Ni Vavilov Institute Of Plant Industry

Saint Petersburg, Russia

Ni Vavilov Institute Of Plant Industry

Saint Petersburg, Russia
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Duc G.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Bao S.,Yunnan Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Baum M.,The International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas | Redden B.,Australian Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries | And 4 more authors.
Field Crops Research | Year: 2010

The faba bean (Vicia faba L.) is an ancient crop that is represented in collections by cultivated forms only. Botanic and molecular data suggest that the wild ancestor of this species has not yet been discovered or has become extinct. This fact makes ex situ collections more crucial for the present and future breeding activities of this crop, especially when the modernization of agriculture reduces genetic diversity. At the world level, more than 38,000 accession entries are included in at least 37 listed collections. The partial allogamous status of this crop makes maintenance activity of genotypes more expensive and difficult. In addition to the requirement of fixed genotypes to support new association genetics strategies, there is a need for more research on pollinators and maintenance of genetic diversity within populations. A large genetic variability has already been identified in V. faba in terms of floral biology, seed size and composition, and also tolerance to several biotic and abiotic stresses. More knowledge is needed on the interactions of V. faba with parasitic and pollinator insects, on traits related to environmental adaptation and impacts, on nitrogen fixation in interaction with soil Rhizobia and on bioenergy potential, which strengthens the demand for new and large phenotyping actions. Diversity analysis through genotyping is just beginning. The use of amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) or simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers has allowed genetic resources to be distinguished according to their geographic origin and the structuring of collections. Conservation of gene sequences among legume species and the rapid discovery of genes (particularly in the model species Medicago truncatula and Lotus japonicus), together with robotic developments in molecular biology, offer new possibilities for the analysis of sequence diversity for V. faba genes and to evaluate their impact on phenotypic traits. Combined genotyping and phenotyping projects must continue on V. faba so that core collections can be defined; these will help in the discovery of genes and alleles of interest for breeders. © 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Timofejeva L.,University of California at Berkeley | Timofejeva L.,Tallinn University of Technology | Skibbe D.S.,Stanford University | Skibbe D.S.,Syngenta | And 9 more authors.
G3: Genes, Genomes, Genetics | Year: 2013

Proper regulation of anther differentiation is crucial for producing functional pollen, and defects in or absence of any anther cell type result in male sterility. To deepen understanding of processes required to establish premeiotic cell fate and differentiation of somatic support cell layers a cytological screen of maize male-sterile mutants has been conducted which yielded 42 new mutants including 22 mutants with premeiotic cytological defects (increasing this class fivefold), 7 mutants with postmeiotic defects, and 13 mutants with irregular meiosis. Allelism tests with known and new mutants confirmed new alleles of four premeiotic developmental mutants, including two novel alleles of msca1 and single new alleles of ms32, ms8, and ocl4, and two alleles of the postmeiotic ms45. An allelic pair of newly described mutants was found. Premeiotic mutants are now classified into four categories: anther identity defects, abnormal anther structure, locular wall defects and premature degradation of cell layers, and/or microsporocyte collapse. The range of mutant phenotypic classes is discussed in comparison with developmental genetic investigation of anther development in rice and Arabidopsis to highlight similarities and differences between grasses and eudicots and within the grasses. © 2013 Timofejeva et al.


Thieme R.,Julius Kuhn Institute | Rakosy-Tican E.,Babes - Bolyai University | Nachtigall M.,Julius Kuhn Institute | Schubert J.,Julius Kuhn Institute | And 5 more authors.
Plant Cell Reports | Year: 2010

