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Niagara Falls, Canada

Frommann K.,Research and Innovation Niagara College | Divalentino E.,Niagara College
Transactions of the Canadian Society for Mechanical Engineering | Year: 2012

The accepted method of calculating GHG emissions from the consumption of grid-purchased electricity, otherwise known as scope two emissions, is limited to one emission factor that represents an annual average. The emission intensities of large-scale electrical grids change by the hour, therefore requiring hourly precision in emission calculations for optimal accuracy. For the power market of Ontario, Christian Gordon and Alan Fung of Ryerson University have developed a method of generating hourly emission factors to better measure the impact of renewable technologies. Although calculations using this method demonstrate improvement from the e-grid average, results can be further improved through the use of facility-specific emission factors and consistent units of measurement. This paper recommends a modified methodology that yields more accurate hourly emission calculations and provides opportunity in quantifying scope two emissions with a high degree of precision. Source


Upshaw A.U.,Niagara College | Wong T.S.,University of Western Ontario | Bandegan A.,University of Western Ontario | Lemon P.W.R.,University of Western Ontario
International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism | Year: 2016

Postexercise chocolate milk ingestion has been shown to enhance both glycogen resynthesis and subsequent exercise performance. To assess whether nondairy chocolate beverage ingestion post-glycogen-lowering exercise can enhance 20-km cycling time trial performance 4 hr later, eight healthy trained male cyclists (21.8 ± 2.3y, VO2max = 61.2 ± 1.4 ml·kg-1·min-1; M ± SD) completed a series of intense cycling intervals designed to lower muscle glycogen (Jentjens & Jeukendrup, 2003) followed by 4 hr of recovery and a subsequent 20-km cycling time trial. During the first 2 hr of recovery, participants ingested chocolate dairy milk (DAIRYCHOC), chocolate soy beverage (SOYCHOC), chocolate hemp beverage (HEMPCHOC), low-fat dairy milk (MILK), or a low-energy artificially sweetened, flavored beverage (PLACEBO) at 30-min intervals in a double-blind, counterbalanced repeated-measures design. All drinks, except the PLACEBO (247 kJ) were isoenergetic (2,107 kJ), and all chocolate-flavored drinks provided 1-g CHO·kg body mass-1·h-1. Fluid intake across treatments was equalized (2,262 ± 148 ml) by ingesting appropriate quantities of water based on drink intake. The CHO:PRO ratio was 4:1, 1.5:1, 4:1, and 6:1 for DAIRYCHOC, MILK, SOYCHOC, and HEMPCHOC, respectively. One-way analysis of variance with repeated measures showed time trial performance (DAIRYCHOC = 34.58 ± 2.5 min, SOYCHOC = 34.83 ± 2.2 min, HEMPCHOC = 34.88 ± 1.1 min, MILK = 34.47 ± 1.7 min) was enhanced similarly vs PLACEBO (37.85 ± 2.1) for all treatments (p = .019) These data suggest that postexercise macronutrient and total energy intake are more important for same-day 20-km cycling time trial performance after glycogen-lowering exercise than protein type or protein-to-carbohydrate ratio. © 2016 Human Kinetics, Inc. Source


Bodnar A.L.,Iowa State University | Bodnar A.L.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Proulx A.K.,Iowa State University | Proulx A.K.,Niagara College | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2013

Maize (Zea mays) is an important staple crop in many parts of the world but has low iron bioavailability, in part due to its high phytate content. Hemoglobin is a form of iron that is highly bioavailable, and its bioavailability is not inhibited by phytate. It was hypothesized that maize hemoglobin is a highly bioavailable iron source and that biofortification of maize with iron can be accomplished by overexpression of maize globin in the endosperm. Maize was transformed with a gene construct encoding a translational fusion of maize globin and green fluorescent protein under transcriptional control of the maize 27 kDa γ-zein promoter. Iron bioavailability of maize hemoglobin produced in Escherichia coli and of stably transformed seeds expressing the maize globin-GFP fusion was determined using an in vitro Caco-2 cell culture model. Maize flour fortified with maize hemoglobin was found to have iron bioavailability that is not significantly different from that of flour fortified with ferrous sulfate or bovine hemoglobin but is significantly higher than unfortified flour. Transformed maize grain expressing maize globin was found to have iron bioavailability similar to that of untransformed seeds. These results suggest that maize globin produced in E. coli may be an effective iron fortificant, but overexpressing maize globin in maize endosperm may require a different strategy to increase bioavailable iron content in maize. © 2013 American Chemical Society. Source


Jayawardena C.,Chandi J. Associates Consulting | McMillan D.,Carlson Rezidor Hotel Group | Pantin D.,Silver Peacock Group | Taller M.,Algonquin College | Willie P.,Niagara College
Worldwide Hospitality and Tourism Themes | Year: 2013

Purpose: This paper aims to analyse the evolution, current challenges, best practices, and trends in the international hotel industry. Design/methodology/approach: The foundation for this paper was laid during a well-attended Worldwide Hospitality and Tourism Themes (WHATT) roundtable discussion between industry leaders and hospitality educators in May 2012. International hoteliering is discussed in the context of the theme for the 2012 Canadian WHATT roundtable and the strategic question: "What innovations are needed in the Canadian hotel industry and how might they be implemented to secure the industry's future?" Findings: Through analysis of past and present trends, the paper predicts that current challenges such as labour shortages will continue to affect the industry in the near future. Practical implications: In the conclusion the paper advocates innovative approaches for hospitality education, and states that Canada should learn from international trends and become more innovative and competitive if it is to secure the industry's future. Originality/value: The paper draws on the vast experience in international hotel management of the co-authors. As the team of authors represents both industry and academia, this paper will be of immense value to students, educators, researchers as well as managers. The co-authors include a former president of the world's largest professional association for hotel managers (HCIMA/Institute of Hospitality) and a former CEO of the world's largest trade association for hotel managers (International Hotel and Restaurant Association). © Emerald Group Publishing Limited. Source


Jayawardena C.,Chandi J. Associates Consulting | Horsfield A.,The Lord Elgin Hotel | Gellatly J.,George Brown College | Willie P.,Niagara College | Sovani A.,Algonquin College
Worldwide Hospitality and Tourism Themes | Year: 2013

Purpose: This paper aims to analyse literature relevant to four imperative aspects of hotel marketing, to discuss current challenges and opportunities, and to make suggestions for marketing Canadian hotels in the future. Design/methodology/approach: The foundation for this paper was laid during a well-attended Worldwide Hospitality and Tourism Themes (WHATT) roundtable discussion between industry leaders and hospitality educators in May 2012. The subject of marketing hotels is discussed in the context of the theme for the 2012 Canadian WHATT roundtable and the strategic question: "What innovations are needed in the Canadian hotel industry and how might they be implemented to secure the industry's future?". Findings: The paper identifies innovation as the main ingredient for success in marketing Canadian hotels in the future. In the conclusion suggestions for strategic shifts in hotel marketing and tactics, which would help Canadian hoteliers in marketing their hotels in the future, are identified. Practical implications: The paper reviews past concepts and industry practices as well as current practices to identify practical, effective and innovative approaches for the future. Originality/value: As the team of authors represents both the industry and academia, this paper will be of immense value to students, educators, and researchers, as well as industry leaders. The paper captures significant strategy shifts, lists the top integrated digital awareness systems, and presents a new model in innovative hotel pricing empowerment for hotels. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited. Source

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