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Jing R.,University of Dundee | Jing R.,University of Potsdam | Ambrose M.A.,John Innes Center | Knox M.R.,John Innes Center | And 15 more authors.
Theoretical and Applied Genetics | Year: 2012

The distinctness of, and overlap between, pea genotypes held in several Pisum germplasm collections has been used to determine their relatedness and to test previous ideas about the genetic diversity of Pisum. Our characterisation of genetic diversity among 4,538 Pisum accessions held in 7 European Genebanks has identified sources of novel genetic variation, and both reinforces and refines previous interpretations of the overall structure of genetic diversity in Pisum. Molecular marker analysis was based upon the presence/absence of polymorphism of retrotransposon insertions scored by a high-throughput microarray and SSAP approaches. We conclude that the diversity of Pisum constitutes a broad continuum, with graded differentiation into sub-populations which display various degrees of distinctness. The most distinct genetic groups correspond to the named taxa while the cultivars and landraces of Pisum sativum can be divided into two broad types, one of which is strongly enriched for modern cultivars. The addition of germplasm sets from six European Genebanks, chosen to represent high diversity, to a single collection previously studied with these markers resulted in modest additions to the overall diversity observed, suggesting that the great majority of the total genetic diversity collected for the Pisum genus has now been described. Two interesting sources of novel genetic variation have been identified. Finally, we have proposed reference sets of core accessions with a range of sample sizes to represent Pisum diversity for the future study and exploitation by researchers and breeders. © 2012 The Author(s).


Santala J.,University of Helsinki | Samuilova O.,University of Helsinki | Hannukkala A.,Mtt Agrifood Research Finland | Latvala S.,Mtt Agrifood Research Finland | And 35 more authors.
Annals of Applied Biology | Year: 2010

Potato mop-top virus (PMTV; genus Pomovirus; family Virgaviridae) is transmitted by the soil-borne Spongospora subterranea f.sp. subterranea, a protoctist that causes powdery scab on potato. PMTV is distributed widely in the potato growing areas in South and North America, Japan and northwestern Europe. This article reviews the current knowledge on detection, distribution and control of PMTV with focus on the Baltic Sea region. Since the 1980s, PMTV has caused great economic losses to potato production in the Nordic countries (Norway, Sweden, Denmark and Finland), but its occurrence in other countries of the Baltic Sea region remained unknown. To fill this knowledge gap, harmonised sampling and virus detection procedures including bioassays and serological and molecular methods were employed by 21 research institutions to detect PMTV in potato tubers and soil samples in 2005-2008. Potato growing areas were widely contaminated with PMTV in the Nordic countries. Only the main seed potato production area in northern Sweden and the High Grade seed potato production zone in Finland were negative for PMTV. Intensive and systematic surveys in Poland in 2004-2008 found no evidence of PMTV, except a single PMTV-infected tuber detected in 2008. Surveys in the Baltic countries (Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia) and northwestern Russia (Leningrad province) were negative for PMTV, except infection of minitubers in a screenhouse in Latvia in 2005. Varying percentages of tubers expressing spraing symptoms in Sweden, Norway, Denmark and Poland were infected with Tobacco rattle virus, and bioassays indicated similar results for Russia. Incidence of symptomless infections with PMTV was high in tubers of many potato cultivars. Here, we discuss the contrasting patterns of distribution of PMTV in the Baltic Sea region, factors playing a role in dispersal and establishment of PMTV in new fields and means for controlling PMTV and its spread to new areas. We emphasise the use of the current virus-specific methods for the detection of PMTV in symptomless potato tubers and the high risks of disseminating PMTV to new fields and areas in viruliferous resting spores of S. subterranea in the soil adhering to seed tubers. PMTV-resistant potato cultivars will provide the only sustainable means for preventing yield losses in the infested fields and the prospects of resistance breeding are summarised. © 2010 Association of Applied Biologists.


Limantseva L.,All Russian Institute for Plant Protection | Mironenko N.,All Russian Institute for Plant Protection | Shuvalov O.,Ni Vavilov Institute Of Plant Industry Vir | Antonova O.,Ni Vavilov Institute Of Plant Industry Vir | And 5 more authors.
Plant Breeding | Year: 2014

Potato cyst nematodes (PCN) collected in six localities in the Leningrad region of North West Russia were identified as Globodera rostochiensis pathotype Ro1 and were used for subsequent resistance tests. Seventy-nine accessions of cultivated and closely related wild potato species from the VIR collection in Russia were screened on resistance to G. rostochiensis pathotype Ro1 and on the presence of molecular markers for H1 and Gro1-4 resistance genes. No associations were detected between the resistance level of diploid and tetraploid Andean and tetraploid Chilean potato landraces (indigenous cultivars) and their related wild species and their geographical distribution or presence of PCR-based markers that are associated with the H1 and Gro1-4 genes. At the same time, all susceptible genotypes lacked such markers. New sources of resistance were found and could be used in breeding. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.


