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Framingham Center, MA, United States

Chuang M.L.,NHLBIs Framingham Heart Study | Chuang M.L.,Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center | Gona P.,NHLBIs Framingham Heart Study | Gona P.,University of Massachusetts Medical School | And 9 more authors.
Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging | Year: 2014

Purpose To determine sex-specific reference values for left ventricular (LV) volumes, mass, and ejection fraction (EF) in healthy adults using computer-aided analysis and to examine the effect of age on LV parameters. Materials and Methods We examined data from 1494 members of the Framingham Heart Study Offspring cohort, obtained using short-axis stack cine SSFP CMR, identified a healthy reference group (without cardiovascular disease, hypertension, or LV wall motion abnormality) and determined sex-specific upper 95th percentile thresholds for LV volumes and mass, and lower 5th percentile thresholds for EF using computer-assisted border detection. In secondary analyses, we stratified participants by age-decade and tested for linear trend across age groups. Results The reference group comprised 685 adults (423F; 61 ± 9 years). Men had greater LV volumes and mass, before and after indexation to common measures of body size (all P = 0.001). Women had greater EF (73 ± 6 versus 71 ± 6%; P = 0.0002). LV volumes decreased with greater age in both sexes, even after indexation. Indexed LV mass did not vary with age. LV EF and concentricity increased with greater age in both sexes. Conclusion We present CMR-derived LV reference values. There are significant age and sex differences in LV volumes, EF, and geometry, whereas mass differs between sexes but not age groups. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Yeon S.B.,Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center | Yeon S.B.,Harvard University | Salton C.J.,Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center | Gona P.,NHLBIs Framingham Heart Study | And 11 more authors.
Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging | Year: 2015

Purpose To determine normative values for left ventricular (LV) volumes, mass, concentricity, and ejection fraction (EF) and investigate associations between sex, age, and body size with LV parameters in community-dwelling adults. Materials and Methods In all, 1794 Framingham Heart Study Offspring cohort members underwent LV short-axis oriented, contiguous multislice cine steady-state free precession MR of the left ventricle; from these a healthy referent group (n = 852, 61 ± 9 years, 40% men) free of clinical cardiac disease and hypertension (SBP < 140, DBP < 90 mmHg, never used antihypertensive medication ≥30 years prior to scanning) was identified. Referent participants were stratified by sex and age group (≤55, 56-65, >65 years); LV parameters were indexed to measures of body size. Results Men have greater LV volumes and mass than women both before and after indexation to height, powers of height, and body surface area (P < 0.01 all), but indexation to fat-free mass yielded greater LV volume and mass in women. In both sexes, LV volumes and mass decrease with advancing age, although indexation attenuates this association. LVEF is greater in women than men (68 ± 5% vs. 66 ± 5%, P < 0.01) and increases with age in both sexes (P < 0.05). Conclusion Among nonhypertensive adults free of cardiac disease, men have greater LV volumes and mass with sex differences generally persisting after indexation to body size. LV volumes and mass tend to decrease with greater age in both sexes. Female sex and advanced age were both associated with greater LVEF. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Ma J.,Tufts University | Fox C.S.,NHLBIs Framingham Heart Study | Fox C.S.,Harvard University | Jacques P.F.,Tufts University | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Hepatology | Year: 2015

Background & Aims: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease affects ∼30% of US adults, yet the role of sugar-sweetened beverages and diet soda on these diseases remains unknown. We examined the cross-sectional association between intake of sugar-sweetened beverages or diet soda and fatty liver disease in participants of the Framingham Offspring and Third Generation cohorts. Methods: Fatty liver disease was defined using liver attenuation measurements generated from computed tomography in 2634 participants. Alanine transaminase concentration, a crude marker of fatty liver disease, was measured in 5908 participants. Sugar-sweetened beverage and diet soda intake were estimated using a food frequency questionnaire. Participants were categorized as either non-consumers or consumers (3 categories: 1 serving/month to <1 serving/week, 1 serving/week to <1 serving/- day, and ≥1 serving/day) of sugar-sweetened beverages or diet soda. Results: After adjustment for age, sex, smoking status, Framingham cohort, energy intake, alcohol, dietary fiber, fat (% energy), protein (% energy), diet soda intake, and body mass index, the odds ratios of fatty liver disease were 1, 1.16 (0.88, 1.54), 1.32 (0.93, 1.86), and 1.61 (1.04, 2.49) across sugar-sweetened beverage consumption categories (p trend = 0.04). Sugar-sweetened beverage consumption was also positively associated with alanine transaminase levels (p trend = 0.007). We observed no significant association between diet soda intake and measures of fatty liver disease. Conclusion: In conclusion, we observed that regular sugar-sweetened beverage consumption was associated with greater risk of fatty liver disease, particularly in overweight and obese individuals, whereas diet soda intake was not associated with measures of fatty liver disease. © 2015 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Chuang M.L.,NHLBIs Framingham Heart Study | Chuang M.L.,Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center | Chuang M.L.,Harvard University | Gona P.,NHLBIs Framingham Heart Study | And 11 more authors.
JACC: Cardiovascular Imaging | Year: 2012

