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Framingham Center, MA, United States

Velagaleti R.S.,NHLBI Framingham Heart Study | Gona P.,NHLBI Framingham Heart Study | Chuang M.L.,Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center | Salton C.J.,Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center | And 6 more authors.
Circulation: Cardiovascular Imaging | Year: 2010

Background-Data regarding the relationships of diabetes, insulin resistance, and subclinical hyperinsulinemia/hyperglycemia with cardiac structure and function are conflicting. We sought to apply volumetric cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) in a free-living cohort to potentially clarify these associations. Methods and Results-A total of 1603 Framingham Heart Study Offspring participants (age, 64±9 years; 55% women) underwent CMR to determine left ventricular mass (LVM), LVM to end-diastolic volume ratio (LVM/LVEDV), relative wall thickness (RWT), ejection fraction, cardiac output, and left atrial size. Data regarding insulin resistance (homeostasis model, HOMA-IR) and glycemia categories (normal, impaired insulinemia or glycemia, prediabetes, and diabetes) were determined. In a subgroup (253 men, 290 women) that underwent oral glucose tolerance testing, we related 2-hour insulin and glucose with CMR measures. In both men and women, all age-adjusted CMR measures increased across HOMA-IR quartiles, but multivariable-adjusted trends were significant only for LVM/ht2.7 and LVM/LVEDV. LVM/LVEDV and RWT were higher in participants with prediabetes and diabetes (in both sexes) in age-adjusted models, but these associations remained significant after multivariable adjustment only in men. LVM/LVEDV was significantly associated with 2-hour insulin in men only, and RWT was significantly associated with 2-hour glucose in women only. In multivariable stepwise selection analyses, the inclusion of body mass index led to a loss in statistical significance. Conclusions-Although insulin and glucose indices are associated with abnormalities in cardiac structure, insulin resistance and worsening glycemia are consistently and independently associated with LVM/LVEDV. These data implicate hyperglycemia and insulin resistance in concentric LV remodeling. © 2010 American Heart Association, Inc.

Romero J.R.,Boston University | Preis S.R.,Boston University | Beiser A.S.,Boston University | Decarli C.,University of California at Davis | And 9 more authors.
Stroke | Year: 2012

Background and Purpose-Cerebral microbleeds (CMB) attributable to cerebral amyloid angiopathy generally occur in lobar regions, whereas those attributable to hypertensive vasculopathy are deep. Inflammation may be an underlying mechanism for CMB, with varying associations according to CMB location. Lipoprotein phospholipase-A2 (Lp-PLA2) is a circulating enzyme marker of vascular inflammation associated with risk of ischemic stroke and dementia. We hypothesized that higher Lp-PLA2 levels would be related to higher prevalence of CMB, with possible regional specificity. Methods-Framingham Offspring participants aged 65 years or older with available Lp-PLA2 measures and brain magnetic resonance imaging were included. Logistic regression models were used to relate Lp-PLA2 activity and mass to presence of CMB, adjusted for age, sex, medication use (aspirin, anticoagulants, and statins), systolic blood pressure, APOE, current smoking, and diabetes. Results-Eight-hundred nineteen participants (mean age, 73 years; 53% women) were included; 106 (13%) had CMB, 82 (10%) were lobar, and 27 (3%) were deep. We did not observe significant associations of CMB and LpPLA2 measures in multivariable adjusted analyses. However, there was a significant interaction between APOE genotype and Lp-PLA2 activity in their relation to presence of deep CMB (P interaction=0.01). Among persons with APOE ε3/ε3, the odds ratio for deep CMB was 0.95 (confidence interval, 0.59-1.53; P=0.83), whereas among those with at least 1 ε2 or ε4 allele, odds ratio was 3.46 (confidence interval, 1.43-8.36; P=0.006). Conclusions-In our community-based sample of older adults, there was no significant association of Lp-PLA2 with total or lobar CMB. The association of higher levels of Lp-PLA2 activity with deep CMB among those with at least 1 APOE ε2 or ε4 allele merits replication. © 2012 American Heart Association, Inc.

