Ni Vavilov Institute Of General Genetics

Moscow, Russia

Ni Vavilov Institute Of General Genetics

Moscow, Russia
SEARCH FILTERS
Time filter
Source Type

Shaikevich E.V.,Ni Vavilov Institute Of General Genetics | Vinogradova E.B.,Russian Academy of Sciences | Bouattour A.,Tunis el Manar University | Gouveia De Almeida A.P.,New University of Lisbon | Gouveia De Almeida A.P.,University of Pretoria
Parasites and Vectors | Year: 2016

Background: Mosquitoes of the Culex pipiens complex are cosmopolitan, and important vectors of neglected tropical diseases, such as arbovirosis and lymphatic filariasis. Among the complex taxa, Cx. pipiens (with two forms pipiens and molestus) and Cx. quinquefasciatus are the most ubiquitous mosquitoes in temperate and tropical regions respectively. Mosquitoes of this taxa lack of morphological differences between females, but have frank behavioral and physiological differences and have different trophic preferences that influence their vectorial status. Hybridization may change the vectorial capacity of these mosquitoes, increasing vector efficiency and medical importance of resulting hybrids. Methods: Culex pipiens s.l. from 35 distinct populations were investigated by the study of mtDNA, symbiotic bacterium Wolbachia pipientis, nuclear DNA and flanking region of microsatellite CQ11 polymorphism using PCR with diagnostic primers, RFLP analysis and sequencing. Results: Six different mitochondrial haplotypes were revealed by sequencing of the cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) gene and three different Wolbachia (wPip) groups were identified. A strong association was observed between COI haplotypes/groups, wPip groups and taxa; haplogroup A and infection with wPipII appear to be typical for Cx. pipiens form pipiens, haplotype D and infection with wPipIV for form molestus, while haplogroup E, characteristic of Cx. quinquefasciatus, were correlated with wPipI and found in Cx. pipiens sl. from coastal regions of Southern Europe and Mediterranean region. Analysis of microsatellite locus and nuclear DNA revealed hybrids between Cx. pipiens form pipiens and form molestus, as well as between Cx. pipiens and Cx. quinquefasciatus, in Mediterranean populations, as opposed to Northern Europe. Phylogenetic analysis of COI sequences yielded a tree topology that supported the RFLP analysis with significant bootstrap values for haplotype D and haplogroup E. Conclusions: Molecular identification provides the first evidence of the presence of hybrids between Cx. quinquefasciatus and Cx. pipiens as well as cytoplasmic introgression of Cx. quinquefasciatus into Cx. pipiens as a result of hybridization events in coastal regions of Southern Europe and Mediterranean region. Together with observed hybrids between pipiens and molestus forms, these findings point to the presence of hybrids in these areas, with consequent higher potential for disease transmission. © 2016 Shaikevich et al.


Rippa A.,Russian National Research Medical University | Terskikh V.,Nk Koltsov Institute Of Developmental Biology | Nesterova A.,Ni Vavilov Institute Of General Genetics | Vasiliev A.,Nk Koltsov Institute Of Developmental Biology | Vorotelyak E.,Moscow State University
Histochemistry and Cell Biology | Year: 2015

Mice with skin and hair follicle (HF) defects are common models of human skin disorders. A mutant strain with the we/we wal/wal genotype develops alopecia. We found the hair shaft structure in the pelage of mutant mice to have significant defects. Although these mice lose their hair at 21 days, a label-retaining cell population persists in HFs until at least day 54. Depilation-induced anagen was accomplished in we/we wal/wal mutants but the resulting hair shafts were short and extremely deformed. Serious abnormalities in epidermis stratification and HF morphogenesis exist in we/we wal/wal homozygous E18.5 embryos. There were significantly fewer HF primordia in this mutant compared with wild type. We discovered specific structures, identified as invalid placodes, positive for ectodysplasin A1 receptor, nuclear β-catenin, and LEF1, which failed to invaginate, produced a double basal-like layer of epidermal cells, and lacked cylindrical keratinocytes. Specification of dermal papillae (DP) was impaired, and the papillary dermis expressed alkaline phosphatase and LEF1. We also detected DP-like groups of intensively stained cells in the absence of visible signs of folliculogenesis in the epidermis. We showed differentiation disturbances in the mutant embryonic E18.5 epidermis and HFs: The cornified layer was absent, the width of the spinous layer was reduced, and HFs lacked LEF1-positive precortex cells. In this study, we used a very interesting and useful mouse model of alopecia. The presence of symptoms of skin disorders in we/we wal/wal murine embryos correlates with the postnatal skin phenotype. This correlation may help to evaluate reasons of alopecia. © 2014, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Shaikevich E.V.,Ni Vavilov Institute Of General Genetics | Zakharov I.A.,Ni Vavilov Institute Of General Genetics
Comparative Cytogenetics | Year: 2010

