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Cambridge, United Kingdom

Leflon M.,Cetiom | Husken A.,Julius Kuhn Institute | Kightley S.,NIAB | Pinochet X.,Cetiom
Plant Breeding | Year: 2011

With 3 figures and 4 tables At the field scale, pollen flow between adjacent fields limits the potential of coexistence of different farming production systems, especially for allogamous crops like oilseed rape whose pollen is disseminated by insects or wind. In this article, we examine the efficiency of cleistogamy in an oilseed rape line which showed between 90% and 99% of flowers closed at flowering, in limiting deposition of allo-pollen. Five trials were established, consisting of two adjacent blocks, the one sown with the cleistogamous low-erucic acid line and the other with a classically flowering high-erucic acid line, used as source of contaminating pollen, itself artificially contaminated with a 1% mix of cleistogamous plants. Analyses showed that cross-fertilization rates of cleistogamous plants, estimated through erucic acid contents of seeds collected from them, were lower than those generally observed in oilseed rape: it averaged 10.1% on isolated plants within the erucic blocks, reached to the maximum 14% immediately adjacent to the erucic block, then decreased exponentially at higher distances. Cleistogamy appeared therefore as one imperfect means of gene bio-containment. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH. Source


Buckingham D.L.,Royal Society for the Protection of Birds | Bentley S.,NIAB | Dodd S.,Royal Society for the Protection of Birds | Peach W.J.,Royal Society for the Protection of Birds
Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment | Year: 2011

We experimentally managed silage fields to provide abundant seed as a conservation measure for wintering birds. Buntings Emberiza strongly selected seeded ryegrass plots, where they fed predominantly on ryegrass Lolium seed and maintained body weights similar to those on high-quality arable wintering habitats. Bunting usage of seeded plots was positively related to Lolium seedhead density, peaking at October seedhead densities above 400seedheadsm -2. Perennial ryegrass Lolium perenne swards could only provide one early silage crop (cut by mid-late May) if sufficient seed was to be produced, while Italian ryegrass Lolium multiflorum was able to provide two silage cuts and a large seed crop. Mats of lodged seedheads ensured the continuity of seed provision, resulting in high bird usage during late winter, when most seed has been depleted from existing wild bird seed measures. The estimated cost of the measure was comparable to small-plot measures in current English agri-environment schemes. A rotational seeded ryegrass measure should constitute an effective, affordable and widely applicable conservation measure for seed-eating farmland birds in grassland-dominated farmland across NW Europe. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. Source


Hayot Carbonero C.,University of Manchester | Hayot Carbonero C.,Urbana University | Carbonero F.,University of Warwick | Carbonero F.,Urbana University | And 2 more authors.
Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution | Year: 2013

Sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia Scop.) is a perennial forage legume that possesses beneficial properties in the context of sustainable agriculture. A germplasm collection of O. viciifolia was assembled from many geographic regions, as well as a collection of Onobrychis species that might be crossed with O. viciifolia to improve its biological and agronomic properties. The objective of the present study was to obtain cytological information for a broad range of O. viciifolia varieties and related species, in order to confirm and extend previous findings. The study set was 143 accessions of O. viciifolia as well as 34 accessions of 17 other species from the Onobrychis genus. Three of the O. viciifolia accessions were diploid (2n = 2x = 14) and the remainder tetraploid (2n = 4x = 28). Chromosomes were <5 μm in length. Among the other Onobrychis species, roughly half were found to be diploid and the other half tetraploid, with two species, O. arenaria (Kit.) DC. and O. alba subsp. laconica (Orph. ex Boiss.) Hayek, including a mixture of diploid and tetraploid accessions. The basic number of chromosomes was seven, except for O. aequidentata (Sm.) d'Urv. and O. crista-galli Lam., where it was eight. The 2C value for O. viciifolia was estimated at 2.5 pg. These cytological data will be valuable as part of a pre-breeding programme aimed at the eventual production of improved O. viciifolia varieties for use in sustainable agriculture. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht. Source


Hayot Carbonero C.,University of Manchester | Hayot Carbonero C.,Urbana University | Carbonero F.,Urbana University | Smith L.M.J.,NIAB | Brown T.A.,University of Manchester
Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution | Year: 2012

Sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia Scop.) is a perennial forage legume that possesses beneficial properties in the context of sustainable agriculture. In order to initiate a pre-breeding programme, we have assembled a germplasm collection of O. viciifolia from many geographic regions, as well as a collection of Onobrychis species that might be crossed with O. viciifolia to improve its biological and agronomic properties. The objective of this study was to obtain DNA sequences from a representative sample of these accessions in order to characterise their genetic diversity and to assess the robustness of the Onobrychis taxonomy. Because of potential problems with copurification of tannins and polyphenols from Onobrychis leaf tissue, three methods for DNA extraction were assessed and the most appropriate one identified. DNA sequences were obtained for the nuclear internal transcribed spacer region and the trnH-psbA and trnT-trnL intergenic spacers of the chloroplast genome. Neighbour joining trees were constructed and accessions were assigned to operational taxonomic units. The results indicated that there is substantial genetic diversity among Onobrychis species. Redundancies in species nomenclature were identified, as well as possible overlap between some of the sections into which the Onobrychis genus has been divided. A genetic distinction was apparent between O. viciifolia accessions from western Europe and those from eastern Europe and Asia, reflecting a similar division based on agronomic properties. Recognition of these different though related germplasms will be valuable in the design of breeding programmes for the rational improvement of sainfoin as a forage crop for sustainable agriculture. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media B.V. Source


Akhtar N.,NIAB | Tufail M.,Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences
International Journal of Environmental Research | Year: 2011

Wheat is a staple food in Pakistan. Production of wheat is increased with extensive use of phosphate based fertilizers in agricultural fields. Activity mass concentration of primordial radionuclides due to use of phosphate fertilizers in soil enhances the external gamma dose and due to the consumption of wheat food grown on these soils also increases the internal dose. Different types of soil, including saline and normal soil in the districts of Lahore and Faisalabad in Punjab were selected for this study. The technique of gamma ray spectroscopy was used for the determination of s levels of radioactivity 226Ra, 232Th, 40K, and the nuclear fallout 137Cs in soil, wheat and wheat made products. Radioactivity in flour, chapatti, bread, nan and rusk was determined. Maximum activity was found in the chapatti sample of highly fertilized soil. Calculations were made for the determination of external absorbed dose in air from soil and internal absorbed dose in human body due to the consumption of wheat and wheat products. The average value of wheat consumption of 140 kg was used in the estimation of ingestion dose. The value of the ingestion dose due to highly fertilized soil was 206.1 μSv/Yr, while the total ingestion dose due to unfertilized farm's food was 146.3 μSv/Yr. Risk assessment to man due to ingestion of wheat was also calculated. The cancer risk assessment due to ingestion of wheat food grown on highly fertilized soils comes as additional sufferings of 14 persons in cancer per million. Source

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