Artemyeva A.M.,Ni Vavilov Institute Of Plant Industry Vir | Chesnokov Y.V.,Ni Vavilov Institute Of Plant Industry Vir | Budahn H.,Julius Kuhn Institute | Bonnema G.,Wageningen University
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2013

An association mapping approach was used to find marker-phenotype associations in the VIR core collection of 96 Brassica rapa accessions representing various morphotypes of different geographical origin. Genetic distances of accessions were determined using a set of SSR and S-SAP (CACTA) markers and NTSYSpc program. The same program was used to determine marker-marker and marker-phenotype correlations. Significant associations to molecular markers were found for bolting and flowering time, growth related traits, lamina and petiole morphological characters connected with quality, as well as for biochemical and resistance features.


Budahn H.,Julius Kuhn Institute | Artemyeva A.M.,Ni Vavilov Institute Of Plant Industry Vir | Chesnokov Y.V.,Ni Vavilov Institute Of Plant Industry Vir
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2013

Because transposable elements contribute significantly to diversification between and within plant species, transposon-based molecular markers could have special benefits for phylogenetic studies. Sequence-specific amplification polymorphism (S-SAP) technique uses transposon-related primers combined with AFLP primers. Among the Class II TEs CACTA elements are of special interest, having highly conserved ends and highly variable internal sequences. For our analysis Bot1-related TIR sequences were used. Combinations with different AFLP primers were tested for number of bands, polymorphism degree and reproducibility. With selected primer combinations the VIR Brassica rapa core collection of 96 accessions encompassing a wide range of morphological types and geographical origins was investigated. Twelve primer combinations generated 123 polymorphic markers. The mean PIC value of these markers was 1.47-fold that of 149 SSR alleles tested in the same core collection. The set of S-SAP markers was used for distance analysis to generate a phylogenetic tree as basis for association studies with morphological traits, metabolite content and resistance traits.


Khiutti A.,All Russian Institute for Plant Protection | Afanasenko O.,All Russian Institute for Plant Protection | Antonova O.,Ni Vavilov Institute Of Plant Industry Vir | Shuvalov O.,Ni Vavilov Institute Of Plant Industry Vir | And 6 more authors.
Plant Breeding | Year: 2012

With 7 figures and 1 table The causal agent of potato wart (Synchytrium endobioticum) is an obligate parasitic chytrid fungus. It is included as a quarantine pathogen in 55 countries, with losses in susceptible cultivars reaching 50-100%. The aim of our study was to characterize the resistance to S. endobioticum pathotype 1 in cultivated potatoes from a well-characterized subset of the Vavilov Institute of Plant Industry collection and to determine whether this resistance is associated with cultivated potato species taxonomy, with ploidy, with geographic distance or with a molecular marker Nl25-1400 proposed for molecular screening for resistance to pathotype 1 of S. endobioticum. Within the diversity of 52 landrace genotypes, our work shows a lack of such predictive associations with wart resistance. High intraspecific variation of wart diseases resistance allows the selection of extremely resistant and susceptible genotypes available for future genetic and breeding studies. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.


Zoteyeva N.,Ni Vavilov Institute Of Plant Industry Vir | Chrzanowska M.,Polish Institute of Plant Breeding and Acclimatization | Flis B.,Polish Institute of Plant Breeding and Acclimatization | Zimnoch-Guzowska E.,Polish Institute of Plant Breeding and Acclimatization
American Journal of Potato Research | Year: 2012

In total, 154 accessions of wild potato species from VIR's potato collection were screened at IHAR-PIB Młochów Research Center (Poland) for resistance to Phytophthora infestans and, a part of them, for resistance to Potato Virus X (PVX) and Potato Virus Y (PVY). High levels of leaf resistance to P. infestans were found in the accessions of Central American species S. antipovichii Buk., S. cardiophyllum Lindl., S. demissum Lindl., S. guerreroense Corr., S. neoantipovichii Buk., S. papita Rydb., S. pinnatisectum Dun., S. polytrichon Rydb., S. stoloniferum Schlechtd., and S. verrucosum Schlechtd., as well as South-American species S. berthaultii Haw., S. microdontum Bitt., S. ruiz-ceballosii Card., S. simplicifolium Bitt., and S. vernei Bitt. et Wittm. Tuber resistance was found in the accessions of Central American species S. cardiophyllum, S. neoantipovichii, S. papita, S. polytrichon, S. pinnatisectum, and S. trifidum Corr., and of South-American species S. acaule Bitt., S. berthaultii Hawk., S. kurtzianum Bitt. et Wittm. and S. ruiz-ceballosii Card. The majority of the accessions were characterized by within population variation of leaf and tuber resistance to late blight under laboratory testing conditions. A few accessions of S. demissum, S. guerreroense Corr., S. neoantipovichii and S. stoloniferum expressed combined resistance to late blight, PVX and two or three strains of PVY. © 2012 Potato Association of America.

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