Hanoi, Vietnam
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Takemae N.,Thailand Japan Zoonotic Diseases Collaboration Center | Takemae N.,Japan National Agriculture and Food Research Organization | Ruttanapumma R.,NIAH | Parchariyanon S.,NIAH | And 19 more authors.
Journal of General Virology | Year: 2010

Alterations of the receptor-binding properties of swine influenza A viruses (SIVs) during their isolation in embryonated chicken eggs have not been well studied. In this study, the receptor-binding properties of classical H1 SIVs isolated solely in eggs or Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells were examined. Sequencing analysis revealed substitutions of D190V/N or D225G in the haemagglutinin (HA) proteins in egg isolates, whereas MDCK isolates retained HA genes identical to those of the original viruses present in the clinical samples. Egg isolates with substitution of either D190V/N or D225G had increased haemagglutinating activity for mouse and sheep erythrocytes, but reduced activity for rabbit erythrocytes. Additionally, egg isolates with D225G had increased haemagglutination activity for chicken erythrocytes. A direct binding assay using a sialyl glycopolymer that possessed either a 5-N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac) α2,6galactose (Gal) or a Neu5Acα2,3Gal linkage revealed that the egg isolates used in this study showed higher binding activity to the Neu5Acα2,3Gal receptor than MDCK isolates. Increased binding activity of the egg isolates to the Neu5Acα2,3Gal receptor was also confirmed by haemagglutination assay with resialylated chicken erythrocytes by Galβ1,3/4GlcNAcα2,3-sialyltransferase. These observations were reinforced by flow-cytometric and N-glycan analyses of the erythrocytes. The α2,3-linked sialic acids were expressed predominantly on the surface of mouse and sheep erythrocytes. Chicken erythrocytes expressed Neu5Acα2,3Gal more abundantly than Neu5Acα2,6Gal, and rabbit erythrocytes expressed both 5-N-glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc) α2,6Gal and Neu5Acα2,6Gal. Our results demonstrate clearly that classical H1 SIVs undergo alterations in receptor-binding activity associated with an amino acid substitution in the HA protein during isolation and propagation in embryonated chicken eggs. © 2010 SGM.

Berthouly C.,CIRAD - Agricultural Research for Development | Berthouly C.,Agro ParisTech | Berthouly C.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Maillard J.C.,CIRAD - Agricultural Research for Development | And 14 more authors.
BMC Genetics | Year: 2010

Background: During the last decades, there has been an acceleration of the loss of domestic animal biodiversity. For conservation purposes, the genetic diversity of the H'Mong cattle, an indigenous local breed was studied. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) of the SRY gene and mtDNA D-Loop sequence were analysed to clarify the origin of the breed. The genetic diversity was assessed through genetic data with twenty-five FAO microsatellites, and morphometric data with five body measurements from 408 animals sampled from eight districts of the Ha Giang province.Results: The SRY genes were all of the zebu type. Among the 27 mtDNA haplotypes, 12 haplotypes were of the taurine type and the remaining 15 of the zebu type. This indicates female taurine introgression in the zebu H'Mong. The observed and expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.616 to 0.673 and from 0.681 to 0.729 respectively according to district, with low genetic differentiation (FST= 0.0076). Multivariate analysis on morphometric and genetic data shows a separation of districts into two groups following a south-west/north-east cline and admixture analysis confirmed the two clusters, but no differentiation of taurine introgression between clusters was observed. A possible admixture with the Yellow cattle breed from a neighbouring province was suggested through genetic data and householder interviews.Conclusions: In this study we demonstrate the interest of fine-scale sampling for the study of genetic structure of local breeds. Such a study allows avoiding erroneous conservation policies and on the contrary, proposes measures for conserving and limiting crossbreeding between the H'Mong and the Yellow cattle breeds. © 2010 Berthouly et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Berthouly-Salazar C.,CIRAD - Agricultural Research for Development | Rognon X.,Agro ParisTech | Rognon X.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Nhu Van T.,NIAH | And 9 more authors.
BMC Genetics | Year: 2010