Liu C.-T.,Boston University | Buchkovich M.L.,University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill | Winkler T.W.,University of Regensburg | Heid I.M.,University of Regensburg | And 6 more authors.
Human Molecular Genetics | Year: 2014

The Genetic Investigation of Anthropometric Traits (GIANT) consortium identified 14 loci in European Ancestry (EA) individuals associated with waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) adjusted for body mass index. These loci are wide and narrowingthe signalsremains necessary. Twelve of 14 loci identified inGIANTEA samples retained strong associations with WHR in our joint EA/individuals of African Ancestry (AA) analysis (log-Bayes factor >6.1). Transethnic analysesatfiveloci (TBX15-WARS2, LYPLAL1, ADAMTS9, LY86andITPR2-SSPN)substantially narrowed the signals to smaller sets of variants, some of which are in regions that have evidence of regulatory activity. By leveraging varying linkage disequilibrium structures across different populations, single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with strong signals and narrower credible sets from trans-ethnic meta-analysis of central obesity provide more precise localizations of potential functional variants and suggest a possible regulatory role. Meta-analysis results for WHR were obtained from 77 167 EA participants from GIANT and 23 564 AA participants from the AfricanAncestry Anthropometry Genetics Consortium. For fine mapping we interrogatedSNPs within ±250 kbflanking regionsof 14 previously reported indexSNPsfrom loci discovered in EApopulations by performing trans-ethnic meta-analysis of results from the EA and AA meta-analyses. We applied a Bayesian approach that leverages allelic heterogeneity across populations to combine meta-analysis results and aids in fine-mapping shared variants at these locations. We annotated variants using information from the ENCODE Consortium and Roadmap Epigenomics Project to prioritize variants for possible functionality. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

Jacques P.F.,Tufts University | Lyass A.,NHLBI Framingham Heart Study | Lyass A.,Boston University | Massaro J.M.,Boston University | And 4 more authors.
British Journal of Nutrition | Year: 2013

Evidence for cardioprotective effects of lycopene is inconsistent. Studies of circulating lycopene generally report inverse associations with CVD risk, but studies based on lycopene intake do not. The failure of dietary studies to support the findings based on biomarkers may be due in part to misclassification of lycopene intakes. To address this potential misclassification, we used repeated measures of intake obtained over 10 years to characterise the relationship between lycopene intake and the incidence of CVD (n 314), CHD (n 171) and stroke (n 99) in the Framingham Offspring Study. Hazard ratios (HR) for incident outcomes were derived from Cox proportional hazards regression models using logarithmically transformed lycopene intake adjusted for CVD risk factors and correlates of lycopene intake. HR were interpreted as the increased risk for a 2·7-fold difference in lycopene intake, a difference approximately equal to its interquartile range. Using an average of three intake measures with a 9-year follow-up, lycopene intake was inversely associated with CVD incidence (HR 0·83, 95 % CI 0·70, 0·98). Using an average of two intake measures and 11 years of follow-up, lycopene intake was inversely associated with CHD incidence (HR 0·74, 95 % CI 0·58, 0·94). Lycopene intake was unrelated to stroke incidence. The present study of lycopene intake and CVD provides supporting evidence for an inverse association between lycopene and CVD risk; however, additional research is needed to determine whether lycopene or other components of tomatoes, the major dietary source of lycopene, are responsible for the observed association. © 2013 The Authors.

Thanassoulis G.,McGill University | Campbell C.Y.,University of Baltimore | Owens D.S.,University of Washington | Smith J.G.,Cambridge Broad Institute | And 43 more authors.
New England Journal of Medicine | Year: 2013

BACKGROUND: Limited information is available regarding genetic contributions to valvular calcification, which is an important precursor of clinical valve disease. METHODS: We determined genomewide associations with the presence of aortic-valve calcification (among 6942 participants) and mitral annular calcification (among 3795 participants), as detected by computed tomographic (CT) scanning; the study population for this analysis included persons of white European ancestry from three cohorts participating in the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology consortium (discovery population). Findings were replicated in independent cohorts of persons with either CT-detected valvular calcification or clinical aortic stenosis. RESULTS: One SNP in the lipoprotein(a) (LPA) locus (rs10455872) reached genomewide significance for the presence of aortic-valve calcification (odds ratio per allele, 2.05; P = 9.0×10-10), a finding that was replicated in additional white European, African-American, and Hispanic-American cohorts (P<0.05 for all comparisons). Genetically determined Lp(a) levels, as predicted by LPA genotype, were also associated with aortic-valve calcification, supporting a causal role for Lp(a). In prospective analyses, LPA genotype was associated with incident aortic stenosis (hazard ratio per allele, 1.68; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.32 to 2.15) and aortic-valve replacement (hazard ratio, 1.54; 95% CI, 1.05 to 2.27) in a large Swedish cohort; the association with incident aortic stenosis was also replicated in an independent Danish cohort. Two SNPs (rs17659543 and rs13415097) near the proinflammatory gene IL1F9 achieved genomewide significance for mitral annular calcification (P = 1.5×10-8 and P = 1.8×10 -8, respectively), but the findings were not replicated consistently. CONCLUSIONS: Genetic variation in the LPA locus, mediated by Lp(a) levels, is associated with aorticvalve calcification across multiple ethnic groups and with incident clinical aortic stenosis. (Funded by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute and others.) Copyright © 2013 Massachusetts Medical Society.

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