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Sheffield, United Kingdom

Giordano L.,Epidemiology Unit | Cogo C.,Cancer Registry | Patnick J.,NHS Cancer Screening Programmes | Paci E.,ISPO Cancer Research and Prevention Institute
Journal of Medical Screening

Objective Despite the difficulties, there is a moral responsibility to provide the public with the best estimates of benefits and harms of breast cancer screening. Methods In this paper we review the issues in communication of benefits and harms of medical interventions and discuss these in terms of the principles of the balance sheet proposed in this supplement. Results The balance sheet can be seen as a tool to convey estimates based on the best available evidence and addressed to a readership wider than just potential screening participants. It reflects a re-assessment of screening efficacy, showing again that screening is effective and brings more benefits than harms. It can be viewed as an opportunity to re-affirm some basic principles of good evidence-based communication. Further research is needed to improve communication strategy, to assess the impact of this communication on womens awareness and to evaluate its utility in the informed decision-making process. Conclusion The balance sheet could be a starting point for a broader vision of informed decisionmaking in screening, which should also recognize the role played by non-numerical factors on womens choice of participating in breast cancer screening. © 2012 by Economic Geology. Source

Marlow L.A.V.,University College London | Sangha A.,University College London | Patnick J.,NHS Cancer Screening Programmes | Waller J.,University College London
Journal of Medical Screening

Objectives In 2009 more women attended cervical screening in England and Wales than in the previous year. Described as the 'Jade Goody Effect' this was attributed to the death from cervical cancer of a UK celebrity. The present study aimed to establish which sociodemographic characteristics were associated with being influenced by Jade Goody's story. Methods Data were collected as part of a Taylor Nelson Sofres (TNS) omnibus survey using random location sampling. Women in England aged 26-64 years were asked to report whether they felt Jade Goody's story had influenced their decisions about cervical screening over the 18 months between her death and the time of the survey. Results Data from 890 participants was included in analysis. Over a third of women felt Goody's story had influenced their decisions about cervical screening (40%). Younger women (aged 26-35 years) were more likely to have been influenced by Goody's story than older women (56-64 year olds). There was also evidence of socioeconomic variation with women from lower socioeconomic class groups and those with fewer educational qualifications more likely to say they had been influenced by Goody's story. Conclusions The 'Jade Goody Effect', as acknowledged by women themselves, was more pronounced among young women and influenced screening decisions more markedly among those from lower socioeconomic backgrounds. Narrative communication may be an effective way to encourage attendance at cervical cancer screening and reach groups of the population that are difficult to reach using traditional intervention methods. Source

Kelly R.S.,Institute of Cancer Research | Patnick J.,NHS Cancer Screening Programmes | Kitchener H.C.,University of Manchester | Moss S.M.,Institute of Cancer Research
British Journal of Cancer

Background: Earlier pilot studies of human papillomavirus (HPV) triage concluded that HPV triage was feasible and cost-effective. The aim of the present study was to study the impact of wider rollout of HPV triage for women with low-grade cytology on colposcopy referral and outcomes. Methods: Human papillomavirus testing of liquid-based cytology (LBC) samples showing low-grade abnormalities was used to select women for colposcopy referral at six sites in England. Samples from 10 051 women aged 25-64 years with routine call or recall cytology reported as borderline or mild dyskaryosis were included. Results: Human papillomavirus-positive rates were 53.7% in women with borderline cytology and 83.9% in those with mild dyskaryosis. The range between sites was 34.8-73.3% for borderline cytology, and 73.4-91.6% for mild dyskaryosis. In the single site using both LBC technologies there was no difference in rates between the two technologies. The positive predictive value of an HPV test was 16.3% for CIN2 or worse and 6.1% for CIN3 or worse, although there was considerable variation between sites. Conclusion: Triaging women with borderline cytological abnormalities and mild dyskaryosis with HPV testing would allow approximately a third of these women to be returned immediately to routine recall, and for a substantial proportion to be referred for colposcopy without repeat cytology. Variation in HPV-positive rates results in differing colposcopy workload. © 2011 Cancer Research UK All rights reserved. Source

Bennett R.L.,Institute of Cancer Research | Sellars S.J.,NHS Cancer Screening Programmes | Moss S.M.,Institute of Cancer Research
British Journal of Cancer

Background:The United Kingdom NHS Breast Screening Programme was established in 1988, and women aged between 50 and 70 are routinely invited at three yearly intervals. Expected United Kingdom interval cancer rates have been calculated previously, but this is the first publication from an exercise to collate individual-based interval cancer data at a national level.Methods: Interval cancer case ascertainment is achieved by the regular exchange of data between Regional Breast Screening Quality Assurance Reference Centres and Cancer Registries. The present analysis includes interval cancers identified in women screened between 1st April 1997 and 31st March 2003, who were aged between 50 and 64 at the time of their last routine screen.Results:In the periods 0-12 months, 12-24 months and 24-36 months after a negative screen, we found overall interval cancer rates and regional ranges of 0.55 (0.43-0.76), 1.13 (0.92-1.47) and 1.22 (0.93-1.57) per 1000 women screened, respectively. Rates in the period 33-36 months showed a decline, possibly associated with early re-screening or delayed presentation.Conclusions:Interval cancer rates were higher than the expected rates in the 24-month period after a negative screen, but were similar to published results from other countries. Increases in background incidence may mean that the expected rates are underestimated. It is also possible that, as a result of incomplete case ascertainment, interval cancers rates were underestimated in some regions in which rates were less than the expected. © 2011 Cancer Research UK. All rights reserved. Source

Moss S.M.,Institute of Cancer Research | Campbell C.,University of Edinburgh | Melia J.,Institute of Cancer Research | Coleman D.,Institute of Cancer Research | And 5 more authors.

Objectives: To compare performance measures across all three rounds of the English bowel cancer screening faecal occult blood test pilot and their relation to social deprivation and ethnicity. Methods: In each round in three primary care trusts, data for a restricted population of over 48 500 aged 60-69 years were analysed. Individual-based data included postcode linked to area-based data on the Index of Multiple Deprivation (IMD) 2004, and ethnicity. Outcomes were the rates of screening and colonoscopy uptake, positivity and detection of neoplasia (adenomas or bowel cancer) and bowel cancer, and the positive predictive values (PPVs) of a positive test for neoplasia and bowel cancer. Sensitivity was calculated by the proportional incidence method using data on interval cancers identified from cancer registrations. Results: The overall uptake rate was 61.8%, 57.0% and 58.7% in the first, second and third rounds, respectively. Although the PPV for cancer decreased over the course of the three rounds (10.9% in the 1st round, 6.5% in 3rd round), the PPV for all neoplasia remained relatively constant (42.6% in 1st round, 36.9% in 3rd round). Deprivation and non-white ethnic background (principally Indian subcontinent in the pilot region) were associated with low screening and colonoscopy uptake rates, and this changed little over the three screening rounds. Uptake was lower in men, although differences in uptake between men and women decreased over time. Non-participation in previous rounds was a strong predictor of low uptake. Conclusions: Performance measures are commensurate with expectations in a screening programme reaching its third round of screening, but a substantial ongoing effort is needed, particularly to address the effects of deprivation and ethnicity in relation to uptake. Source

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