Interspecific somatic hybrids between commercial cultivars of potato Solanum tuberosum L. Agave and Delikat and the wild diploid species Solanum cardiophyllum Lindl. (cph) were produced by protoplast electrofusion. The hybrid nature of the regenerated plants was confirmed by flow cytometry, simple sequence repeat (SSR), amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP), microsatellite-anchored fragment length polymorphism (MFLP) markers and morphological analysis. Somatic hybrids were assessed for their resistance to Colorado potato beetle (CPB) using a laboratory bioassay, to Potato virus Y (PVY) by mechanical inoculation and field trials, and foliage blight in a greenhouse and by field trials. Twenty-four and 26 somatic hybrids of cph + cv. Agave or cph + cv. Delikat, respectively, showed no symptoms of infection with PVY, of which 3 and 12, respectively, were also resistant to foliage blight. One hybrid of cph + Agave performed best in CPB and PVY resistance tests. Of the somatic hybrids that were evaluated for their morphology and tuber yield in the field for 3 years, four did not differ significantly in tuber yield from the parental and standard cultivars. Progeny of hybrids was obtained by pollinating them with pollen from a cultivar, selfing or cross-pollination. The results confirm that protoplast electrofusion can be used to transfer the CPB, PVY and late blight resistance of cph into somatic hybrids. These resistant somatic hybrids can be used in pre-breeding studies, molecular characterization and for increasing the genetic diversity available for potato breeding by marker-assisted combinatorial introgression into the potato gene pool. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.


Pendinen G.,Ni Vavilov Institute Of Plant Industry | Spooner D.M.,University of Wisconsin - Madison | Jiang J.,University of Wisconsin - Madison | Gavrilenko T.,Saint Petersburg State University | Puertas M.,University of Wisconsin - Madison
Genome | Year: 2012

Wild potato (Solanum L. sect. Petota Dumort.) species contain diploids (2n = 2x = 24) to hexaploids (2n = 6x = 72). J.G. Hawkes classified all hexaploid Mexican species in series Demissa Bukasov and, according to a classic five-genome hypothesis of M. Matsubayashi in 1991, all members of series Demissa are allopolyploids. We investigated the genome composition of members of Hawkes's series Demissa with genomic in situ hybridization (GISH), using labeled DNA of their putative progenitors having diploid AA, BB, or PP genome species or with DNA of tetraploid species having AABB or AAA aA a genomes. GISH analyses support S. hougasii Correll as an allopolyploid with one AA component genome and another BB component genome. Our results also indicate that the third genome of S. hougasii is more closely related to P or a P genome-related species. Solanum demissum Lindl., in contrast, has all three chromosome sets related to the basic A genome, similar to the GISH results of polyploid species of series Acaulia Juz. Our results support a more recent taxonomic division of the Mexican hexaploid species into two groups: the allopolyploid Iopetala group containing S. hougasii, and an autopolyploid Acaulia group containing S. demissum with South American species S. acaule Bitter and S. albicans (Ochoa) Ochoa. © 2012 Published by NRC Research Press.


Belimov A.A.,All Russia Research Institute for Agricultural Microbiology | Puhalsky I.V.,All Russia Research Institute for Agricultural Microbiology | Safronova V.I.,All Russia Research Institute for Agricultural Microbiology | Shaposhnikov A.I.,All Russia Research Institute for Agricultural Microbiology | And 6 more authors.
Water, Air, and Soil Pollution | Year: 2015

Abstract We highlighted some of the key problems associated with the use of beneficial microorganisms for improving adaptation of plants to soils, polluted with heavy metals (HMs), especially Cd. Inoculation of pea line SGE and its Cd-tolerant mutant SGECdt with nodule bacteria Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae demonstrated that nodulation process may be disturbed at Cd concentrations below threshold toxicity levels for each partner and the plant genotype plays a major role in nodulation under Cd stress. A comparative mathematical analysis of available information about Cd tolerance, accumulation of HMs (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Sr and Zn), response to mycorrhizal fungus Glomus sp. and 15 phenotypic traits of 99 pea varieties revealed that (1) the Cd-sensitive varieties were more efficient in exploring the protective potential of symbiosis to compensate their deficit in Cd tolerance and (2) correlations between the studied traits exist and can be helpful for selection of plant-microbe systems adapted to polluted soils. In pot experiment with 11 varieties of Indian mustard, the plant growth-promoting effect of rhizobacterium Variovorax paradoxus 5C-2 negatively correlated with Cd tolerance and shoot Cd concentration of the plants grown in Cd-supplemented soil. In an outdoor pot experiment, inoculation of willow with the ectomycorrhizal fungus Pisolithus tinctorius and a cocktail of rhizobacteria stimulated root exudation, decreased soil pH and increased Cd mobilization in soil and Cd uptake by plants, but decreased plant growth at a moderate contamination level (25 mg Cd kg-1). Opposite effects were observed in highly contaminated soil (77 mg Cd kg-1). We propose a preliminary systematic framework of interactions between these factors that determine the success of microbial inoculation aimed at improving crop performance on HM-polluted soils or enhancing phytoremediation. © 2015 Springer International Publishing Switzerland.