Polymorphism of the mtDNA gene COI encoding cytochrome C oxidase subunit I was studied in the mosquitoes Culex pipiens Linnaeus, 1758 and C. torrentium Martini, 1925 from sixteen locations in Russia and in three laboratory strains of subtropical subspecies of the C. pipiens complex. Representatives of this complex are characterized by a high ecological plasticity and there are significant ecophysiological differences between its morphologically similar members. The full-size DNA sequence of the gene COI spans 1548 bp and has a total A+T content of 70.2 %. The TAA is a terminating codon in all studied representatives of the C. pipiens complex and C. torrentium. 64 variable nucleotide sites (4 %) were found, fifteen haplotypes were detected, and two heteroplasmic specimens of C. torrentium were recorded. COI haplotype diversity was low in Wolbachia-infected populations of the C. pipiens complex. Monomorphic haplotypes were found in C. p. quinquefasciatus and C. p. pipiens f. molestus. Three haplotypes were detected for the C. p. pipiens, but these haplotypes were not population-specific. On the other hand, each of the ten studied Wolbachia-uninfected C. torrentium individuals from three different populations had unique mitochondrial haplotypes. Polymorphism of the 478-bp ITS2 nucleotide sequences was similar in infected C. p. pipiens and C. p. pipiens f. molestus and uninfected C. torrentium specimens. The ITS2 genetic distance between C. p. pipiens and C. torrentium reached 12.5 %. Possible effects of Wolbachia invasion on C. pipiens populations are discussed. © Comparative Cytogenetics.


Zakharov I.,Ni Vavilov Institute Of General Genetics | Shaikevich E.,Ni Vavilov Institute Of General Genetics
European Journal of Entomology | Year: 2013

Fifteen different mitochondrial haplotypes of the mtDNA gene COI encoding cytochrome C oxidase subunit I were identified in the 127 individuals of Adalia bipunctata studied. Two mitochondrial haplotypes, H9 and H10, differed greatly from the others. The mitochondrial polymorphism in A. bipunctata is ancient, though its age remains to be evaluated. It is shown that mitochondrial haplotypes H9 and H10 and others coexisted in the original population of A. bipunctata before it spread throughout Eurasia from Western Europe to the Baikal Area, and before the differentiation of the subspecies A. bipunctata fasciatopunctata, which differs from the European form in its elytral pattern. In order to evaluate the possible origin of the ancient mitochondrial haplotypes in the gene pool of A. bipunctata sequences of the mtDNA gene COI and of the rRNA second internal transcribed spacer of the four species of Adalia: A. bipunctata, A. decempunctata, A. frigida and A. tetraspilota, were compared. It is suggested that infection with Rickettsia had an important role in the preservation of the mitochondrial haplotypes H9 and H10 during the evolution of Adalia.


Zhivotovsky L.A.,The Federal Fishery Agency | Tochilina T.G.,The Federal Fishery Agency | Shaikhaev E.G.,Ni Vavilov Institute Of General Genetics | Pogodin V.P.,The Kurilsky Hatchery | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Fish Biology | Year: 2016

Mature hybrids between chum salmon Oncorhynchus keta and pink salmon Oncorhynchus gorbuscha, which were identified by an intermediate colour pattern, were caught at the Kurilsky Hatchery, Iturup Island, Russia. Most of them were female and 3 years old (a partial freshwater year and 2 marine years), which is intermediate between the ages of maturity of the parental species. The hybrids exceed both parental species in the rate of growth, are large in size and robust and might successfully compete for mating in the wild or be chosen for artificial reproduction. The ratio of the scale length over width, R, is oblate (R < 1), whereas scales of the parental species are prolate (R > 1). From scale analyses, the c.v. in body size of hybrid females at the second marine year is twice that of O. keta, which suggests developmental instability in the hybrid. A dynamic model predicted that continuing hybridization at a low rate does not produce a substantial hybrid load due to selection against advanced-generation hybrids and backcrosses. A high hybridization rate, however, may be an additional risk for genetic management and should be taken into account in programmes of artificial reproduction of Pacific salmon Oncorhynchus spp., although such hybrids might have commercial use in confined production systems. © 2016 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles


PubMed | Russian Academy of Sciences, Ni Vavilov Institute Of General Genetics and Moscow State University
Type: Comparative Study | Journal: Genome biology and evolution | Year: 2014

Splice sites (SSs) are short sequences that are crucial for proper mRNA splicing in eukaryotic cells, and therefore can be expected to be shaped by strong selection. Nevertheless, in mammals and in other intron-rich organisms, many of the SSs often involve nonconsensus (Nc), rather than consensus (Cn), nucleotides, and beyond the two critical nucleotides, the SSs are not perfectly conserved between species. Here, we compare the SS sequences between primates, and between Drosophila fruit flies, to reveal the pattern of selection acting at SSs. Cn-to-Nc substitutions are less frequent, and Nc-to-Cn substitutions are more frequent, than neutrally expected, indicating, respectively, negative and positive selection. This selection is relatively weak (1 < |4Nes| < 4), and has a similar efficiency in primates and in Drosophila. Within some nucleotide positions, the positive selection in favor of Nc-to-Cn substitutions is weaker than the negative selection maintaining already established Cn nucleotides; this difference is due to site-specific negative selection favoring current Nc nucleotides. In general, however, the strength of negative selection protecting the Cn alleles is similar in magnitude to the strength of positive selection favoring replacement of Nc alleles, as expected under the simple nearly neutral turnover. In summary, although a fraction of the Nc nucleotides within SSs is maintained by selection, the abundance of deleterious nucleotides in this class suggests a substantial genome-wide drift load.


Denisov S.V.,Russian Academy of Sciences | Bazykin G.A.,Moscow State University | Sutormin R.,Moscow State University | Favorov A.V.,Ni Vavilov Institute Of General Genetics | And 3 more authors.
Genome biology and evolution | Year: 2014

Splice sites (SSs) are short sequences that are crucial for proper mRNA splicing in eukaryotic cells, and therefore can be expected to be shaped by strong selection. Nevertheless, in mammals and in other intron-rich organisms, many of the SSs often involve nonconsensus (Nc), rather than consensus (Cn), nucleotides, and beyond the two critical nucleotides, the SSs are not perfectly conserved between species. Here, we compare the SS sequences between primates, and between Drosophila fruit flies, to reveal the pattern of selection acting at SSs. Cn-to-Nc substitutions are less frequent, and Nc-to-Cn substitutions are more frequent, than neutrally expected, indicating, respectively, negative and positive selection. This selection is relatively weak (1 < |4Nes| < 4), and has a similar efficiency in primates and in Drosophila. Within some nucleotide positions, the positive selection in favor of Nc-to-Cn substitutions is weaker than the negative selection maintaining already established Cn nucleotides; this difference is due to site-specific negative selection favoring current Nc nucleotides. In general, however, the strength of negative selection protecting the Cn alleles is similar in magnitude to the strength of positive selection favoring replacement of Nc alleles, as expected under the simple nearly neutral turnover. In summary, although a fraction of the Nc nucleotides within SSs is maintained by selection, the abundance of deleterious nucleotides in this class suggests a substantial genome-wide drift load. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.


PubMed | Ni Vavilov Institute Of General Genetics
Type: Journal Article | Journal: TAG. Theoretical and applied genetics. Theoretische und angewandte Genetik | Year: 2013

Polymorphism and inheritance of wheat storage protein, gliadin, of durum (macaroni) and carthlicum wheats have been studied. Analysis of gliadin in 78 cultivars and in F2 seeds of intercultivar crosses of durum wheat revealed three different chromosome 1A-encoded blocks of components similar to those found in common wheat (GLD1A2, GLD1A18, GLD1A19). Most of the durum cultivars studied had these three blocks; GLD1A2 was also frequent in common wheat. In contrast, all chromosome 1B-encoded blocks of durum clearly differed in component composition from those found in common wheat. Therefore, durum could not be an ancestor or a derivate of recent bread wheat. Analysis of gliadin in the collection of carthlicum wheat (14 accessions) revealed several suspected chromosome 1A, 1B, and 6A-controlled blocks, some of which were similar to those in common wheat, while others were different. Therefore, carthlicum is likely to be an ancestor or a derivate of some forms of bread wheat. There were also chromosome 1A and 6A-, but not 1B-encoded blocks which were identical in durum and carthlicum wheats. The results confirm that all three wheats share the same genome A, but emphasize the heterogeneity of genotypes among donors of this genome. Discovery of identical blocks in tetraploids and hexaploids indicates polyphyletic [from different genotypes of donor (s)] origin of these wheats.


