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Ogawa H.,NI Inc | Fujimura M.,Respiratory Medicine | Takeuchi Y.,Fujita Health University Hospital | Makimura K.,Teikyo University
Respirology | Year: 2013

Among the various types of laryngeal paresthesia, the results of the study with use of a newly developed cough-related laryngeal sensation questionnaire suggested that a sensation of mucus in the throat (SMIT) can predict the presence of fungal colonization in chronic cough patients. Next to 'cough' or 'sputum', SMIT may become the third key clinical manifestation leading to successful prediction of the efficacy of antifungal therapy in chronic cough patients. © 2013 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

Ogawa H.,NI Inc | Fujimura M.,Respiratory Medicine | Takeuchi Y.,Fujita Health University Hospital | Makimura K.,Japan Institute for Molecular Science
Journal of Asthma | Year: 2013

Objective: There is increasing interest in the association between the severity of asthma and fungal sensitization, and lung function decline in relation to mold and dampness in the home has recently been reported. This study was performed to determine the correlation between sensitization to Schizophyllum commune and decline of lung function, and to elucidate the outcomes and risk factors, especially from Schizophyllum allergy. Methods: The medical records of 50 patients with asthma who satisfied the following inclusion criteria were collected and reviewed retrospectively: (1) at least 5 years of follow-up with five evaluations; (2) intradermal skin tests including S. commune performed at the initial assessment; and (3) severity ranging from mild-to-moderate. Lung function decline (evaluated as adjusted delta FEV1/year) was compared in a cross-sectional manner with regard to gender, age, BMI, smoking habit, allergological characteristics and exacerbation frequency. Results and Conclusions: There were significant differences in lung function decline between females and males (p<0.05), positive and negative results of late-phase skin reaction to S. commune (p<0.001), and positive and negative late-phase skin reaction to Aspergillus (p<0.05). Lung function decline was correlated with exacerbation frequency (r=0.428, p=0.002). On multiple regression analysis, the probability of lung function decline in asthma was found to be significantly associated with female gender and positive late-phase skin reaction against S. commune. Our results suggested that sensitization to S. commune may be one of the risk factors involved in lung function decline in asthmatic patients. © 2013 Informa Healthcare USA, Inc. All rights reserved.

Ogawa H.,NI Inc | Fujimura M.,Kanazawa University | Takeuchi Y.,Fujita Health University Hospital | Makimura K.,Teikyo University
Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics | Year: 2011

Background: There is a close link between fungal sensitization and asthma severity. Although Schizophyllum commune (S. commune, "suehirotake" in Japanese), one of the basidiomycetous (BM) fungi, is a fungus that can cause allergic bronchopulmonary mycosis (ABPM) and allergic fungal sinusitis (AFS), whether the fungus causes or sensitizes subjects to asthma is unclear. Methods: The bronchial provocation test using S. commune antigen was performed in two asthmatics who had demonstrated positive skin reactions to the S. commune antigen, and low dose of itraconazole (50 mg/day) was prescribed as an adjunctive therapy for 2 weeks. The allergological features and clinical manifestations of these patients are herein evaluated and discussed. Results: Case 1 was a 71-year-old female, and case 2 was a 69-year-old male. Both patients demonstrated positive reactions to the inhalation test. A diagnosis of AFS or ABPM was excluded in both patients because of the lack of a history of pulmonary infiltrates, central bronchiectasis, a history of expectoration of brown plugs or flecks, or sinusoidal findings. Although the efficacy of itraconazole in our cases was unclear, the elevated titer of the specific IgG-for S. commune in case 2 gradually decreased during the period of antifungal therapy. Conclusions: The two patients described herein were diagnosed to have bronchial asthma caused by S. commune; so-called Schizophyllum asthma. S. commune may also be a causative fungal antigen of bronchial asthma. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Ogawa H.,NI Inc | Fujimura M.,National Hospital Organization Nanao Hospital | Takeuchi Y.,Fujita Health University Hospital | Makimura K.,Teikyo University
Cough | Year: 2013

Background: The presence of basidiomycetous (BM) fungi in induced sputum is an important clinical finding in chronic idiopathic cough (CIC). However, the efficacy of anti-fungal therapy for CIC has not been evaluated.Methods: We selected 10 patients with CIC and carried out allergological examinations for Bjerkandera adusta, a BM fungus that has been shown to enhance cough severity. The efficacy of low-dose itraconazole (ITCZ) therapy (50 mg/day) for 14 days as an adjunctive therapy was estimated with use of Cough Visual Analog Scale (Cough VAS) and the Japanese version of the Leicester Cough Questionnaire (J-LCQ). We evaluated whether there was a recognizable clinical or allergological pattern that could predict the efficacy of ITCZ therapy in CIC patients.Results: Significant changes in Cough VAS and minimal important difference in domains of the J-LCQ were observed in 3 and 5 CIC patients, respectively. The Δ cough scale was correlated with changes in domains of the J-LCQ (total (r = -0.73, P < 0.05), psychological (r = -0.73, P < 0.05), and social (r = -0.71, P < 0.05), respectively. There were significant differences in the change in total score (P < 0.05) and in the domain of social (P < 0.05) and Δ cough scale (P < 0.05) between positive and negative results of immediate skin test for B. adusta. Positive results for improvement of cough-related laryngeal sensation which was represented as a sensation of mucus in the throat (SMIT) were observed in 6 patients in the BM colonization-positive group (85.7%) and none in the BM colonization-negative group (0%). There was a significant difference in the positive ratio for improvement of SMIT between the two groups.Conclusions: At present, it is not possible to conclude whether ITCZ therapy provides sufficient relief in CIC patients. However, this study suggested both the possible applicability of low-dose ITCZ therapy for treatment of CIC patients with regard to BM allergy and the necessity of development of a new assessment questionnaire for cough-related laryngeal sensations.Trial registration: UMIN-CTR (reference number R000005872; UMIN000004933). © 2013 Ogawa et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Khanna A.P.S.,NI Inc
Microwave Journal | Year: 2015

Microwave oscillators are at the heart of all RF and microwave systems from wireless communications, radar and navigation, military and aerospace to vital test equipment. Voltage controlled oscillators (VCO) represent the most common form of oscillators that tune across a band of frequencies specific to applications. A VCO is a type of oscillator which commonly uses a varactor diode to tune its frequency. The tuning range of VCOs can vary from a tiny 0.1 percent to more than an octave band.

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