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Dunfermline, United Kingdom

Executive functions are the controlling mechanisms of the brain and include the processes of planning, initiation, organisation, inhibition, problem solving, self monitoring and error correction. They are essential for goal-oriented behaviour and responding to new and novel situations. A high number of people with acquired brain injury, including around 75% of stroke survivors, will experience executive dysfunction. Executive dysfunction reduces capacity to regain independence in activities of daily living (ADL), particularly when alternative movement strategies are necessary to compensate for limb weakness. Improving executive function may lead to increased independence with ADL. There are various cognitive rehabilitation strategies for training executive function used within clinical practice and it is necessary to determine the effectiveness of these interventions. To determine the effects of cognitive rehabilitation on executive dysfunction for adults with stroke or other non-progressive acquired brain injuries. We searched the Cochrane Stroke Group Trials Register (August 2012), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (The Cochrane Library, August 2012), MEDLINE (1950 to August 2012), EMBASE (1980 to August 2012), CINAHL (1982 to August 2012), PsycINFO (1806 to August 2012), AMED (1985 to August 2012) and 11 additional databases. We also searched reference lists and trials registers, handsearched journals and conference proceedings, and contacted experts. We included randomised trials in adults after non-progressive acquired brain injury, where the intervention was specifically targeted at improving cognition including separable executive function data (restorative interventions), where the intervention was aimed at training participants in methods to compensate for lost executive function (compensative interventions) or where the intervention involved the training in the use of an adaptive technique for improving independence with ADL (adaptive interventions). The primary outcome was global executive function and the secondary outcomes were specific components of executive function, working memory, ADL, extended ADL, quality of life and participation in vocational activities. We included studies in which the comparison intervention was no treatment, a placebo intervention (i.e. a rehabilitation intervention that should not impact on executive function), standard care or another cognitive rehabilitation intervention. Two review authors independently screened abstracts, extracted data and appraised trials. We undertook an assessment of methodological quality for allocation concealment, blinding of outcome assessors, method of dealing with missing data and other potential sources of bias. Nineteen studies (907 participants) met the inclusion criteria for this review. We included 13 studies (770 participants) in meta-analyses (417 traumatic brain injury, 304 stroke, 49 other acquired brain injury) reducing to 660 participants once non-included intervention groups were removed from three and four group studies. We were unable to obtain data from the remaining six studies. Three studies (134 participants) compared cognitive rehabilitation with sensorimotor therapy. None reported our primary outcome; data from one study was available relating to secondary outcomes including concept formation and ADL. Six studies (333 participants) compared cognitive rehabilitation with no treatment or placebo. None reported our primary outcome; data from four studies demonstrated no statistically significant effect of cognitive rehabilitation on secondary outcomes. Ten studies (448 participants) compared two different cognitive rehabilitation approaches. Two studies (82 participants) reported the primary outcome; no statistically significant effect was found. Data from eight studies demonstrated no statistically significant effect on the secondary outcomes. We explored the effect of restorative interventions (10 studies, 468 participants) and compensative interventions (four studies, 128 participants) and found no statistically significant effect compared with other interventions. We identified insufficient high-quality evidence to reach any generalised conclusions about the effect of cognitive rehabilitation on executive function, or other secondary outcome measures. Further high-quality research comparing cognitive rehabilitation with no intervention, placebo or sensorimotor interventions is recommended. Source


Campbell M.,University of St. Andrews | Robertson A.,NHS Fife | Jahoda A.,University of Glasgow
Journal of Intellectual Disability Research | Year: 2014

Background: Psychological therapies with a proven efficacy in the general population are being adapted for use with people who have intellectual disabilities in community settings. Methods: A systematic review of peer-reviewed literature published between 1980 and 2010 was carried out, to identify the evidence base for effective psychological interventions in challenging behaviour. Relevant databases were searched using applied key terms. Evidence was graded, according to the quality of the research. A best-evidence Matrix was produced to improve guidance for service providers and practitioners in the range, volume and quality of psychological interventions. Results: There is a limited amount of efficacy research that meets the most stringent standards of empirical evidence. Conclusions: It is important to broaden the evidence base and consider the context of psychological interventions, alongside the values underpinning care and treatment. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd, MENCAP & IASSIDD. Source


