five different interpolation algorithms are implemented and evaluated to identify the most suitable interpolation method for such non-uniformly scattered data. The algorithm is tested on four test sites with varying topographic and ground cover characteristics. The results are evaluated against a reference DTM created using aerial laser scanning. The deviations of the extracted bare-earth points, and the interpolated DTM, from the reference DTM increases with increasing forest canopy density and terrain roughness. The DTM created by the method is significantly closer to the reference DTM than the lower resolution national DTM. The ANUDEM (Australian National University Digital Elevation Modelling) interpolation method is found to be the best performing interpolation method in terms of reducing the deviations and in terms of modelling the terrain realistically with minimum artefacts, although the differences among the interpolation methods are not considerably large. © 2016 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.

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