PubMed | Ni Vavilov Institute Of General Genetics
Type: Journal Article | Journal: TAG. Theoretical and applied genetics. Theoretische und angewandte Genetik | Year: 2013

Electrophoretic patterns of seed storage proteins, the high-molecular-weight glutenins and gliadins, were studied in 468 plants of the common wheat cultivar Chinese Spring regenerated from callus culture of immature embryos, in 115 plants grown from seeds treated with nitrosoethylurea and in 260 control plants. From 5 to 21 single grains were analysed from each plant. In these three groups, the frequency of inherited mutations causing the loss of all proteins controlled by a locus (null-mutations, probably caused by a chromosomal deficiency) was 0.69%, 2.07%, and 0.05% per locus (the differences were statistically significant), respectively, while that of mutations causing the loss of a single protein band was 0.11%, 0.33%, and 0.05%, respectively. The loss of all of the gliadins controlled by Gli-B1 or GH-B2 (mutations were probably caused by a deletion of satellites of the corresponding chromosomes), was significantly higher than the loss of gliadins controlled by genomes A and D. Gene mutations altering the electrophoretic mobility of a single protein band in the pattern were found only in the second group of plants (0.44%). Therefore, chemical mutagenesis which produced not only more mutations than cultivation of immature wheat embryos in vitro, but also a higher ratio of mutations that altered DNA sequences, can be considered as an easier and comparatively more promising way for obtaining new improved variants of loci controlling biochemical characteristics in wheat. Somaclonal variation, on the other hand, was probably mainly caused by chromosomal abnormalities and could therefore hardly be considered as a useful tool in wheat breeding.


PubMed | Russian Academy of Sciences, Ni Vavilov Institute Of General Genetics, Tunis el Manar University and New University of Lisbon
Type: | Journal: Parasites & vectors | Year: 2016

Mosquitoes of the Culex pipiens complex are cosmopolitan, and important vectors of neglected tropical diseases, such as arbovirosis and lymphatic filariasis. Among the complex taxa, Cx. pipiens (with two forms pipiens and molestus) and Cx. quinquefasciatus are the most ubiquitous mosquitoes in temperate and tropical regions respectively. Mosquitoes of this taxa lack of morphological differences between females, but have frank behavioral and physiological differences and have different trophic preferences that influence their vectorial status. Hybridization may change the vectorial capacity of these mosquitoes, increasing vector efficiency and medical importance of resulting hybrids.Culex pipiens s.l. from 35 distinct populations were investigated by the study of mtDNA, symbiotic bacterium Wolbachia pipientis, nuclear DNA and flanking region of microsatellite CQ11 polymorphism using PCR with diagnostic primers, RFLP analysis and sequencing.Six different mitochondrial haplotypes were revealed by sequencing of the cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) gene and three different Wolbachia (wPip) groups were identified. A strong association was observed between COI haplotypes/groups, wPip groups and taxa; haplogroup A and infection with wPipII appear to be typical for Cx. pipiens form pipiens, haplotype D and infection with wPipIV for form molestus, while haplogroup E, characteristic of Cx. quinquefasciatus, were correlated with wPipI and found in Cx. pipiens sl. from coastal regions of Southern Europe and Mediterranean region. Analysis of microsatellite locus and nuclear DNA revealed hybrids between Cx. pipiens form pipiens and form molestus, as well as between Cx. pipiens and Cx. quinquefasciatus, in Mediterranean populations, as opposed to Northern Europe. Phylogenetic analysis of COI sequences yielded a tree topology that supported the RFLP analysis with significant bootstrap values for haplotype D and haplogroup E.Molecular identification provides the first evidence of the presence of hybrids between Cx. quinquefasciatus and Cx. pipiens as well as cytoplasmic introgression of Cx. quinquefasciatus into Cx. pipiens as a result of hybridization events in coastal regions of Southern Europe and Mediterranean region. Together with observed hybrids between pipiens and molestus forms, these findings point to the presence of hybrids in these areas, with consequent higher potential for disease transmission.

Loading Ni Vavilov Institute Of General Genetics collaborators
Loading Ni Vavilov Institute Of General Genetics collaborators