Shimozawa N.,Japan National Institute of Biomedical Innovation |
Nakamura S.,Shiga University of Medical Science |
Takahashi I.,NIBIO |
Hatori M.,Japan National Institute of Biomedical Innovation |
And 2 more authors.
Reproduction | Year: 2010
Several cell types from the African green monkey (Cercopithecus aethiops), such as red blood cells, primary culture cells from kidney, and the Vero cell line, are valuable sources for biomedical research and testing. Embryonic stem (ES) cells that are established from blastocysts have pluripotency to differentiate into these and other types of cells. We examined an in vitro culture system of zygotes produced by ICSI in African green monkeys and attempted to establish ES cells. Culturing with and without a mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF) cell monolayer resulted in the development of ICSI-derived zygotes to the blastocyst stage, while culturing with a buffalo rat liver cell monolayer yielded no development (3/14, 21.4% and 6/31, 19.4% vs 0/23, 0% respectively; P<0.05). One of the nine blastocysts, which had been one of the zygotes co-cultured with MEF cells, formed flat colonies consisting of cells with large nuclei, similar to other primate ES cell lines. The African green monkey ES (AgMES) cells expressed pluripotency markers, formed teratomas consisting of three embryonic germ layer tissues, and had a normal chromosome number. Furthermore, expression of the germ cell markers CD9 and DPPA3 (STELLA) was detected in the embryoid bodies, suggesting that AgMES cells might have the potential ability to differentiate into germ cells. The results suggested that MEF cells greatly affected the quality of the inner cell mass of the blastocysts. In addition, AgMES cells would be a precious resource for biomedical research such as other primate ES cell lines. © 2010 Society for Reproduction and Fertility. Source
According to the OECD, bioeconomics will represent the guiding principle of the European economy by 2055. This means that focus will be centred on the production and transformation of renewable biological resources from the agricultural, forestry and marine aquaculture sectors, and biomass will represent the major source of raw materials. If the experts are to be believed, we are in many ways on the brink of a new industrial revolution. The Norwegian government is currently developing a national strategy in this field, and researchers will now be carrying out fundamental analytical work aimed at promoting a higher level of sustainable innovation in Norway. "As part of the Biosmart project we'll be carrying out a futures analysis to identify stakeholders and others that will play a part in a bioeconomy, and to find out where the various resources will be found", says Magnar Forbord at the Norwegian Centre for Rural Research (NCRR). "If such ideas are to be profitable, we'll have to start thinking in terms of coordination and industrial clusters", adds Vibeke Stærkebye Nørstebø at SINTEF. "An incredible amount of marine and land-based resources currently remain unexploited because no-one is facilitating their development", she says. The idea of using resources derived from nature is nothing new to Norwegians, who have always exploited their natural resources. And this is set to continue. Exploitation will be smarter, and value will be added by means of refining processes and innovative applications. For example, the company Borregaard manufactured paper and paper products from timber for many years. In the course of a 20-year period, the company has succeeded in developing a range of high-value products from tree components that were previously regarded as waste. These products are currently making a significant contribution to the company's revenues. Another example is the company Biokraft Skogn, which was established in connection with Norske Skog's paper factory. The company manufactures liquid biogas from biological waste derived from the fish farming and forestry sectors. Among other things, the gas is used as fuel for public transport buses in Trondheim. "These examples could be among the first of many", says Forbord. "Biomass is made up of trees, grass and different varieties of seaweed, as well as foodstuffs such as fish, maize, meat and milk. What we currently regard as unwanted remains and waste can be transformed into new products which will subsequently contribute towards a new, biologically-based, industrial sector. Over the three-year project period, researchers from the NCRR, SINTEF, NIBIO, NTNU and Norut, as well as a number of international research institutes, will be working with a total of eleven topics or so-called 'work packages'. Furthermore, a series of scientific studies will be carried out looking into issues such as biotechnological transitions, legal rights, and the levels and scope at which wealth generation can be anticipated. The researchers are now starting a survey of 1500 companies in the agricultural, forestry, fisheries, industrial and bioscience sectors to find out what they envisage for themselves in the future. What do they currently us resources for, and what are their views on opportunities for change? When all the data have been collected, the researchers will hopefully have acquired a picture of where resources such as forests, maize and fisheries products are produced, where the people with the know-how are located, and what kind of products it might be possible to develop. With this as a springboard, it will be possible to develop projects and manufacturing processes that bring together economics, resource exploitation, levels of expertise and acceptance within the community as an integrated whole. "All bio-resources will be mapped and set in the context of the local population, transport networks, existing industries and suchlike", says Nørstebø. "This will provide a basis for identifying where it may be feasible to locate the industrial clusters", she says. "We'll need different sectors to work together, and this means breaking down the current barriers between the agricultural, forestry and aquaculture sectors. There are many questions", she says. "For example, where will the industries establish themselves, and what products should they focus on? What resources will supply the input and what will the products be? For example, will waste products be used at locations other than those at which they are produced? Where can we establish an integrated industrial cluster, and which companies should participate?" says Nørstebø. One of the work packages will address the issues of innovation, regulatory frameworks, and the policies the public authorities should adopt in terms of resource allocation and regulations. Another project will be a comparative study involving Norway, New Zealand and Germany. "This will be carried out in order to understand how societies change at national level", explains Forbord. "It's vital to look into what factors may act as incentives for change towards a bioeconomy," he says.
Dees M.W.,NIBIO |
Lysoe E.,NIBIO |
Alsheikh M.,Norwegian University of Life Sciences |
Davik J.,NIBIO |
Molecular Plant Pathology | Year: 2015
Summary: Common scab, caused by species from the bacterial genus Streptomyces, is an important disease of potato (Solanum tuberosum) crops worldwide. Early tuberization is a critical period for pathogen infection; hence, studies of host gene expression responses during this developmental stage can be important to expand our understanding of the infection process and to identify putative resistance genes. In an infection experiment with the highly susceptible potato cultivar Saturna and the relatively resistant cultivar Beate, transcription profiles were obtained by RNA sequencing at two developmental stages: the early hook stage and the early tuber formation stage. Our results indicate that 'Beate' mounts an early and sustained response to infection by S.turgidiscabies, whereas the defence response by 'Saturna' ceases before the early tuber formation stage. Most pronounced were the putative candidate defence-associated genes uniquely expressed in 'Beate'. We observed an increase in alternative splicing on pathogen infection at the early hook stage for both cultivars. A significant down-regulation of genes involved in the highly energy-demanding process of ribosome biogenesis was observed for the infected 'Beate' plants at the early hook stage, which may indicate an allocation of resources that favours the expression of defence-related genes. Molecular Plant Pathology © 2015 BSPP and John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Source