Background: Chickens represent an important animal genetic resource and the conservation of local breeds is an issue for the preservation of this resource. The genetic diversity of a breed is mainly evaluated through its nuclear diversity. However, nuclear genetic diversity does not provide the same information as mitochondrial genetic diversity. For the species Gallus gallus, at least 8 maternal lineages have been identified. While breeds distributed westward from the Indian subcontinent usually share haplotypes from 1 to 2 haplogroups, Southeast Asian breeds exhibit all the haplogroups. The Vietnamese Ha Giang (HG) chicken has been shown to exhibit a very high nuclear diversity but also important rates of admixture with wild relatives. Its geographical position, within one of the chicken domestication centres ranging from Thailand to the Chinese Yunnan province, increases the probability of observing a very high genetic diversity for maternal lineages, and in a way, improving our understanding of the chicken domestication process.Results: A total of 106 sequences from Vietnamese HG chickens were first compared to the sequences of published Chinese breeds. The 25 haplotypes observed in the Vietnamese HG population belonged to six previously published haplogroups which are: A, B, C, D, F and G. On average, breeds from the Chinese Yunnan province carried haplotypes from 4.3 haplogroups. For the HG population, haplogroup diversity is found at both the province and the village level (0.69).The AMOVA results show that genetic diversity occurred within the breeds rather than between breeds or provinces. Regarding the global structure of the mtDNA diversity per population, a characteristic of the HG population was the occurrence of similar pattern distribution as compared to G. gallus spadiceus. However, there was no geographical evidence of gene flow between wild and domestic populations as observed when microsatellites were used.Conclusions: In contrast to other chicken populations, the HG chicken population showed very high genetic diversity at both the nuclear and mitochondrial levels. Due to its past and recent history, this population accumulates a specific and rich gene pool highlighting its interest and the need for conservation. © 2010 Berthouly-Salazar et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Berthouly C.,CIRAD - Agricultural Research for Development | Berthouly C.,Agro ParisTech | Berthouly C.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Rognon X.,Agro ParisTech | And 10 more authors.
Journal of Animal Breeding and Genetics | Year: 2010

The water buffalo plays a key role in the socio-economy of South-East Asia as it is the main draught power for paddy rice cultivation. While in the Indian subcontinent the water buffalo is the riverine type, in South-East Asia the majority of buffaloes are of the swamp type. In the poor remote northern province of Ha Giang in Vietnam, improvement of the swamp buffalo breed may be one of the best ways to increase sustainability of farming systems. Therefore, analysis of the genetic structure of the province buffalo population is a prerequisite to any conservation or improvement project. A total of 1122 animals were described for 11 body and horn measurements for morphometric characterization. From this sample set, 744 animals were genotyped for 17 microsatellite markers. Also 17 animals from southern provinces of Vietnam were genotyped as a comparative sample. The results showed that genetic diversity as well as inbreeding value in the Ha Giang was high. The FST values within the province and across Vietnam were low indicating that most of the population variation is explained by individual variability. Bayesian clustering analysis did not highlight the presence of subdivided populations. These results are useful for the implementation of a conservation and improvement strategy of the swamp buffalo in order to guarantee the householders' needs for sustainability of the farming system in the Ha Giang province. © 2009 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

van Sao N.,Goat and Rabbit Research Center | Mui N.T.,NIAH | van Binh,NIAH
Livestock Research for Rural Development | Year: 2010

Three experiments were carried out at the Goat and Rabbit Research Centre and on farms in Bavi, Ha Tay province of North Vietnam. In the first experiment, biomass production of Tithonia diversifolia (Wild Sunflower) and the effect on soil fertility was studied in a complete random plot design with three treatments: (TD) Tithonia in pure stand; (GG) Guinea grass in pure stand; and TD-GG Association of Tithonia and guinea grass. Cattle manure (10 tonnes/ha/year) was supplied for all plots. Soil fertility changes were monitored with the bio-test method by using maize plants grown in the soil taken from experimental plots before and at the end of the trial. The second experiment was a 3*3 Latin square design to determine apparent digestibility and nitrogen retention when goats were fed Tithonia as sole feed compared with foliage of Stylosanthes and Jackfruit. In the third experiment, feed intake was recorded in a trial with 5 treatments: (TD) Tithonia as sole feed fed ad libitum; (TD-GG) Tithonia fed ad libitum + 1.5% of LW (DM basis) of guinea grass; (TD-GG-JA) Tithonia fed ad libitum + 1.5% LW of guinea grass + 1% LW of Jackfruit foliage, (TD-GG-BL); Tithonia fed ad libitum + 1.5% LW of guinea grass + 1% LW of Banana leaf; and (TD-GG-CA) Tithonia fed ad libitum + 1.5% LW of guinea grass + 1% LW of Caliandra foliage. After 12 months growth, the edible biomass yield of Tithonia was 172 tonnes/ha/year in fresh form equal to 25 tonnes DM with 6 tonnes crude protein (CP)/ha/year when Tithonia was planted in pure stand. Soil fertility was improved according to maize biomass yield grown in the soil taken from plots planted with Tithonia. Foliage of Tithonia contained 23.9% CP (DM basis) and had low NDF content (38.4%). Apparent digestibility coefficients of DM and CP were 53.7% and 67.8%, respectively, higher than for Jackfruit foliage (51.52% and 38.37%) and Stylosanthes (51.0% and 62.3%). However, nitrogen retention of goats when fed Tithonia as sole feed was lower than that obtained with Jack fruit foliage and Stylosanthes. Urine N was 15.8 g/day on Tithonia compared with 5.7 and 7.2 on Jackfruit and Stylo, indicating that a high proportion of the feed N was degraded in the rumen and excreted in the urine. It is concluded that Tithonia plants have high biomass yield per unit of land and could improve soil fertility. Foliage of Tithonia is well consumed by goats but needs appropriate supplementation for the expression of its potential nutritive value.

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