Strautina S.,Latvia State Institute of Fruit Growing | Krasnova I.,Latvia State Institute of Fruit Growing | Kalnina I.,Latvia State Institute of Fruit Growing | Sasnauskas A.,Lithuanian Research Center for Agriculture and Forestry | And 2 more authors.
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2012

Blackcurrants are one of the most important berry crops in the Baltic countries and northern Europe. Yet the existing assortment of cultivars does not fully meet the demands of growers and the processing industry. To extend and improve the cultivar assortment of blackcurrants, hybridizations and evaluations of the obtained breeding material were done from 1995-2001 in the framework of a common breeding program involving the Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Balsgård, Lithuanian Institute of Horticulture, Latvia State Institute of Fruit-Growing and N.I. Vavilov Institute of Plant Industry, Russia. From this material, 12 elite hybrids have been selected, which were further evaluated in 2004-2009. As a result of evaluation four hybrids were selected to be named as cultivars: 'BRi 9502-1A' ('Lentyai' × 'Intercontinental'), 'BRi 9504-5' ('65-59-5' × 'Storklas'), 'BRi 9508-3A' ('Gagatai' × 'Intercontinental'), and 'BRi 9508-3B' ('Gagatai' × 'Intercontinental').


Lamoureux D.,Center De Recherche Public Gabriel Lippmann | Sorokin A.,Ni Vavilov Institute Of Plant Industry | Lefevre I.,Center De Recherche Public Gabriel Lippmann | Alexanian S.,Ni Vavilov Institute Of Plant Industry | And 2 more authors.
Plant Genetic Resources: Characterisation and Utilisation | Year: 2011

The N.I. Vavilov Institute of Plant Industry (VIR) holds and maintains collections of various crop plants among the largest and oldest worldwide. Among them, small berry trees have gained attention because of their potential for human health. Small berries, usually containing various valuable compounds such as vitamins or antioxidants in significant quantities, could be used for easily improving the human diet. Subsets of VIR collections of raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) and blue honeysuckle (Lonicera caerulea L.) were investigated for genetic diversity. Ninety-five raspberry accessions were genotyped with eight nuclear simple-sequence repeat (microsatellite) markers. Results indicated a fair level of genetic diversity, but also a structure of three main groups in the collection. Blue honeysuckle accessions were genotyped with five intersimple-sequence repeat markers, yielding more than 1100 polymorphic fragments across the 194 accessions. Statistical analysis of these data showed that the subspecies level was key in explaining blue honeysuckle diversity. This study shows that the collections constitute important resources that could be used for either direct consumption goals or breeding of new cultivars. Results may also be used to establish recommendations for efficient conservation of these genetic resources. © 2011 NIAB.


Wild potato ( Solanum L. sect. Petota Dumort.) species contain diploids (2n = 2x = 24) to hexaploids (2n = 6x = 72). J.G. Hawkes classified all hexaploid Mexican species in series Demissa Bukasov and, according to a classic five-genome hypothesis of M. Matsubayashi in 1991, all members of series Demissa are allopolyploids. We investigated the genome composition of members of Hawkess series Demissa with genomic in situ hybridization (GISH), using labeled DNA of their putative progenitors having diploid AA, BB, or PP genome species or with DNA of tetraploid species having AABB or AAA(a)A(a) genomes. GISH analyses support S. hougasii Correll as an allopolyploid with one AA component genome and another BB component genome. Our results also indicate that the third genome of S. hougasii is more closely related to P or a P genome-related species. Solanum demissum Lindl., in contrast, has all three chromosome sets related to the basic A genome, similar to the GISH results of polyploid species of series Acaulia Juz. Our results support a more recent taxonomic division of the Mexican hexaploid species into two groups: the allopolyploid Iopetala group containing S. hougasii, and an autopolyploid Acaulia group containing S. demissum with South American species S. acaule Bitter and S. albicans (Ochoa) Ochoa.

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