Objectives: The goal of this study was to assess the relationship of left ventricular (LV) trabeculae and papillary muscles (TPM) with clinical characteristics in a community-based, free-living adult cohort and to determine the effect of TPM on quantitative measures of LV volume, mass, and ejection fraction (EF). Background: Hypertrabeculation has been associated with adverse cardiovascular events, but the distribution and clinical correlates of the volume and mass of the TPM in a normal left ventricle have not been well characterized. Methods: Short-axis cine cardiac magnetic resonance images, obtained using a steady-state free precession sequence from 1,494 members of the Framingham Heart Study Offspring cohort, were analyzed with software that automatically segments TPM. Absolute TPM volume, TPM as a fraction of end-diastolic volume (EDV) (TPM/EDV), and TPM mass as a fraction of LV mass were determined in all offspring and in a referent group of offspring free of clinical cardiovascular disease and hypertension. Results: In the referent group (mean age 61 ± 9 years; 262 men and 423 women), mean TPM was 23 ± 3% of LV EDV in both sexes (p = 0.9). TPM/EDV decreased with age (p < 0.02) but was not associated with body mass index. TPM mass as a fraction of LV mass was inversely correlated with age (p < 0.0001), body mass index (p < 0.018), and systolic blood pressure (p < 0.0001). Among all 1,494 participants (699 men), LV volumes decreased 23%, LV mass increased 28%, and EF increased by 7.5 EF units (p < 0.0001) when TPM were considered myocardial mass rather than part of the LV blood pool. Conclusions: Global cardiac magnetic resonance LV parameters were significantly affected by whether TPM was considered as part of the LV blood pool or as part of LV mass. Our cross-sectional data from a healthy referent group of adults free of clinical cardiovascular disease demonstrated that TPM/EDV decreases with increasing age in both sexes but is not related to hypertension or obesity. © 2012 American College of Cardiology Foundation.

Ma J.,Tufts University | Karlsen M.C.,Tufts University | Chung M.,Tufts University | Jacques P.F.,Tufts University | And 5 more authors.
Nutrition Reviews | Year: 2016

Context: The effect of added sugar intake on ectopic fat accumulation is a subject of debate. Objective: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) was conducted to examine the potential effect of added sugar intake on ectopic fat depots. Data Sources: MEDLINE, CAB Abstracts, CAB Global Health, and EBM (Evidence-Based Medicine) Reviews - Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases were searched for studies published from 1973 to September 2014. Data Extraction: RCTs with a minimum of 6 days' duration of added sugar exposure in the intervention group were selected. The dosage of added sugar intake as a percentage of total energy was extracted or calculated. Means and standard deviations of pre- and post-test measurements or changes in ectopic fat depots were collected. Data Synthesis: Fourteen RCTs were included. Most of the studies had a medium to high risk of bias. Meta-analysis showed that, compared with eucaloric controls, subjects who consumed added sugar under hypercaloric conditions likely increased ectopic fat, particularly in the liver (pooled standardized mean difference1/40.9 [95%CI, 0.6-1.2], n1/46) and muscles (pooled SMD1/40.6 [95%CI, 0.2-1.0], n1/44). No significant difference was observed in liver fat, visceral adipose tissue, or muscle fat when isocaloric intakes of different sources of added sugars were compared. Conclusions: Data from a limited number of RCTs suggest that excess added sugar intake under hypercaloric diet conditions likely increases ectopic fat depots, particularly in the liver and in muscle fat. There are insufficient data to compare the effect of different sources of added sugars on ectopic fat deposition or to compare intake of added sugar with intakes of other macronutrients. Future well-designed RCTs with sufficient power and duration are needed to address the role of sugars on ectopic fat deposition. © The Author(s) 2015.

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