Abul-Ainine A.A.,NHS Fife | Abul-Ainine S.A.,Foundation Programme
Pediatric Diabetes | Year: 2014

Background: While childhood diabetes incidence is rising, especially in toddlers, once or twice-daily toddler-friendly insulin mixtures were withdrawn, imposing four to five miniscule injections, on needle-phobic toddlers. Although more injections may mean more needle-dribbling, such potential dose-loss is unstudied. Objective: Study insulin loss in toddlers' dose range if one-drop dribbled during injection from half-unit pens (SemiPens). Drop-loss is assessed relative to current insulin dose adjustment, and if significant, propose solutions. Methods: The SemiPens, New HumaPen Luxura HD® (HumaPen) and NovoPen Junior® (NovoPen), with 31G-5mm BD-MicroFine needles were used to study drop size or dose-fraction lost if one drop dribbled in dose range 0.5-10 units. Results: HumaPen and NovoPen produced sizable drops mean standard deviation (SD) 0.30 (0.05) and 0.36 (0.06) units/drop (p<0.001). This constituted progressively increasing proportion of the toddlers' doses, 10-fold higher percentage from 6 to 60% or 7.2 to 72%, as the dose gets smaller from 5 to 0.5 units. Discussion: Insulin dose-adjustments are usually done therapeutically within 5-20% dose-changes, while one-step reduction by >20% is hardly required. Therefore, the unintentional dosing change if a drop dribbles is clinically important particularly on using multiple doses below 6 units, compared with fewer larger daily injections. We propose using U20 insulin in disposable SemiPens to make DeciPen, with fivefold-reduction in insulin loss if a drop is lost through dribbling or skin-leak. Conclusion: The one-drop insulin loss is statistically significant, clinically important, and potentiates glycemic variability. Disposable DeciPen may minimize insulin dribbling and leaking and fivefold improve dose accuracy and precision; and ensure reproducibility without prolonging injection time. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Source


Visvanathan A.,NHS Lothian | Hamilton A.,NHS Fife | Brady R.R.W.,Royal Infirmary
Clinical Microbiology and Infection | Year: 2012

Increasing diversity of available medical applications (apps) has led to their widespread use in healthcare delivery. However, app involvement in diagnosis and patient management has raised concerns, specifically regarding accuracy and reliability of content. Here, we report on the contemporary range of microbiology-themed apps and prevalence of medical professional involvement in app development. Of 94 microbiology-themed apps identified, only 34% had stated medical professional involvement. The lack of such involvement in app design is concerning and undermines consumers' ability to be informed regarding quality of content. We propose that increased regulatory measures are introduced to safeguard patient welfare. © 2012 The Authors. Clinical Microbiology and Infection © 2012 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Source


Murray A.L.,University of Edinburgh | McKenzie K.,Community Child Health | Kuenssberg R.,NHS Fife | O'Donnell M.,University of Ulster
Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders | Year: 2014

The magnitude of symptom intercorrelations in diagnosed individuals has contributed to the evidence that autism spectrum disorders (ASD) is a fractionable disorder. Such correlations may substantially under-estimate the population correlations among symptoms due to simultaneous selection on the areas of deficit required for diagnosis. Using statistical simulations of this selection mechanism, we provide estimates of the extent of this bias, given different levels of population correlation between symptoms. We then use real data to compare domain intercorrelations in the Autism Spectrum Quotient, in those with ASD versus a combined ASD and non-ASD sample. Results from both studies indicate that samples restricted to individuals with a diagnosis of ASD potentially substantially under-estimate the magnitude of association between features of ASD. © 2014, Springer Science+Business Media New York. Source

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