Faisalābād, Pakistan
Faisalābād, Pakistan
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Khan S.M.,Bahauddin Zakariya University | Nawaz A.,Bahauddin Zakariya University | Malik W.,Bahauddin Zakariya University | Javed N.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | And 6 more authors.
African Journal of Biotechnology | Year: 2011

Mushrooms have medicinal as well as nutritive value and extensively used as human food from the time immortal. In order to determine the genetic diversity among Pleurotus species of mushroom using morphological and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers, about seven different species were collected. Five species, naming Pleurotus platypus (P-6), Pleurotus flabelatus (P-7), Pleurotus florida (P-17), Pleurotus ostreatus (P-19) and Pleurotus sajor-caju (P-56) were from Canada and two Pleurotus warm-stram (P-9) and Pleurotus eryngii (P-16) from Philpines. Seven different morphological traits that is, mycelial growth (mm), cap diameter (cm), total yield (kg), moisture contents (%), ash contents (%), nitrogen contents (%) and protein content (%) were recorded. The dendrogram based on morphological data divided seven species in cluster 'A' and 'B' having four and three species, respectively. The dendrogram based on RAPD analysis generated 3 clusters 'A', 'B' and 'C'. Out of 14 random primers, the maximum polymorphism was observed by primers OPL3 (72.70%) and OPL11 (70%). The two species P-56 and P-17 were observed to be most similar having value 86% and constituting a cluster 'A'. The present work revealed that, morphological and RAPD markers showed different pattern of genetic diversity among different Pleurotus species. © 2011 Academic Journals.

Khan S.A.,Kohat University of Science and Technology | Ali H.,Quid i Azam University | Ihsan A.,NIBGE | Sabir N.,Government College University at Faisalabad
Colloid Journal | Year: 2015

The aim of the study was to control the size of gelatin nanoparticles under varied conditions of nanoprecipitation. The gelatin concentration in the solvent phase and different combination of nonsolvents was used to see influence on the size, polydispersity and recovery yield of produced nanoparticles. The size of the nanoparticles was determined by dynamic light scattering. The yield of gelatin nanoparticles after freezedrying was found gravimetrically. The morphology of nanoparticles was studied by scanning electron microscopy. The results suggest that the size of nanoparticles can be tuned within a range 250–350 nm with low polydispersity index because of the inhibition of particle aggregation during crosslinking. The produced nanoparticles are of spherical shape with a smooth surface. We found that the recovery yield was also dependent on the gelatin concentration in the solvent phase. © 2015, Pleiades Publishing, Ltd.

Jabeen M.,The University of Faisalabad | Ali S.,Quaid-i-Azam University | Shahzadi S.,The University of Faisalabad | Shahid M.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | And 3 more authors.
Journal of the Iranian Chemical Society | Year: 2012

Homobimetallic complexes with oxygen and sulphur donor ligand have been synthesized at room temperature under stirring conditions using R 2SnCl 2 (R = Me, n-Bu) and R 3SnCl (R = Me, n-Bu, Ph) in 1:1 molar ratio. The synthesized complexes have been characterized by elemental analysis, IR and multinuclear NMR ( 1H, 13C) spectroscopy. These complexes have also been screened for their biological activities. IR data show that the ligand acts in a bidentate manner and exhibits trigonal bipyramidal geometry in solid state which is also confirmed by semi-empirical study. NMR data show that reported complexes exhibit tetrahedral geometry in solution. Results of antimicrobial screening activities indicated that complexes (6) and (7) are very effective antibacterial and antifungal agents, respectively, and they might indeed be a potential source of antimicrobial agents, while the complex (3) exhibits significant free radical scavenging ability with lower IC 50 value of 99.47 ± 1.2 μg/mL. Results of cytotoxicity/haemolytic activity showed the significant value of % haemolysis for complex (7) (18.101 ± 2.3), while complex (4) was found to be least cytotoxic (5.733 ± 1.0). Only a few colonies are observed in mutagenicity testing by Ames test. © 2012 Iranian Chemical Society.

Jabbar S.,The University of Faisalabad | Shahzadi I.,The University of Faisalabad | Rehman R.,The University of Faisalabad | Iqbal H.,The University of Faisalabad | And 10 more authors.
Journal of Coordination Chemistry | Year: 2012

Cyclohexylcarbamodithioic acid has been synthesized by the reaction of cyclohexylamine with carbon disulfide at room temperature. Its complexes have been synthesized by the reaction of cyclohexylcarbamodithioic acid with organotin(IV) chlorides in 1 : 1/1 : 2 molar ratio. The ligand and complexes have been characterized by elemental analysis, infrared (IR), and multinuclear ( 1H, 13C, and 119Sn) NMR spectroscopy. Elemental data show good agreement between calculated and found values of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and sulfur. IR data show that the ligand is bidentate and complexes exhibit a five-coordinate geometry in the solid state, which is also confirmed by semi-empirical studies. NMR data show that the complexes exhibit tetrahedral geometry in solution state. The ligand and its complexes were screened for their in vitro mutagenic, antimicrobial, MIC, antioxidant activities, and cytotoxicity. Biological screening data demonstrate that complexes show significant activity against various bacterial and fungal strains and are good antioxidants. The cytotoxicity data show positive lethality for complexes as compared to ligand and can play a very significant role in drug development. © 2012 Taylor & Francis.

Tabassam N.,The University of Faisalabad | Ali S.,Quaid-i-Azam University | Shahzadi S.,The University of Faisalabad | Shahid M.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | And 4 more authors.
Russian Journal of General Chemistry | Year: 2013

Seven different organotin(IV) complexes have been synthesized by reacting 2-ethylanilinocarbonylpropenoic acid with R2SnCl2/R 3SnCl under reflux conditions. The organotin(IV) complexes along with ligand have been characterized by different techniques including elemental analysis, FT-IR and multinuclear NMR (1H and 13C). IR data show that complexation occurs through -COO site and the ligand is bidentate which is also confirmed by the semi-empirical quantum-mechanical study. 1H and 13C NMR data confirm the tetrahedral geometry of complexes in solution. The complexes as well as the ligand were also checked for various © 2013 Pleiades Publishing, Ltd.

Rafique N.,Jammu University | Awan M.S.,Jammu University | Rathore H.A.,Jammu University | Gardezi D.A.,Jammu University | And 4 more authors.
African Journal of Biotechnology | Year: 2010

A moderately thermotolerant bacterial strain was isolated from the hot spring of Tatta Pani (AJ and K) Pakistan and was designated as Bacillus subtilis strain GQ 301542 after biochemical, morphological and 16S rDNA sequence analysis. This strain and its catabolite repression resistant mutant CRM197 were utilized for the study of different production kinetic parameters of both endoglucanase and cellobiohydrolase. Time course study on one monomeric (glucose), one dimeric (maltose) and two polymeric substrates (α-cellulose and wheat straw) was carried out at different time intervals (4 - 28 h, after each 4 h) for determining the maximum enzyme productivity on a particular substrate. Maximum rate of endoglucanase production by the mutant (53.1 IU/L/h) was significantly (P = 0.0007) higher than that (23.7 IU/L/h of the parental organism following their growth on glucose in Dubos salts medium while the optimum product yields (Y p/s) was calculated as 69.0 IU/g S (parent) and 82.3 IU/g S (mutant) for cellobiohydrolase production. Deoxy-D-glucose resistant mutant was significantly (p = 0.03 to 0.0007) improved over its parental strain with respect to some substrate consumption and all product formation parameters and can easily degrade cellulosic biomass for production of fermentable carbohydrates. © 2010 Academic Journals.

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